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3 1924 028 853 327 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 

-Vl^tM^a. 'Jil^ A^rt^e^ 

' ij, J-'t ■'I' i iH fi ffi'. 





Edited by 

Puhluhed hy 

1 909 






The year of the tercentennial celebration of the discovery of the 
Hudson River seems an eminently fit time for the publication of a 
history of one of the most important counties whose shores are washed 
by its waters. 

The early establishment of trading posts, at its mouth, Manhattan 
(New York), at the head of navigation, Fort Orange (Albany), and 
at the mouth of the Rondout, half way between these two places, 
Esopus (Kingston), determined the first locations along the river's 
banks for permanent settlements, but as immigrants came in larger 
numbers it was not long before they were attracted by the water 
powers of the Fishliill, Wappingers, Caspers Kill, Fallkill, Crum 
Elbow, Landsman's Kill and Roeliff Jansen's Kill, and the fine farm- 
ing lands in the valleys of these streams, to seek new homes and begin 
the settlement of our county. 

Along the river, naturally, the predominant race of the original 
settlers was Dutch, with a sprinkling of French Huguenots, while 
later a considerable number of Palatines were settled in the northern 
part of the county. 

The early settlement of the eastern part of the county through the 
length of the Harlem Valley was made by people from the New Eng- 
land Colonies, aU that part of New York State being originally 
claimed as belonging to and embraced within the New England grants 
of land. 

The Quakers, forming a large element in the settlement of the east- 
ern and northeastern bounds of the county, were among those who 
came from New England, seeking to escape the intolerance of their 
narrow minded neighbors, and to secure freedom for religious opinion 
and expression and practice, insistence upon which has been a noted 
characteristic of the Dutch people for centuries. 

It win be seen also from the pages of this history that there was 
an infusion of the Irish Catholic element into the county long before 
the time of the great Irish famine, to which period, to be sure, most 
of the Irish Catholic immigration must be assigned, for it appears 


that there were many Irish Catholic soldiers in the armies of the 
Revolution quartered in this vicinity, some of whom, with their fam- 
ilies, settled here at the end of the war. 

It will appear from the Church history, which has been most care- 
fully compiled for this work, that in early times there were even more 
creeds and denominations in the county than there were different 
nationalities; and it will be quite apparent to the thoughtful student 
that while certain settlements along the river, as particularly Pough- 
keepsie, at the earliest dates, were somewhat homogeneous in race 
and religion, and might have been truly designated as Dutch settle- 
ments, the county as a whole, started as a cosmopolitan community. 

Dutchess County does not present a virgin field for the historian. 
It has already been cultivated to a considerable extent. 

In 1877 Philip H. Smith, of PawHng, N. Y., published a "General 
History of Dutchess County from 1609 to 1876 inclusive." His book, 
which is now somewhat rare, shows an immense amount of work of 
investigation, a great fund of general information and tradition 
gathered by its author, and it has preserved many valuable facts and 
documents relating to the history of the county. 

Frequent use has been made in the preparation of the present work 
of the material gathered by Mr. Smith in his history, and due rec- 
ognition is made to him for the same. 

Mr. Smith has also written several of the chapters on the different 
towns, and no one in the community is as well qualified as he to do 
the work that he has contributed to this volume. 

In 1882 there was published by D. Mason & Company, of Syracuse, 
a "History of Dutchess County, New York, with illustrations and 
biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers," by 
James H. Smith; and in 1897 there was published by J. H. Beers & 
Company, of Chicago (no author) a "Commemorative Biographical 
Record of Dutchess County, N. Y., containing Biographical Sketches 
of prominent and representative citizens and of many of the early 
settled families." The latter was merely a compilation of sketches, 
mostly autobiographical. The historical matter of James H. Smith's 
book was taken mostly from Philip H. Smith's history. 

There have been published too, several histories of localities or 

In 1874 John W. Spaight, publisher of the Fishkilt Standard, 


printed a little book entitled "Local Tales and Historical Sketches" 
by Henry D. B. Bailey. 

This is merely a compilation of a few old woman tales and local 
traditions of no historical value. 

Mr. Bailey, in his preface, stated that "he intended to write a 
history," but he never did. 

Prior to this in 1866, Dean & Spaight published for T. VanWyck 
Brinkerhoof, a "Historical Sketch of the Town of Fishkill," which is 
quite rare, but is full of accurate and interesting information. 

In 1875, DeLacey & Wiley, printers at Amenia, published an 
*'Early History of Amenia" by Newton Reed, containing much 
genealogical and historical information well worth preservation. 

In 1897, Charles Walsh & Company, printers at Amenia, published 
Volume 1 of a "History of Little Nine Partners of Northeast Pre- 
cinct and Pine Plains, New York, Dutchess Coufety," by Isaac Huntt- 
ing. Pine Plains, N. Y. 

This is said by its author to be "A compilation and revision of 
sketches published in the Amenia Times, Dutchess Farmer, Pough- 
heepsie Telegraph and Pine Plains Register." 

There are many documents of the early times published and pre- 
served in this valuable work, and a great deal of accurate historical 
information concerning the early history and families of the locality, 
mixed with some tradition. 

The author very modestly prints as a prefatory motto, "A little 
preserved is better than all lost." 

Unfortunately, as we are informed, his book did not meet with such 
appreciation as its author seemed to think that it deserved, and as it 
really did deserve, and so in a fit of pique, he is reported to have 
burned a large part of the edition which was left upon his hands. 
Volume II never appeared. 

In 1881, Edward M. Smith, as author, published a "Documentary 
History of Rhinebeck in Dutchess County, N. Y., embracing Biographical 
Sketches and Genealogical Records of our First Families and First 
Settlers, with a History of its Churches and other Public Institu- 
tions." This is a creditable and useful work, worthy of the historical 
importance of Rhinebeck Precinct. 

Only last year the eminent lawyer, Howard H. Morse, now of Tarry- 
town, N. Y., formerly of Rhinebeck, published a volume entitled "His- 


toric Old Rhinebeck," which is a handsome book, full of interesting 
information concerning his old home town and its people. 

Richard Francis Maher, the Town Clerk of Dover, has recently 
privately published a pamphlet entitled "Historic Dover." 

The historical matter contained therein has been made the basis of 
the chapter on the Town of Dover, written by Mr. Maher. 

AH of these previous works, both county histories and town his- 
tories, have been freely laid under tribute in the preparation of the 
present work, due credit in all cases being given ; and the editor desires 
to acknowledge his obligation to their authors and publishers. 

He desires to say, however, that all matters of tradition have been 
ahnost wholly ignored, for it is his experience, gained in long years \ 
of historical and genealogical research, that tradition is mostly in- . 
accurate, if not wholly false. 

It has been his intention in the preparation of this history to go 
only to authentic sources and to publish only facts, backed up in all 
possible cases by documentary evidence. For that purpose not only 
have the records of the County Clerk's office been searched, but those 
of the office of the Secretary of State, the War Office at Washington, 
and the collections of the Historical Society of New York in an en- 
deavor to publish a true history. 

The desire and purpose have been to make and to present through 
this history a veracious record of the people and of the events of the 
past, showing the very earliest settlements, the various patents and 
grants, who were the pioneers, who were the earliest inhabitants, who 
began the settlement and cultivation of the county, who fought the 
battles of their country in the Colonial, the Revolutionary and later 
periods, who were prominent in civil life and took part in the govern- 
ment of the county and management of town affairs and controlled 
the policies of their times, as the actors in the religious, military, 
political and business affairs of the county. 

It is to be hoped that the book will prove a useful reference work 
for all who wish to trace back their lineage to earlier times and to 
learn of the doings of their ancestors. 

A new map of the county has been prepared from the most authen- 
tic sources of government surveys upon which, through the kind 
assistance of Mr. Adrian C. Rapelje, County Engineer, all the main 
improved highways, mostly State roads, are shown. 


It will be interesting to compare the showing of roads upon this latest 
map with the plates of CoUes' road map published in 1789 which, 
through the kindness and courtesy of Mr. Stuyvesant Fish, the pub- 
lisher of this history has been allowed to reproduce. 

The chapter translating from the French original the account of 
the early travels of the Marquis de Chastellux through our county, 
down the Harlem Valley and up along the Hudson, made in 1780 and 
1782, should be interesting as giving the views of a keen observer in 
that early time of the beauties and possibilities of our lovely county, 
which have materialized even beyond the most optimistic prophesies 
of this observant and far-seeing French sympathizer with our new 

The special articles in the history on the various towns, on the 
bench and bar, on the medical profession, on the churches, on Free- 
masonry and on the Quakers, have been entrusted to and written by 
the men in each case most eminently fitted for the task. 

For their interest and assistance they are entitled to and have the 
sincere thanks of both publisher and editor. 

Accuracy and veracity have been the constant aim of the editor, 
and he desires to express his appreciation of his invariably pleasant 
relations with the publisher, Mr. Samuel A. Matthieu, who, in the 
most liberal spirit, has met and fully satisfied all the demands and 
requirements made upon him by the editor, to the attainment of that 

No doubt a better history could be made, but this work is put forth 
with the confident expectation that the subscribers and readers will 
confirm the sincere belief that the conscientious and faithful efforts of 
its publisher have produced the best history of the County of Dutchess 
up to the present time. 

Frank Hasbrotjck. 

Poughkeepsie, July 26, 1909. 



Exploration of Hudson's River 17 

The Aboriginal People 24 

Topography and Geology 38 

Indian Deeds. Land Patents 33 

Pioneer Settlements and Early Inhabitants 44 

Civil Organizations and Divisions 57 

Dutchess County Civil List 67 

Colonial Military Organizations 80 

The Revolutionary War 93 

The Revolutionary War. Continental Line 120 

The Revolutionary War. Muster Rolls 136 

The Revolutionary War. Local Events 171 

De Chastellux's Travels Through Dutchess County 181 

Dutchess County in the Rebellion jgo 

Contents. 15 

Chapter xv. page 

Tofliof and City of Poughkeepsie, By Edmund Piatt 199 

TlW Town of Amenia By S. R. Free 258 

Tto Town Of Beekman 367 

The Town of Clinton 272 

The Town of Dover By Richard F. Maher 278 

The Town of East Fishkill 293 

The Town of Fishkill By William E. Verplanek 299 

The Town of Hyde Park By Rev. Amos T. Ashton, D. D 353 

TJte Town of La Grange 363 

The Towniof Milan 369 

The Town of Northeast By PhiUp H. Smith 374 

'm^.^Bwa of Pawling By Philip H. Smith 389 

Tki-^sm of Pine Plains By Philip H. Smith 405 

The Town of Pleasant Valley 419 

The Town of Red Hook 426 

'me Tt)wn of Rhlnebeck 437 



The Town of Stanford By PhiUp H. Smith 4S1 

The Town of Union Vale By Philip H. Smith 460 

The Town of Wappinger By CUnton W. Clapp 465 

The Town of Washington By Rev. John Edward Lyall 476 

The Bench and Bar of Dutchess County. .By Frank B. Lown 498 

The Medical Profession By Guy Carleton Bayley 538 

The Masonic Fraternity ..•• 597 

The Catholic Church 608 

Friends' Meetings in Dutchess County. . . .By John Cox, Jr 661 


The Milton Ferry By Captain C. M. Woolsey 659 

The Clinton House in the Revolution 665 

Persons Registering Brand Marks in Poughkeepsie Precinct. 668 

A Surrey of the Roads of the United States of America, 1789. 

By Christopher CoUes 670 


Biographical and Genealogical 681 



FROM an account given by John de Verazzano, a Florentine, sail- 
ing in the service of France, it is believed he entered the harbor 
of New York in 1524. No results followecyhis voyage, and it is 
not known that New York was again visited by Europea,ns till 1609* 
when Henry Hudson, an Enghshman by birth, set sail from Amsterdam, 
Holland, April 4th, 1609, under the auspices of the Dutch East India 
Company, with a commission to discover the Northwest Passage, or to 
verify the dream of geographers of that period of a short cut between 
Europe and China. His vessel, a yacht of eighty tons burden called 
"Halve Maan," the "Half Moon," was manned by a crew of twenty sail- 
ors, partly Dutch and partly English. In the month of July Hudson 
reached Newfoundland, and passing to the coast of Maine, spent some 
days in repairing his ship, which had been shattered in a storm. Sail- 
ing thence southward, he touched at Cape Cod, and by the middle of 
August found himself as far south as the Chesapeake. Again he 
turned to the north, determined to examine the coast more closely, and 
on the 28th of the month anchored in Delaware Bay. From thence he 
proceeded northward, and appears to have crossed the bar now called 
Sandy Hook on the third day of September. He remained in the bay 
several days making surveys and trafficking with the Indians. On the 
sixth, five of the crew were sent in a boat to examine the channel. They 
sounded the Narrows and proceeded to Newark Bay, but on the re- 
turn, for some unexplained reason, were attacked by the natives in two 
canoes, and John Colman, who had accompanied Hudson in his Polar 
explorations, was killed by an arrow shot in his throat, and two of his 
companions were wounded. Colman was buried at Sandy Hook, and 


Colman's Point, where his remains were interred, perpetuates the mem- 
ory of the first European victim of the natives in these waters.^ On 
the eighth Hudson permitted two Indians to board his vessel, whom he 
detained and dressed in red coats. The following day he moved cau- 
tiously through the Narrows, and anchored In New York harbor on 
the eleventh. September 12th he commenced the memorable journey 
up the picturesque river which bears his name. In the journal m 
which he recorded his daily doings, are found the following interesting 
notes of his voyage and his intercourse with the natives.^ 

"The thirteenth, faire weather, the wind northly. At seven of the clocke in the 
morning, as the floode came wee weighed, and turned four miles into the river. 
The tide being done wee anchored. Then there came four canoes aboord, but we 
suffered none of them to come into our ship. They brought great stores of very 
good oysters which wee bought for trifles. In the night I set the variation Of the 
compasse and found it to be thirteen degrees. In the afternoone wee weighed and 
turned in with the floode two leagues, two leagues and a half further we anchored 
all night, and had five fathoms of soft ozie ground, and had a high point of land 
which showed out to us bearing north by east five leagues of us. 

"The fourteenth, in the morning being very faire weather, the wind southwest, 
we sailed up the river twelve leagues, and had five fathoms and five fathoms and a 
quarter lesse and came to a straight between two points, and had eight, nine and 
ten fathoms, and it trended northwest by north one league, and we had twelve, 
thirteen and fourteen fathoms. The river is a mile broad; there is very high land 
on both sides. Then wee went up northwest a league and a halfe, deepe water, 
then northwest by north five miles, then northwest by north two leagues and an- 
chored. The land grew very high and moimtainous. The river is full of fish. 

"The fifteenth, in the morning was misty until the stmne arose; then it cleared. 
So wee weighed with the wind at south and ran up the river twentie leagues passing 
by high mountains. Wee had a very good depth, as six, seven, eight, nine, twelve 
and thirteen fathoms, and great store of salmons in the river. This morning our 
two savages got out of a port and swam away. After wee were under saGl they 
called to us in scome. At night wee came to other mountains which lie from the 
river's side. There wee found very loving people and very old men, where wee were 
well used. Our boat went to fish and caught great store of very good fish. 

"The sixteenth faire and very hot weather. In the morning our boat went again 
to fishing, but could catch but few by reason their canoes had been there all night. 
This morning the people came aboord and brought us ears of Indian come and 
pompions and tobacco, which we bought for trifles. Wee rode still all day and 
filled fresh water, at night wee weighed and went two leagues higher and had 
shoaled iwater so wee anchored all day. 

1. History of New Netherlands, Tol. I, S6. 

2. The Jaurnal of Hudson's voyage up the North River, will be found In N. Y. Biat 
*8oc. Trans. I, IK. 


"The seventeenth, faire sunshining weather and very hot. In the morning as 
soon as the sun was up, wee set sail and run up six leagues higher and found shoals 
in the middle of the channel and small islands, but seven fathoms water on both 
sides. Towards night wee borrowed^ so near the shore that wee grounded, so we 
layed out our small anchor and heaved off againe. Then wee borrowed on the bank 
in the channel and came aground againe. While the flood ran wee hoved off and 
anchored all night. 

"The eighteenth in the morning was faire weather, and wee rode still. In the 
afternoone our master's mate went on land with an old savage, a governor of the 
countrie, who carried him to his house and made him good cheere. 

"The nineteenth was faire and hot weather. At the floode, being near eleven of 
the clocke, wee weighed and ran higher up two leagues above the shoals, and had 
no lesse water than five. Wee anchored and rode in eight fathoms. The people 
of the countrie came flocking aboord and brought us grapes and pompions which 
we bought for trifles. And many brought us bever skinnes and otter skinnes which 
wee bought for beades, knives and hatchets. So we rode there all night. 

"The twentieth in the morning was faire weather. Our master's mate with four 
men more went up with our boat to sound the river, and found two leagues above 
us but two fathoms water and the channel very narrow, and above that place be- 
tween seven or eight fathoms. Toward night they returned and wee rode still all 

"The one-and-twentieth was faire weather and the wind all southerly. We de- 
termined yet once more to go further up into the river, to try what depth and 
breadth it did beare, but much people resorted aboord, so we went not this day. 
Our carpenter went on land and made a foreyard, and our master and mate de- 
termined to try some of the chief men of the countrie whether they had any 
treacherie in them. So they took them down into the cabin and gave them as much 
wine and aqua-vitae that they were all merrie, and one of them had his .wife with him 
who sat as modestly as any of our countrie-women would do in a strange place. 
In the end one of them was drunke which had been aboord of our ship all the time 
we had been there; and that was strange to them for they could not tell how to 
take it. The canoes and folks went all on 'shore, but some of them came again 
and brought stropes of beades, some had six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and gave him. 
So he slept all night quietly. 

"The two-and-twentieth was faire weather. In the morning our master's mate 
and foure more of our companie, went up with our boat to sound the river higher 
up. The people of the countrie came not aboord tiU noone, but when they came 
and saw the savages well they were glad. So at three of the clock in the aften- 
noone they came aboord and brought tobacco and more beades, and gave them to 
our master, and an oration, and showed him the countrie all around about. Then 
they sent one of their companie on land, who presently returned, and brought a great 
platter full of venison, dressed by themselves, and they caused him to eat with 
Ihem. Then they made him reverence and departed, all save the old man that lay 

1. Borrow, — nautical term, "take shelter." To approach either land or the wind closely. 
Century Dictionary. 


aboord. This night at ten of the clocke our boat returned in a shower of raine, 
from sounding Of the river, and found it to be at an end for shipping to goe in. 
For they had been up eight or nine leagues and found but seven foot water and un- 
constant soundings. 

"The three-and-twentieth faire weather; at twelve of the clocke wee weighed and 
went down two leagues, to a shoal that had two channels, one on one side and an- 
other on the other, and had little wind, whereby the tide layed us upon it. So there 
wee sat on the ground the space of an hour, till the floode came. Then we had a 
little gale of vidnd at the west. So wee got our ship into deepe water and rode all 
night very well. 

"The four-and-twentieth was faire weather and the wind at the northwestj wee 
weighed and went down the river seven or eight leagues, and at hal^e ebb wee 
came on ground on a bank of oze in the middle of the river, and sate there tUl the 
floode. Then wee went on Vaad and gathered good store of chestnuts. At ten of 
^:he clocke wee came off into deepe water and anchored. 

"The five-and-twentieth was faire weather, and the wind at south a stiffe gale. 
Wee rode stiU and went on land to walke of the west side of the river, and found 
good ground for corne and other garden herbs, with a great store of goodly oakes, 
and walnut-trees, and chestnut-trees, ewe-trees and trees of sweet wood in great 
abundance, and great store of slate for houses and other good stones. 

"The sixth-and-twentieth was faire weather, and the wind at the south a stifFe 
gale. Wee rode stiU. In the morning our carpenter went on land with the master's 
mate, and foure more of our companie, to Cut wood. This morning two canoes 
came up the river from the place wee first found loving people, and in one of them 
was the old man that had layen aboord of us at the other place. He brought an- 
other old man with him, which brought more stropes of beades, and gave them to 
our master, and showed him all the countrie thereabout, as though it were at his 
command. So he made the two old men dine with him, and the old man's wife^ 
for they brought two old women and two young maidens of the age of sixteen or 
seventeene yeares with them, who behaved themselves very modestly. Our master 
gave one of the old men a knife, and they gave him and us tobacco. And at one 
of the clocke they departed down the river, making signes that wee should come 
down to them, for wee were within two leagues of the place where they dwelt. 

"At seven-and-twentieth in the morning was faire weather, but much wind at 
north; wee weighed and set our foretop sayle, and our ship would not flot, but 
ran on the ozie bank at halfe ebbe. Wee layed out anchor to heave her off but 
could not, so we sate from halfe ebbe to halfe floode; then wee set our fore sayle 
and main top sayle and got down six leagues. The old man came aboord and 
would have had us anchor and go on land to eat with him, but the wind being 
faire wee would not yield to his request, so he left us being very sorrowful for our 
departure. At five of the clocke in the afternoone the wind came to the south- 
south-west. So wee made a board or two and anchored in fourteen fathoms water 
Then our boat went on shore to fish, right against the ship. Our master's mate 
,and boat swaine and three more of the companie went on land to fish, but could 


not find a good place. They tooke four or five and twenty Mullets, Breames, 
Bases and Barbils, and returned in an hour. Wee rode still all night. 

"The eight-and-twentieth being faire weather, as soon as the day was light, wee 
weighed at halfe ebbe and turned down two leagues bylowe water. At three of the 
clocke in the afternoone wee weighed, and turned down three leagues until it was 
dark; then wee anchored. 

"The nine-and-twentieth was dry, close weather, the wind at south and south by 
west; wee weighed early in the morning and turned down three leagues by lowe 
water and anchored at the lower end of the long reach,i for it is six leagues long. 
Then there came certain Indians in a canoe to us but would not come aboord. Af- 
ter dinner there came the canoe with other men, whereof three came aboord us. 
They brought Indian wheat which wee bought for trifles. At three of the clocke 
in the afternoon wee weighed as soon as the ebbe came, and turned downe to the 
edge of the mountains and anchored, because the high land hath many points, and 
a narrow channel, and hath many eddie winds. So wee rode quietly all night in 
seven fathoms water. 

"The thirtieth was faire weather and the wind at southeast a stiffe gale between 
the mountains. Wee rode still the afternoone. The people of the countrie came 
aboord us and brought some small skinnes with them which wee bought for knives 
and trifles. This is a very pleasant place to build a towne on. The road is very 
near and very goode for all winds, save an east-north-east wind. The mountaynes 
look as if some metal or mineral were in them. For the trees that grow on them 
were all blasted, and some of them barren with a few or no trees on them. The 
people brought a stone aboord like to emery (a stone used by glasiers to cut glass), 
it would cut iron or steel. Yet being bruised small and water put to it, it made a 
colour like blackeleade glistening. It is also good for painters colours. At three 
of the clocke they departed and wee rode still all night. 

"The first of October faire weather, the wind variable between the west and 
north. In the morning wee weighed at seven of the clocke with the ebbe arid got 
downe below the mountaynes which was seven leagues. Then it fell calme and the 
flood was come, and wee anchored at twelve of the clocke. The people of the 
mountaynes came aboord us, wondering at our ships and weapons. Wee bought 
some small skinnes of them for trifles. This afternoone one canoe kept hangjing 
under our sterne with one man in it, which wee could not keep from thence, who 
got Up by our rudder to the cabin window and stole out my pillow and two shirts 
and two bandeleeres. Our master's mate shot at him and strooke him on the brest 
and killed him. Whereupon all the rest fled away, some in their canoes arid some 
leapt out of them into the water. 

"Wee manned our boat and got our things againe. Then one of them that 
Swamme got hold of our boat, tUnking to overthrow it. But our cooke took a 

1. The stretches of current between the ditferent points and bends of the shore of the 
Hudson, were named "reaches" or in the Dutch Vernacular "racks." The Long Reach — 
also termed Fisher's (Vischer's) Reach — extended from the northern gate of the High- 
lands to Crom Elbow, a distance of about twenty miles. This, undoubtedly, is the earliest 
reference to the reaches of this river that occurs in any European language. [Editoe.] 


sword and cut one of his hands, and he was drowned. By this time the ebbe was 
come, and wee weighed and got downe two leagues, by that time it was dark, so 
we anchoijed io foftr fathoms water and rode well. ' 

"The seconde, f aire weather, at break of day wee weighed the wind being at 
northwest and gqtr flown seven leagues; then the flood was come strong so wee 
anchored. Then came one of the salvages that swamme away from us at our going 
up: the river, with, piany other, thinking to betray us, but wee perceived their in- 
tent and suffered none of them to enter our ship. Whereupon two canoes full of 
men with their bowes and arrow's shot at us after our steme; in recompence where- 
of wee discharged; sdx musketsi and killed two or three of them, then about an 
hundted of themcame to a point of land to shoot at us. There I shot a falcon at 
them and killed ;tSTO of them, whereupon the rest fled into the woods. Yet they 
m^un^d off another .canoe, with nine or ten men which came to meet us. So I shot 
at it also a f alcott, and shot it through and killed one of them. Then our men with 
Itoir, muskets killed, three or four more of them so they went their w^y within a 
while after wee got downe two leagues beyond that place, and anchored in a bay, 
oleere from all danger of them, on the other side of the river -where wee saw a very 
good, piece of ground, and hard by it there was a cliffe, that looked of the colour 
of a white green as; though it were either copper or silver mayne, and I think it to 
be ope, of them by the trees that grow upon it for they be all burned, and the other 
places; are greene a? grasse, it is on that side of the river that is called Manna-hatta. 
There wee saw no people to trouble, us, and rode quietly all night; but had much 
wind and rains. 

"The third was very stonnie; the wind at east-north-east. In the morning in a 
gust of wind and ralne, our anchor came home, and wee drove on ground; but it was 
ozie. - Then as , we were about to have out an anchor, the wind came to the north- 
northwest and drove us off agajnct Then wee shot an anchor and let it fall in 
foure fathoms water and weighed the other. Wee had much wind and raine, with 
thick weather, so wee rode still, all night. 

"The fourth, was faire weather, and the wind at north-northwest, wee weighed 
and came out of the river into which wee had runne so farre. Within a while 
after. \vee came out also of the great mouth of the great river that runneth up to 
the. northwest,; borrowing upon the norther side of the same, thinking to have deepe 
water;,, for wee had sounded a great way with our boat at our first going in, and 
found seveuj six, and five fathoms. So wee came out that way but wee were- de- 
ceived,, for wee had but eight foot and a half water, and so to three fathoms and a 
halfe. And then three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten fathom's. And 
by, twelve of the clocke wee were cleere of all the inlet. Then wee tooke in our 
boat and set our main sayle and sprit sayle and our top sayles, and steered away 
east southea^st and southeast by east, off into the mayne Isea; and the land on the 
souther side of the bay did beare at noone west and south foure leagues from us. 

"The,. fifth wa)s faire weather and the wind variable between the north and the 
east. Wee held on our course southeast by east. At noone I observed and found 
our height to be thirty-nine degrees thirty minutes. Our compasse varied six de- 
grees to the west. 


"Wee continued our course toward England, without seeing any land by the way, 
all the rest of this month of October. And on the seventh day of November, stilo 
nouv, being Saturday by the grace of God, wee safely arrived in the range of Dart- 
mouth, in Devonshire, in the yeere 1609." 

In 1610 a second vessel was sent over by the shrewd merchants of 
Amsterdam, and a successful trade was opened with the natives along 
the river.^ Other vessels followed in the three succeeding years, all of 
which returned with rich cargoes of furs. In 1614 the States General 
of Holland granted a charter to the merchants engaged in these ex- 
peditions under the title of United New Netherlands Company, giving 
exclusive privileges of trade for four years. Foremost in these busi- 
ness ventures were Captains Hendrick Christiansen, John DeWitt, 
Adrian Block and Cornelius Jacobsen Mey. Block and Mey directed 
their explorations along the coasts of Long Island and New Jersey, 
while Captain DeWitt sailed up the North River and gave his name to 
one of the Islands near Red Hook. Hendrick Christiansen ascended 
the stream to Castle Island where he established a trading post. At 
the expiration of their charter so profitable had the fur trade become, 
that the States General refused to renew it, giving instead a temporary 
license for its continuance. 

The energies of the Dutch were directed more to commerce than 
colonization, and up to 1628 no systematic attempt at colonizing was 
made. Settlements commenced at New Amsterdam, Paulus Hook and 
adjacent neighborhoods resulted in conflicts and massacres. These 
hostilities, however, have no direct reference to this County, which had 
not a single white settler during the whole period of Dutch occupancy. 

1. This river was called by the Iroquois the Cohatatea, while the Mohicans and the 
Lenapes called it the Mahioanituk. The Dutch gave it the name of Mauritius river, as 
earl; as 1611, in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau. The English, in recognition of the 
work of the explorer, conferred the title of Hudson's River. 



WHEN European explorers penetrated into the valley of the 
Hudson, they found it peopled by sub-tribes of the great 
Algonquin nation. The Mohicans occupied the country 
along the east bank of the Hudson, from a site opposite Albany down 
to the Tappan Sea, and eastward a distance of ten or fifteen miles 
along the streams wich formed the pathways of aboriginal commerce. 
They were, says Rev. John Heckewelder, who spent forty years among 
the Indians as a Moravian missionary, a branch of the Lenni Lenape 
or Delaware family, who occupied the west side of the Hudson from 
its mouth up as far as the CatskiU, and westward to the headwaters of 
the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. 

The territory of the Wappingers,^ a tribal division of the Mo- 
hicans, covered the major portion of Dutchess County. Their govern- 
ment scarcely differed from that of the Mohicans and other branches 
of the Delawares. Each tribe had its sachem and counsellorsj who 
made their own laws, treaties, etc. These, says Loskiel, "were either 
experienced warriors or aged and respectable fathers of families." 
Likewise each had its specific device or totem denoting original con- 
sanguinity. Although the prevailing totem of all the Hudson River 
cantons was the Wolf, borne alike by Minsis, Wappingers and Mo- 
hicans," the particular symbol of the Wappingers was the opossum, 
tatooed on the person of the Indian, and often rudely painted on the 
gable-end of his cabin. I 

The Wappingers were a peaceful tribe, and manifested a friendly 
feeling toward the white settlers at Rondout in Ulster County, whom 
they visited frequently, their canoes ladened with fish and venison 

1. A corruption of wabun, east and ocfti^ land, which as applied hy the Indians them- 
selves, may be rendered Eastlanders. The Dutch historians are responsible for Wwfpina- 
ers, perhaps from their rendering of the sound of the original word, and perhaps as 
expressing the fact that they were, In the Dutch language, wapen, or half-armed Indians. 
IniUan Tribes of Hudson's River, SlO-Sni. 
,2. Indian Tribes of Hudson's River, 50. 


which they traded for powder, lead and brandy. They took no gen- 
eral part in the Esopus wars, except to act as mediators, and to as- 
sist in effecting a satisfactory exchange of prisoners between the 
Dutch and the Esopus Indians. 

Of the chief sachems of this tribe four names appear in 
official documents. One is that of Goethals, who was present 
at a treaty of peace concluded with certain tribes of River Indians, 
March 6, 1660, by Peter Stuyvesant. At the last treaty con- 
cluded by Stuyvesant with the Indians, May 16, 1664, Tseessaghgaw, 
a chief of the Wappingers participated in behalf of that tribe. The 
name of Megriesken, sachem of the Wappinger Indians, appears in an 
Indian deed, dated August 8, 1683, for lands embraced in the Rom- 
bout Patent, while Daniel Ninham, who was made chief sachem of the 
Wappingers in 1740, distinguished himself not l^s by his persistent 
effort to recover lands included in the Philipse Patent, of which his 
tribe were defrauded, than by his tragic death at the battle of Court- 
land Ridge, Westchester County where he and some forty of his fol- 
lowers, including his son, were killed or wounded August 31, 1778, by 
the Britishj against whom they had espoused the cause of the Colonists.^ 

The location of the principal village of the Wappingers tribe is not 
positively known, but presumably near the falls on the creek which 
perpetuates their name. Van der Doncks map locates three of their 
villages on the south side of this stream. From Kregier's Journal of 
the "Second Esopus War" (1663), it is learned that they had a castle 
in the vicinity of Low Point, and that they maintained a crossing place 
to Dans Kamer Point. Tradition locates other villages in various 
parts of the country. 

Their burying ground is a familiar spot to many of the residents of 
Wappingers Falls. It was just south of the Episcopal church, known 
as the "gravel bank," the property of the Garner Company. In this 
bank was recently found a ball of clay containing nine flint spear 
heads, four of which are in possession of the Roy brothers of that 

Of the possessions of the Wappingers on the Hudson there is but one 
"perfect title on record," says Ruttenber, that being for the land in- 
cluded in the Rombout Patent, dated 1683. This deed, however, covers 

1. Simcoe's Military Journal. 


a tract of land secured from the Indians by Arnout Viele in 1680, men- 
tion of which appears in a subsequent chapter. The Indians pa,rted 
with their lands for a small, yet an apparently satisfactory, consider- 
ation, but did not immediately vacate the premises. They continued 
to hunt and fish, and the squaws to till their fields of com and beans 
for at least fifty years after the above deeds had been recorded. Their 
numbers were gradually diminished in consequence of the introduction 
of spirituous liquors among them. They became scattered and addict- 
ed to wandering, removing to different parts, mingling with other 

Remnants of difi'erent clans chose a hunting ground in the vicinity 
of the present hamlet of Shekomeko,^ and it was on this spot that the 
evangelization of the aborigines in Dutchess county was begun in 
1740, by that zealous Moravian missionary. Christian Henry Rauch.^ 
Arriving August 16th of that year, he was received by the Indian 
chiefs Tschoop and Shabash, whom he had previously met in New 
York. They announced him as the man they had appointed to be their 
teacher, and he addressed them on the subject of his mission, and the 
means of redemption, to which they listened "with great attention." 
In subsequent exhortations he perceived that his words excited deri- 
sion, and finally, they "openly laughed him to scorn." He persevered 
in his eflForts, however, and at length his zeal and devotion was re- 
warded by the conversion of Tschoop, "the greatest drunkard among 
them." Shabash was soon after awakened "and the labor of the Holy 
Spirit became remarkably evident in the hearts of these two savages." 
Such was the success of this missionary that many Indians not only 
in Shekomeko but other neighboring settlements became convinced of 
the truth of the gospel. 

In January, 1742, Gottlob Buttner, another Moravian missionary, 
joined Ranch, as the spiritual harvest at Shekomeko demanded more 
laborers; In the summer of the same year Count Zinzendorf visited the 
mission, baptized a number of converts, and here formed the first con- 
gregation of Indians estabhshed by the Moravians in North America. 
Other brethren who subsequently arrived to engage in the work were 

1. She com eko from she "great' and oomaco "house," "the great lodge or -village" 
Dr. Trumbull. 

2. See writings of George Henry Loskiel, and Eev. Sheldon Davis, concerning Morayian 
•Missions in New York. 


Martiii Mack, Joseph Shaw, Christopher Pyrlaens, Gottlob Senseman 
and Christian Frederick Post. At the close of the year 174.3, the 
congregation of baptized Indians consisted of sixty-three persons. 
The success and peace of the Shekomeko mission was disturbed in 174i4i 
by grave difficulties. Malevolent white settlers who had been accus- 
tomed to make the dissolute life of the Indians, especially their love for 
liquor, subservient to their advantage, branded the missionaries as 
papists and enemies of the English colonists. The civil authorities were 
urged to interfere. After several examinations before a court in 
"Pickipsi" the missionaries showed clearly that they had no affihation 
with papacy. Thereupon a law was passed by the Assembly, Sep- 
tember 21st, 1744), forbidding any person "to reside amongst the In- 
dians under the pretense of bringing them over to the Christian faith, 
without the license of the Governor and consent of the council," No- 
vember 27th, 174)4, the Governor, directed the Deputy Clerk of the 
council to write to the sheriffs of the counties of Albany, Dutchess and 
Ulster, "to give notice to the several Moravian and vagrant teachers 
among the Indians in their respective counties * * * * to .de- 
sist from further teaching or preaching, and to depart this Province."^ 
December 15th of the same year the sheriff and three justices arrived 
at Shekomeko, and commanded the missionaries to . again appear be- 
fore the court at "Pickipsi," where they were edified by the reading of 
the act in question. The brethem decided to remove to Bethlehem, 
Penn., — all but Buttner, whose health had become impaired. He died 
February 23rd, 174*5, in the presence of the Indian converts, and was 
buried at Shekomeko. A monument erected by the Moravian Histori- 
cal Society, July 11th, 1859, marks the grave of this martyr to the 
cause of aboriginal salvation. 

After the burial of Buttner, although the Indians were without a 
missionary, they continued for a time to meet as usual. They oc- 
casionally visited Bethlehem, and ten families comprising forty-four 
persons finally removed there. Others formed a settlement on the east 
border of Indian Pond in the town of Sharon, Conn. It seems a harsh 
condition that the Indian was thus driven from his country, where he 
had ever been hospitable and friendly to the white pioners. 

1. Doe. Biat. III. 1019-1020. 



THE County of Dutchess, in the State of New York, lies upon the 
east bank of the Hudson along which it extends for a distance 
of about forty-five miles, thence eastward to the Connecticut 
line. It is bounded on the north by Columbia county, and on the south 
by the County of Putnam. The area included in these limits is 4<74!,68S 

The surface of the county is generally hilly, presenting in the 
southern and eastern portions a battlement of mountainous elevations. 
The Fishkill mountains upon the south border, form the northern ex- 
tremity of the Highlands, and extend across the southern part of the 
county. The highest summits. Old Beacon, and North Beacon or 
Grand Sachem, are respectively 1471 and 1685 feet above tide, and 
are intimately identified with the military history of the country. 
They derive their names from beacons placed upon their summits dur- 
ing the revolution, to flash intelligence to the patriots, and warn them 
of the approach of the British. A break in the southeast part of 
these mountains, opening toward the south, is known as Wiccopee Pass, 
a name applied to a settlement of the Highland Indians. This pass 
was guarded in revolutionary times to protect military supplies at 

The Taconic or Taghkanic mountains, occupy the eastern border 
of the county. They rise from three hundred to six hundred feet above 
the valleys, and from one thousand to thirteen hundred feet above 
tide. These elevations, like the Fishkill mountains, are in many 
places rocky and precipitous. Other lofty peaks are Clove Mountain 
in the town of Union Vale, 1,403 feet high; Stissing Mountain in the 
town of Pine Plains, with a height of 1,380 feet; and Dennis iJill in 
the town of Dover, rising 1,365 feet above tide. These, with other 
hills, will be noticed more particularly in the town histories. 
• In the western part of the county, between the streams, are rolling 


ridges which terminate abruptly on the river, and form a series of 
bluffs, from one hundred to two hundred feet in height. 

The principal streams of the county, in the drainage arrangement 
are the FishkiU, Wappinger, Casper, Fall Kill, Crom Elbow, Lands- 
man and Saw Kill, tributaries of the Hudson, all flowing in a south- 
westerly direction. Ten Mile riyer, near the eastern border of the 
county, receives Swamp river from the south, and discharges its waters 
into the Housatonic. Croton river has its source in the southeast part 
of the county, and Roeliff Jansen's Kill flows for a short distance with- 
in the northern border. There are a great variety of smaller streams, 
tributaries of those above mentioned, which rise in springs upon the 
miountain slopes. 

FishkiU Creek. The headwaters of this stream^ for the most part, 
drain the western slope of Chestnut Ridge mountains. From a cen- 
tral point in the town of Beekman, it flows in a southwesterly 'direction 
through the towns of East FishkiU and FishkiU, emptying into the 
Hudson, near the south border of the latter town. It is rapid in the 
upper and lower parts of its course, but sluggish through the Fish- 
kiU plains. Between FishkiU Village and the Landing, a distance of 
five miles, it makes a descent of nearly two hundred feet, over slate 
and limestone ledges, thus affording valuable hydraulic power. In its 
course it receives many small streams, the principal of which is Sprout 
Creek, which forms the boundary between East FishkiU and Wap- 

Wappinger Creek, a highly picturesque stream, and the largest 
in Dutchess, rises in Stissing Pond, in the town of Pine Plains, at an 
elevation of eight hundred feet above tide, and traverses the county 
for a distance of about thirty-five miles, in a southerly direction. It 
passes diagonally through the towns of Stanford and Pleasant Valley, 
thence it forms the boundary between the towns of Poughkeepsie, La- 
Grange and Wappinger, flowing into the Hudson at New Ham- 
burgh. It receives several branches that water the rich agricultural 
region through which it passes. 

Casper Creek. This stream has its source in the southeastern cor- 
ner of the town of Hyde Park. It flows southerly, through the cen- 
tral portion of the town of Poughkeepsie, reaching the Hudson some 
two miles north of the viUage of New Hamburgh. In early documents 


it bears a variety of Indian names, and is identified by the statement : 
"Knowne by the Christians for Jan Casperses Creek." 

The Fall Kill Creek rises in the southwest corner of the town of 
CHnton. In its upper course, for a distance of six miles, it flows rap- 
idly over a gravel bed, between high and rocky hills, thence passing 
through swampy and low meadow lands in the town of Hyde Park, it 
winds its way to the Hudson, through an improved channel within the 
limits of the city of Poughkeepsie. 

Crom Elbow Creek is a crooked stream, some nine miles in length, 
rising among the hills at the intersection of the towns of Milan, Clinton 
and Rhinebeck. It flows in a southwesterly direction, forming the bound- 
ary between Rhinebeck and Clinton. At East Park, it turns in an 
abrupt elbow to the west, uniting with the Hudson, near the village 
of Hyde Park. 

Landsman Kill which at one time propelled several valuable mills, 
rises in the northwest part of the town of Rhinebeck. At Fritz mill 
pond it is joined by the Rhinebeck creek. Just below this junction, 
the stream descends over a rocky precipice some sixty feet, forming a 
beautiful cascade, known as Beechwood Falls. It empties into the 
Hudson at Vanderberg Cove. 

The Saw Kill flows through the centre of the town of Red Hook, 
from Spring Lake or Long Pond, whence it has its source in the 
northeast corner of the town, reaching the Hudson at South Bay. 

Ten Mile River rises by several branches in the east part of tKe 
county, and flows south through the towns of Amenia and Dover, to 
the village of South Dover, where it txirns eastward, emptying into the 
Housatonic between Schaghticoke mountain and Ten Mile hill. Its 
principal tributaries are Swamp River, Wassaic and Webatuck Creeks. 
In the central and eastern portions of the county are numerous little 
lakes, of which Whaley Pond, in the town of Pawling, and Sylvan Lake 
in the town of Beekman, are the largest. 

A mere outKne of the rock groundwork underlying the county so 
far as it necessarily bears upon the economic interests and historical 
associations, is all that properly seenis to come within the scope of 
this work.^ 

In the Highland region, and in a narrow belt along the east bor- 

1. Authorities consalted.: Professor William W. Mather, and Heinrlch Rles. 


der of the countjj the metamorphic rocks of the Primary system obtain. 
Extending thence westerly to Hudson's River and beyond it, are classed 
the rocks of the Champlain division of the New York system, consist- 
ing of a series of slates, shales, grits, limestones and siliceous and 
calcareous breccias and conglomerates. The rocks of the Hudson 
River group composed mostly of dark brown, blue and black slates 
and shales, and bluish-grey thick-bedded grits, are remarkably well 
developed in the county. Together with those of the Champlain di- 
vision they range through the towns of Red Hook, Milan, Rhinebeck, 
Clinton, Hyde Park, Pleasant Valley, Poughkeepsie, LaGrange and 

The prevailing types of crystalUne rock composing the strata of 
the Fishkill and Taconic mountains are gneisse^ granites, granulyte,. 
quartz-syenite and mica-schist. The varieties under these heads are 
very numerous, since the constituent minerals are present in so vary- 
ing proportions. 

The ore deposits are in two principal ranges and limestone valleys- 
First, the Fishkill-Clove belt, stretching northeast from the High- 
lands of the Hudson across the towns of Fishkill, East Fishkill, Beek- 
man and Union Vale; second, the north-south valley, traversed by 
New York and Harlem Railroad. The limonite, or hematite ore, is 
found in small pockets of irregular shape, and also in large deposits, 
which are associated with ochreous clays, and in some cases, with a 
gray carbonate of iron, in beds underlying it. These ore bodies are 
wholly in the limestone or between the limestone and the adjacent slate 
or schist formations. Near Fishkill and at Shenandoah, the deposits 
are at the border of the Cambrian sandstone and at the foot of the 
Archaean ridges.^ 

The limestones in the eastern part of the county are a continuation 
of those found in Westchester county, while those found in the central 
and western portions of the county are a continuation of the Orange 
county Cambro-Silurian limestone belts. The former are meta- 
morphosed limestones and partake of the nature of marble, being 
highly crystalline, while the latter are not. Although there are out- 
crops of the limestone at a number of points in the valley followed by 
the Harlem Railroad, only two large openings have been made. These 
are at Dover Plains and South Dover. 

1. 1898 Report Nevfr York State Museum, Vol. IV, 220. 


The limestones in the western part of the county, are usually a hard 
fine grained bluish-gray rock, containing less magnesia than the whiter 
phases to the southeast and east. It has been used for lime, but on 
the whole is so silicious that the resulting lime would be lean. The 
western belt has been quarried in large quantities at Clinton Point, two 
miles north of New Hamburgh. 

"The great mass of the limestone," says Professor W. B. Dwight,^ 
"along the Wappinger Creek from Willow Brook to New Hamburgh 
appears to be calciferous and shows its fossils in many places all along 
this line. The Trenton rock and fossils are much more limited in their 
exposures, and yet there are long stretches of this formation usually 
lying on the eastern side of the limestone ridges. A little Trenton 
crops out at a quarry, near Salt Point, ten miles northeast of Pough- 
keepsie. It appears largely at Pleasant Valley, then at Rochdale, and 
for about one mile south of that place. Fossiliferous Trenton forms 
the eastern edge of the limestone ridge from this point, for at least 
three miles south. It also appears in the parallel ridges to the west 
of Cliffdale, and further south." 

Extensive and important clay formations occur in southern Dutchess, 
along the bank of the Hudson. The clay is chiefly blue, but where 
the overlying sand is wanting or is of slight thickness, it is weathered 
to yellow, this weathering sometimes extending to a depth of twelve 
feet below the surface. At some localities the layers of the clay are 
very thin, and alternate with equally thin layers of sandy clay. 

Several brick manufacturers having yards near Dutchess Junction 
obtain their clay from the escarpment of an eighty foot terrace. The 
clay has a fairly uniform thickness, the upper four to eiglit feet are 
yellow, the rest blue. The greatest thickness of clay known, for this 
locality, is at Aldridge Brothers' yards, where a well was sunk sixtv- 
five feet through the clay, which added to the height of the bank 
(sixty-five feet) gave a total thickness of one hundred and thirty feet 
at this point. 

The varied character of the soil of this county, adapts it to mixed 
farming, and all of the branches of agriculture, possible in the climate 
have been more or less followed. Stock raising has also received con- 
siderable attention. In more recent years dairying has increased in 
many of the interior towns, and has been followed with much success 
1. Transactions Vassar Brothers' Institute 1883-'84, Vol. II, 149. 

' A^Mn-f-thieti. PtitiLsHsir 



THE early divisions of the territory embraced within the limits 
of Dutchess county, and other lands in this vicinity, pos- 
sessed many peculiarities, and led to uncommon experiences 
by the pioneers. While the Dutch authorities sometimes made land 
grants to colonists regardless of the Indian rights, the English after 
they came into power adopted a different policy, and first aimed to 
extinguish the Indian title by treaty. When the Province of New 
Netherlands was surrendered to the English, September, 1664, the 
third article of the terms of capitulation stipulated that "All people 
shall continue free Denizens, and shall enjoy their Lands, Houses, and 
goods, wheresoever they are within the country, and dispose of them 
as they please." Many of the old Dutch grants were upheld by con- 
firmatory English grants, issued previous to 1674, when English 
possession was forever established by the treaty signed at West- 
minster. In June of that year the Duke of York, obtained a new 
grant of the same territory included in that of ten years earlier. The 
duke through his appointed governor of the province, made many 
grants in fee, and after his accession to the throne continued their 
issue under seal of the province through authority given to the gov- 
ernors, who acted under instructions from the crown. In only two 
instances were grants of land made under the seal of Great Britain. 
Purchases made from the Indians were held not to give legal title, the 
King only being considered the true source of title. Governor Tryon 
in his report to the Captain General and Governor-in-Chief of the 
Province of New York, in 1774, says, "Purchases from the Indian 
natives, as of their aboriginal right, have never been held to be a legal 
title in this province, the maxim obtaining here, as in England, that 
the King is the fountain of all real property, and from this source 
all titles are to be derived." 

Colonial grants were broad in their terms, indefinite in their boun- 


daries, and a common condition was the payment of an annual quit- 
rent, sometimes in money but more frequently in furs, grain or some 
other article that merely represented the acknowledgment of indebted- 

Following the division of the Province of New York into counties 
in 1683 all the lands in Dutchess county were taken up in large tracts, 
less than a dozen in number, by men of influence or capital who under- 
took "to settle, build up and cultivate the new county" and let them 
whoUy or in part for a term of years, at a nominal rent, or merely for 
the payment of taxes. 

Francis Rombout and Gulian Verplanck took the initial step in 
securing the immense tract embraced in the Rombout Patent, granted 
October 17, 1685. This was followed by the patent granted to Robert 
Sanders and Myndert Harmense October 24, 1686. Schuyler's Patent, 
in two tracts, one near Red Hook and one south of Poughkeepsie, 
June 2, 1688. On the same date a patent was granted to Artsen and 
Co. for a small tract. The Nine Partners' Patent (Great or Lower) 
May 27, 1697. Rhinebeck and Beekman Patents June 25, 1703. 
Little or Upper Nine Partners' Patent, April 10, 1706. The Oblong 
Patent, covering a narrow strip along the east borders of Dutchess, 
Putnam and Westchester counties, was ceded to the State of New 
York by Connecticut, May 14, 1731. These patents, with the excep- 
tion of the Oblong, were granted under Colonial Governors, Dongan, 
Fletcher and Cornbury. 

The Rombout Patent covered a tract of 85,000 acres, which em- 
braced the present towns of FishkiU, East Fishkill and Wappinger, 
the westerly part of LaGrange, and nine thousand acres within the 
southern limits of the town of Poughkeepsie. 

A license to purchase the above named tract of the Wappinger 
Indians, was given to Francis Rombout and Gulian Verplanck by 
Governor Thomas Dongan, February 8, 1682. The purchase was 
consummated and the native title extinguished August 8, 1683 and 
a patent issued therefor October 17, 1685, but prior to the latter 
date Verplanck died, hence Stephanus Van Courtlandt became asso- 
ciated with Rombout, and Jacobus Kipp became the representative of 
Verplanck's children. 

In 1708, by authorization of the Supreme Court, a partition was 


made of the lands embraced in this patent lying between the Fishkill 
and Wappingers Creek, the lands to the north and south of those 
streams being still held in common by the patentees or their repre- 
sentatives or heirs. In this division the southern third fell to the lot 
of Catherine, wife of Roger Brett, daughter and sole heir of Francis 
Rombout, and the intermediate third to the children of Gulian Ver- 

The patentees were required to pay to the governor for this im- 
mense tract "six bushels of good and merchantable winter wheat every 
year." The Indian deed for this purchase is an interesting document, 
recorded on page 72, volume V, Book of Patents, in the Secretary of 
State's office, an exact copy of which follows: 

"To AU CHRISTIAN PEOPLE To Whom This Present Writeing ShaU Come, 
Sackoraghkigh for himselfe, and in the name of Megriesken, Sachem of the Wap- 
pinger Indians, Queghsijehapaein, Niessjawejahos, Queghout, Asotews, Wappege- 
reck, Nathindaeniw, Wappappee, Ketaghkainis, Meakhaghoghkan, Mierham, Pea- 
pightapeieuw, Queghitaeuw, Minesawogh, Katariogh, Kightapiuhogh, Rearowogh, 
Meggrek, Sejay, Wienangeck Maenemanew, and Ginghstyerem, true and Lawful 
Owners and Indian proprietors of the land herein menchoned, send Greeting. 
KNOW YEE — ^that for and in Consideracon of a Certain Sume or Quantity of 
Money, Wampum, and diverse other Goods in a ScheduU hereunto Annexed Per- 
ticularly Menconed and Expressed to them the said Indians, in Hand Payed by 
Mr. ffrancis Rumbouts and Gulyne Ver Planke, both of the Citty of New York, 
Merchants, the Receipt whereof they, the said Indians, Doe hereby Acknowledge, 
and herewith ownes themselves to be fully payed. Contented and Sattisfied, and 
thereof of every Parte and Parcell, Doe hereby Acquitt, Exonerate and Discharge 
them, the said ffrancis Rumbouts and Gulyne V. Planke, their Heires and As- 
signes, have Given, Granted, Bargained, Sold, Aliened, Enfoeffed, and Confirmed, 
and by these Presents Doe fully Cleerly and Absolutely Give, Grant, Bargaine, 
Sell and Alien, Enfeoffe, and Conflrme unto the said Francis Rinnbout and Gulyne 
Ver Planke, All that Tract or Parcel of Land Scituate, Lyeing and being on the 
East side of Hudson's River, at the north side of the High Lands, Beginning from 
the South side of A Creek Called the fresh Kill, and by the Indians Matteawan, 
and from thence Northward along said Hudson's River five hund Rodd bejond the 
Great Wappins Kill, caUed by the Indians Mawenawasigh, being the Northerly 
Bounds, and from thence into the Woods fouer Houers goeing, always Keeping 
five hund Rodd Distant from North side of said Wapinges Creeke, however it 
Rimns, as alsoe from the said fresh Kill or Creeke called Matteawan, along the 
said fresh Creeke into the Woods att the foot of the said High Hills« including 
aU the Reed or Low Lands at the South side of said Creeke, with an Easterly 
Line, fouer Houers going into the. Woods, and from thence Northerly to the end 
of the end of the fouer Houers Goeing or Line Drawne att the North side of the 


five hund Rodd Bejoyond the Greate Wappinger Creek or Kill called Mawenawasigh, 
together with all the Lands, Soyles, Meadows, both fresh and Salt, Pastures, Com- 
mons, "Wood Land, Marshes, Rivers, Rivoletts, Streames, Creekes, Waters, Lakes, 
and whatsoever else to the said Tract or Parcell of Land within the Bomids and 
Limitts aforesaid is Belonging, or any wise Appurteining, without any Reservation 
of Herbage, Trees or any other thing Growing or Being thereupon. To have and 
to hold said Tract or Parcell of Land, Meadow, Ground, and Primisses, with their 
and every of their Appurtennces, and all the Estate, Right, Title, Interest, Clayme 
and Demand of them the said Indian proprietors and each and every of them, of, 
in, and to, the same, and Every Parte thereof, unto them the said ffrancis Rumbout 
and Gulyne Ver Planke, their Heires and Assigns, to the Sole and only Proper 
use, Benefitt and Behoofe of them, the feaid ffrancis Rumbout and Gulyne Ver 
Planke, their Heires and Assignes, to the Sole and only Proper use. Benefit and 
Behooffe of them, the said ffrancis Rumbout and Gulyne Ver Planke, their Heires 
and Assignes for Ever, And they thes said Indians Doe for themselves and their 
Heires and every of them Covenant, Promise and Engage that the said ffrancis 
Rumbout and Gulyne Ver Planke, their Heires and Assignes, shall and may 
henceforth for ever Lawfully, Peacably, and Quietly have, hold, Possesse, and En- 
joy the said Tract or ParceU of Land, and all and Singuler other the Primisses, 
with their Appertences without any Lett, Hindrance, or Interrupeon whatsoever 
of or by them, the said Indians, Proprieters or their Heires, or of any other 
Person or Persons whatsoever clayming or that hereafter shall or may Clayme by, 
from, or imder them, or Either of them. And that they shall and wiU, upon Rea- 
sonable Request and Demand made by the said Francis Rumbouts and Gulyne 
Ver Planke, Give and Deliver Peaceably and Quiettly Possession of the said Tract 
or ParceU of Land and Primisses, or of some Parte thereof, for and in the Name 
of the whole, unto such Person or Persons as by the said ffrancis Kumbout and 
Gulyne Ver Planke, shall be Appointed to Receive the same. In witness whereof, 
the said Sackoraghkigh, for himselfe and in the Name of Megriskar, Sachem of 
Wappinger Indians, Queghsjehapeieuw, Niesjawehos, Queghout, Asotewes, Wap- 
pergereck, Nathindaew, Wappape, Ketaghkanns, Meakaghoghkan, Mierham, Pea- 
pithapaeuw, Queghhitaeuw, Memesawogh, Katariogh, Kightapinkog,; Rearawogh, 
Meggiech, Sejay, Wienangeck, Maenemaeuw, Guighstierm, the Indian Owners and 
Proprietors aforesaid, have here unto sett their Hands and Seals in N. Yorke the 
Eighth Day of August, in the 36th Yeare of his Maties Reigne, Anno Dom, 1683. 
"The marke of X SAKORAGHUCK, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X QUEGHSJEHAPAEIN, (L. S.) 
' "Signed Sealed and Delivered 

in the psen of us 

"Antho BrockhoUs, 

"P. V. Courtlandt, 

"John West. 
"The marke of CLAES the Indian Inter. (Verite.) 
"The marke of X MERHAM, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X PEAPIGHTAPAEW, (L. S.) 



"The marke of X QUEGHHITABMm (L. S.) 
"The marke of X MBINESAWOGH, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X KOTARIOGH, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X KIGHTAPINKOJH, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X REAROWOGH, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X MEGGENKSEJAY, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X WIENARGECK, (L. S.) 
"The Marke of X MAENEMANEW, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X GUIGHSTJEREM, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X KETAGHKANNES, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X MEAKHAJH, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X OGHKAN, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X NIESSJAWEJAHOS, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X QUEJHOUT, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X SJOTEWES, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X WAPPEGERECK, (L. St) 
"The marke of X NATHINDAEUW, (L. S.) 
"The marke of X WAPPAPE, (L. S.) 

"A Schedull or Perticuler of Money, Wampum and other goods Paid by ffrands 
Rumbout and Gulyne "Ver Planke for the purchase of the Land in the Deed here- 
unto annexed. 

"One hund Royalls, One hund Pound Powder, Two hund fathom of Wirite Wam- 
pum, one hund Barrs of Lead, One hundred fathom of Black Wampum, thirty 
tobacco boxes ten holl adges, thirty Gunns, twenty Blankets, forty fathom of 
Duffills, twenty fathom of stroudwater Cloth, thirty Kittles, forty Hatchets, forty 
Homes, forty Shirts, forty p stockins, twelve coattis of R. B. & b. C, ten Drawing 
Knives, forty earthen Juggs, forty Bottles, forty Knives, fouer ankers rum, ten 
halfe fatts Beere, Two hund tobacco Pipe?. &c.. Eighty Pound Tobacco. 

"New York, -August the 8th, 1683. 
"The above Perticulers were Delivered to the Indians in the Bill of Sale Men- 
coned in the psence of us 

"Antho. Brockhalls, 
"P. V. Courtlandt, 
"John West. 

"I do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true copy of the Original Record, com- 
pared therewith by me. 

"Lewis A. Scott, Secretary." 

There is, however, another Indian deed which antedates the above, 
and covers a portion of the same tract.^ It conveys land consisting of 
three flats, to Arnout Cornelissen Viele, as a present, by the Indian 
owners Kashepan alias Calkoen, Waspacheek alias Spek, and Phil- 
lipuwas, having power of attorney from Awannis, one of the owners, 

1. Colonial Hist. N. T. XIII. 545. 


and bears date of June 15, 1680. Through this land flows the 
Wynachkee'^ "opposite Danskammer," which is none other than Wap- 
pinger Creek.^ The tract includes the woodland adjoining this stream, 
from the river to Matapan fall, "and stretching about two English 
miles to the North and one mile to the South." It wiU be noticed there 
is no similarity in the names of the Indian owners of this tract and 
those appearing in the Rombout purchase, executed nearly three years 

Viele in 1704 petitioned Governor Cornbury for a patent covering 
this land. Although it had been patented to others, the reverse side 
of his petition bears the following minute : "Read in council 15 April, 
1704, ordered to lay on the table 4th May, 1704, granted." 

The boundaries of the land conveyed to Robert Sanders and Myn- 
dert Harmense, known as the Minnisinck Patent, dated October 24, 
1686, are very indefinite. Beginning at a point on the Hudson "north 
of the land of Sovryn aHas Called the Baker with the arable and Wood 
Land Marshes with the Creeke Called Wynachkee with Trees Stones 
(or Tones) and further Range or out Drift for Cattle and the fall of 
Watters Called Pondanickrien and another marsh to the north of the 
fall of Watters Called Wareskeechen." 

Schuyler's Patent, dated June 2, 1688, grants to Col. Peter Schuy- 
ler two tracts, the boundaries of which are thus defined: 

First tract "Situate, lying and being on the east side of Hudson's 
river in Duchess county, over against Magdalene Island, beginning 
at a certain creek called Metambesem (now the Sawkill) ; thence run- 
ning easterly to the south-most part of a certain meadow called 
Tauquashqueick, and from that meadow easterly to a certain small 
lake or pond called Waraughkameek ; from thence northerly so far 
till upon a due east and west line it reaches over against the Sawyer's 
Creek; from thence due west to the Hudson's river aforesaid; and 
thence southerly along the said river to the said creek called Metam- 

Second tract, "Scituate, Lying and being on ye East side of Hud- 
son's River in Dutchess county at A Certaine Place Caled ye Long 
Reach Slenting Over Against JufFrow's Hook, At a Placed Called 

1. "Wynogkee, Wynachkee and Winnakee are," says Euttenber. "record forms of the 
na&e of a district of country, from which it was extended to streams. The derivatives 
are Winne 'good, flna, pleasant,' and acM 'land'." 

Z History of Poughheepaie, 11. 


the Rust Plaest. Runs from Thence East Ward into the wood to A 
Creek Caled by The Indians Pietawickquasick Knowne by the Chris- 
tians for Jan Casperses Creek Northwarde to a Water fall where the 
Saw Mill belonging to Myndert Harmense Stands Upon and so South- 
warde Alongst Hudson's River Aforesaid to said Rust Plaest.'" 

In 1689 Col. Schuyler sold to Harme Gansevoort, a brewer, of 
Albany, one-half of what he estimated to be one-fourth of the former 
tract. He also conveyed August 30, 1699, to Messrs. Sanders and 
Harmense all the land embraced in the second tract. The uncertain 
boundaries and ambiguous descriptions of land patents in the vicinity 
of Poughkeepsie evidently caused much confusion for Sanders and 
Harmense had prepared for settlement a portion of the land included 
in Schuyler's patent at least two years previous to the above trans- 
fer. It also led to the practice of fraud, evidenced by the granting 
of the so-called Poughkeepsie Patent, May 7, 1697, to Henry Ten 
Eyck and eight associates, by Governor Fletcher. The grant in- 
cluded the greater portion of the town, and proved to be fraudulent, 
as the land was covered by previous patents. This could hardly have 
been the result of ignorance, inasmuch as Governor Fletcher was re- 
garded as one of the most corrupt officials the Province ever had. 
Lord Bellamont complains of him, that he made grants to persons of 
no merit. 

The patent granted Gerrit Artsen, Arie Rosa and Jan Elton, June 
2, 1688, covered twelve hundred acres in the southwest part of the 
present town of Rhinebeck. The Indian title was extinguished by 
deed dated June 8, 1686. This patent was granted with the under- 
standing that adjoining lands deeded to Hendrick Kip by the Indians, 
July 28, 1688, were to be covered by the same Royal Patent. 

The Pawling patent granted to Neiltie, widow of Henry Pawling, 
and her seven children. May 11, 1696, contained four thousand acres 
north and west of Crom Elbow Creek. 

The forming of associations to obtain large grants was a frequent 
occurrence in different counties, often composed mainly of those hold- 
ing official positions under the government. The men composing the 
co-partnership of the Nine Partners' Patent (Great or Lower) were: 
Caleb Heathcote, Major Augustus Graham, James Emott, Lieut. 
Col. Henry Filkins, David Jamison, Hendryck Ten Eyck, John Aar- 

1. Dutchess County Deeds. Liber A, p. 276. 


etson, William Creed, and Jarvis Marshall. Governor Fletcher granted 
this patent May 27, 1697, described by the following boundaries : "A 
Tract of Vacant Land Situate, Lying and Being on Hudson's River 
in Dutchess County. Bounded on the west by the said Hudson River 
Between the Creek called Fish Creek (Crum Elbow.?) at the marked 
Trees of pauling (Including the said Creeke) and the Land of Myn- 
dert Harmensen & Company then Bounded southerly by the Land of 
the said Myndert Harmense and company as far as their bounds goes 
westerly by the Land of the said Harmense and until a southerly line 
runs so far south until it comes to the south side of a certain Meadow 
wherein there is a White Oak Tree markt with the Letters H. T. then 
southerly by an east and west Line to the Division Line between the 
province of New York and the colony of Connecticut and so Easterly 
to the said Division Line and Northerly by the aforesaid Fish Creeke 
as far as it goes and from the head of said Creeke by a parallel line 
to the south Bounds east and west Reaching the aforesaid Division 

The tract covered that portion of the present town of Hyde Park, 
south and east of Crom Elbow creek, the greater portion of the towns 
of Clinton and Stanford, the entire towns of Pleasant Valley and 
Washington, and that part of Amenia and the southern section of 
North East not included in the Oblong. This great tract was divided 
into thirty-six principal lots, and nine "water lots," the latter front- 
ing upon the Hudson. 

The "Calendar of Land Papers" says that in 1695, Henry Beek- 
man, the son of William, petitioned the government for a patent for 
land in Dutchess county, lying opposite Esopus Creek. He obtained 
the patent April 22, 1697, and also secured a grant of all the land 
east of Rombout's Patent to the Connecticut line. These are known 
as the Rhinebeck and Beekman Patents. For each of these tracts 
he was to pay an annual rental of forty shillings to the crown of 
England. Concerning the grants Lord Bellamont writes Secretary 
Popple July 7, 1698, as follows: "One Henry Beekman, a Lieut. 
CoU, in the Militia, has a vast tract of land as large as the Midline 
county of England, for which he gave Fletcher a hundred dollars 
abgut twenty-five pounds in English, and I am told he values his pur- 
chase at £6,000." 


As the boundaries of the first tract were not as definite as Mr. Beek- 
man desired he obtained another patent in its place granted June 25, 
1703, which sets forth the boundaries as follows: "All that tract of 
land in Dutchess County aforesaid, situate, lying and being on the 
east side of Hudson's river, beginning at a place called by the Indians 
Quaningquious, over against the Klyne Sopus Effly, being the north 
bounds of the lands called Pawling's purchase, from thence extending 
northerly by the side of the Hudson's river aforesaid, until it comes 
to a stone creek, over against the Kallcoon Hoek, which is the south- 
erly bounds of the land of Colonel Peter Schuyler; from thence so far 
east as to reach a certain pond called by the Indians Warangh- 
keemeek; and from thence extending southerly by a hue parallel to 
Hudson's river aforesaid until a line run from the place where it first 
began easterly into the woods does meet the said parallel hne, and 
southerly by the line drawn from the place where it was first begun, 
and meeting the said parallel line, which is the northern bounds of 
the said land before called Pawling's Purchase." 

Mr. Beekman also surrendered the grant for land east of Rombout's 
Patent, receiving a new patent therefore granted June Si5, 1703. It 
embraced the northeast half of the present town of LaGrange, all of 
the towns of Union Vale and Beekman (except a few hundred acres 
in the southern angle of Beekman), about 8000 acres of the northwest 
portion of Pawling, and the western part of Dover. A strip one 
and three-eights of a mile wide along the east side of the two latter 
towns formed a portion of the Oblong. 

Little or Upper Nine Partners' Patent, granted to Broughton & 
Company, April 10, 1706, was bounded as follows: "Beginning at 
the North Bounds of the Lands And then lately purchased by said 
Richard Sackett in Dutchess county, and runs thence South Easterly 
by his north bounds to Wimposing thence by the mountains southerly 
to the south east comer of the said Sackett's Land and thence Easterly 
to the Colony Line of Connecticut and thence Northerly by the said 
colony Line and Wiantenuck River to the south bounds of lands pur- 
chased by John Spragg &c. at Owissetanuck thence westerly by the 
said purchase as it runs to the south-west corner thereof thence to 
the Manor of Livingston and by the south bounds thereof unto the 
lands purchased and patented to Coll. Peter Schuyler over against 
Magdelons Island and so by the said purchase and patent To the 


patent of Coll. Beekman for Land Lying over against Clyne Esopus 
Fly and thence by the said Land to the said south east corner and 
thence to the place where it begun." 

This tract comprised the present towns of Milan and Pine Plains, 
the north half of North East, and the small portions of Clinton and 
Stanford not included in the Great Nine Partners' Patent. It was 
confirmed September 25, 1708, by Queen Anne to the following 
patentees: Samson Broughton, Rip Van Dam, Thomas Wenham, 
Roger Mompesson, Peter Fauconier, Augustus Graham, Richard 
Sackett, and Robert Lurting. A law authorizing its partition was 
passed by the Colonial Assembly in 1734. 

The Oblong Patent, termed in Colonial documents "Equivalent 
Land," led to much controversy between the States of New York and 
Connecticut. It covers a narrow strip along the east borders of 
Dutchess, Putnam and Westchester counties, containing 61,440 acres. 
It was in dispute between the officials of New Netherland and the 
United English Colonies. An effort to adjust the difficulty was made 
at Hartford, September 19, 1650, by representatives of both govern- 
ments, but agreements then arrived at were not adhered to. When 
the English superseded the Dutch in 1664, commissioners were ap- 
pointed by Charles II of England, who determined on a line parallel 
with the Hudson and twenty miles distant from it on the east. This 
Hue gave rise to a dispute respecting the right of government over 
the towns of Rye and Bedford in Westchester County. Another 
agreement was concluded in 1683, and these towns were adjudged to 
be subject to New York government, and confirmed by the Crown 
March 28, 1700. "Nineteen years afterward" says Smith in his His- 
tory of New York "a probationory act was passed, empowering the 
Governor to appoint commissioners, as well to run the line parallel to 
Hudson's River, as to re-survey the other lines and distinguish the 
boundary. The Connecticut agent opposed the King's confirmation 
of this act, totis viribus ; but it was approved on the 23d of January 
1723. Two years after, the commissioners and surveyors of both 
colonies met at Greenwich, and entered first into an agreement re- 
lating to the method of performing the work. The survey was im- 
mediately after executed in part, the report being dated on the 12th 
or May, 1725, but the complete settlement was not made till the 14th 


Sluwdn^theTdaliscposiiinii aCvaninKline!* 

re/bred' ta fn the' 

Lhu'.'ti-mibyS u r vtyuiy in.lfi&l 
ors nilT2S. C. D.E & L .D. 

TiUHIsSlu.'viyt'Jliy fninnriwii on . 

«cs&»SHrvBynES mlBO. E.F.G. 
M F.B e 

:^ M ^yr 

»IJE ]R S E X 


of May, 1731, when indentures, certifying the execution of the agree- 
ment in 1725, were mutually signed by the commissioners and survey- 
ors of both colonies. At this time the tract known as the Oblong was 
ceded to New York as an equivalent for the lands near the Sound, the 
peaceable possession of which Connecticut had enjoyed during all the 
intervening years." 

Further disputes arose in regard to surveying the boundary and 
jmarking it with suitable monuments. Finally a survey was made in 
1860 which was subsequently agreed to by both States. 

The Oblong was annexed to the contiguous counties in this State 
May 31, 1733, and December 17, 1743, the Precincts of South, Beek- 
mans, Crom Elbow and North were extended across the tract to the 
Connecticut line. To facilitate the collection of quitrents, the patent 
was divided into lower, middle and upper districts. 

A patent conveying the Oblong to Sir Joseph Eyles & Company 
was granted in London May 15, 1731. The Colonial government, 
however, patented the greater part of the same tract to Thomas Haw- 
ley and others, June 8, 1731. The consequent htigation was termi- 
nated by the Revolutionay war, the American patentees maintaining 



WITH the extinguishment of the native title to lands des- 
cribed in the foregoing chapter, the settlement of Dutch- 
ess coimty began. Nicholas Emigh is credited in previous 
County Histories with being the first pioneer. Authorities differ as to 
the date of his settlement at the mouth of Fishkill creek, but it is gener- 
ally conceded that he was here in 1685. He came to America with 
Robert Livingston in 1683. On the ocean voyage he courted and 
married a Dutch lass from Holstein, and the couple remained for a 
time on the Livingston domain. Becoming dissatisfied, they went 
to Fort Orange, intending to settle on an island in the Hudson which 
constituted a part of the Manor of Rensselaerwyck. Here they had 
the misfortune to be drowned out by a Mohawk flood, and young 
Emigh and his wife removed to the site of Fishkill. He bargained 
with the Indians for a large tract of land, only to learn that it had 
been recently covered by the Rombout Patent. He then purchased 
of the patentees, lands in the Clove district where he subsequently 

While living at Fishkill, they became the parents of a daughter, 
the first white child born in the county. She received the name of 
Katrina, and at maturity married a young Hollander named Peter 
Lasink,^ who located in the county previous to 1700.* The young 
couple settled in the town of East Fishkill where four sons and four 
daughters were born to them. 

The next settler near the mouth of the Fishkill, according td Bai- 
ley's Historical Sketches, published in 1874, was Peche Dewall who 

1. Peter Laslnck is the ancestor of a numerous family In Dutchess County, different 
branches of which spell their name variously, Lasslng, Lossing, Lawson, etc. He is sup- 
posed to have heen a son of Peter (Pleterse) Lasslngh, who migrated from Holland about 
1658, and settled at Albany, where he died 1695. 

2.^ Mr. Edmund Piatt Is of the opinion that Lasini located in the county as early 
Bmlgh. He is unquestionably the same Peter Lansing, or his son, to whom Arnout Vlele 
sold his land near the mouth of Wappinger Creek. 


arrived in the Spring of 1688. He evidently did not remain long as 
his name does not appear in subsequent records. 

The settlements in Poughkeepsie and Rhinebeck were nearly, if not 
quite contemporaneous with those in Fishkill. In the grant of 1686 
to Sanders and Harmense reference is made to the land of "Sovryin, 
alias called the Baker," but there is no evidence that he settled here, 
nor is the name of record as a patentee. The names of Jan Smeedes, 
Peter Lansing and Gerret Lansing, are quoted in early documents 
pertaining to land in the vicinity of Poughkeepsie, and apparently 
they had begun a settlement previous to 1690. The Kips were the 
first to build and settle in what is now the town of Rhinebeck. On the 
east side of the stone house, built on Hendrick Kip's south lot, were 
inscribed the figures "1700." 

Inasmuch as Dutchess county was for some years provisionally at- 
tached to Ulster, on account of the paucity of its inhabitants, a de- 
tached census was not made until 1714. The total number of souls 
was four hundred and forty-five of whom twenty-nine were slaves. 
The list of sixty-seven heads of families then resident in the county 
contains the following names : 

Abraham Beuys 
John Beuys 
Roger Brett 
John Breines 
hendrick bretsiert 
Andreis Daivedes 
Peter De Boyes 
John De Grave 
Frans De Langen 
Peck De Wit 
Roelif Duijtser 

Catrine Lasink Wedo 
Peter Lasink 
Frans Le Roy 
Lenar Le Roy 
Lenard Lewis 
Aret Hasten 
Gysbert Oosterhout 
Whilliam Ostrander 
Lowrans Ostrout 
John Ostrow 
William Outen 

Johanis Dyckman Sienjer Maghell Pallmatir 

Johannis Dyckman Jim j or Peter Palmater 

Aenderis Gerdener 

Isaac Hendricks 

Bartolumus Hoogenboom 

Jacob Hoghtelingh 

James Husey 

Jacob Kip 

John Kip 

Harmen Knickerbacker 

Hendrick Pells 
Tunis Pieterse 
Jacob Plowgh 
Harmen Binders 
Thomas Sanders 
WiUem Schot 
ey Scouten 

henderck Sissum 
Louwerens knickerbacker .».Matieis Slejt 
Cellitie kool Johannis Spoor 

Mellen Springsteen 
Jeurey Springsten 
Johnes Terbots 
WiUiam Tetsort 
Adaam Van alsted 
Elias Van Bunchoten 
Elena Van De Bogart 
Meindert Van Den Bogart 
Henry Van Der Burgh 
Abraham Van Dusen 
Balthus Van Kleck 
Barent Van Kleck 
Johanes Van Kleck 
Garatt Van Vleit 
Evert Van Wagenen 
Swart Van Wagenen 
Abraham Vosburgh 
Jacob Vosburgh 
Peter Vely 
Dirck Wesselse 
Willem Wijt 


This census further enumerates the total number of male persons 
above sixty years of age, 11 ; male persons from sixteen to sixty years 
of age, 89; male persons under sixteen, 120; number of females over 
sixty, 1 ; females from sixteen to sixty, 97 ; females under sixteen, 98 ; 
slaves, 29. 

In the original tax roU^ of 1718 the total assessed valuation of 
property in the county was *1300, divided among one hundred and 
twenty-nine tax payers as follows: 

The Inhabetents Residents Sojorners and frieholders of Dutchess County are 
Rated & assesed By ye assesors Chosen for ye Same the Day of Janury the 17, 

for ye North Ward Viz 

Wedwen Van Harmen Kneckerbaker 

Lowerens Knickerbaker 

Adam Van Alstyn 

Barent Van Benthuyse 

Jacob Jacobse 

Jacob hooghtylingh 

Jurrie Loonart 

Phillip Loonart 

Hans Jacob Denkes 

Arent ffinhout 

Necolas Rou 

Fallentyn Penner 

Phillip ffeller 

Johanis Risdorph 

Barent NoU 

Jureie Toefelt 

Lowerence hendereik 

Barent Sieperell 

Ananieas Tie! Wagener 

Frederick Mayer 

Karel Neaher 

Jurreye Teder 

Hans meigel wegele 

Hans Jurrie priegell 

Hans Adam freherick 

1. The First Book of the Superrlsors and Aseessors, 1718-1722, printed for Vassar 
Brotbers' Institute (1908), from which much new data for this History has been obtained 
was unearthed In the County Clerk's Office by Edmund Piatt, In his search for orlelnai 
material tot the History of Pougbkeepsle (1905). 



■ s 





































































































L L s d 

Henderick Scheerman 3 00 1 IO54 

Wednwe Van Jacob Kapontsier 4 00 3 9 

Johanis Backtis 5 00 4 814 

Andris Contreman 1 00 11J4 

Jureian Saltman 3 00 1 lOj^ 

Hans feelten Woleven S 00 4 8J4 

Peiter Wouleben 6 00 6 7}4 

Anthony Cremere 5 00 4 854 

Frans Kelder 6 00 5 7j4 

Joosep Reykert 8 00 7 6 

Hendrick Shever 7 00 6 6 

Peiter Van oosterande 6 00 5 7j4 

De wedn marritie oosterande 3 00 3 10 

Wellem Trophage 13 00 11 3J^ 

Jacob Kip 60 02 16 3 

Hendrick Kip * 13 00 11 Sj^ 

i/kathys Sleight IS 00 14 

Jan Van Gelder 3 00 1 IO54 

Evert Van Wagenen 30 00 5 

Hendriccus Heermans 7 00 6 8 

Goose Van Wagene 8 00 7 6 

Lourens Oosterhout 7 00 6 8 

HenriciiB Beekman 40 01 17 6 

Jacob ploegh 3 00 3 10 

Tunis Pear 6 00 5 7j4 

Louwerens Tedder 3 00 1 lOj^ 

Peiter TypeU 3 00 3 10 

Albartus Schriver 4 00 3 9 

Necolas Eemeig 5 00 4 854 

Hendrick Ohle 4 00 3 9 

Carel Ohle 3 00 1 10j4 

Adam Eykert 7 00 6 8 

Hans Lambert 7 00 6 8 

Stefan fredrich 5 00 4 S% 

Marttyn Bock 3 00 3 10 

Peiter dob S 00 4 8J4 

Johanis Dob 1 00 llj^ 

June De Mont 3 00 1 10j4 

Martyn Whitman 3 00 1 lOy^ 

Calculated to lid 1 far Pr pound 
Janury the 30 Annoq 1717/18 

Henricus Beekman Asesor 
Hendrick Kip Asesor 

L436 L19 19 4^^ 


The Inhabeteiits Residents Sojorners and frieholders of Dntchis County are 
Rated & assesed by ye assessores Chosen for ye Same the Day of 1717/18 for ye 
meedel Ward Viz 

Thomas Sanders 
Elias Van Bunchoote 
Zacharias Flegelar 
Hendrick Van Der Burgh 
Jacob Titsort 
Josias Crego 
Evert Van Wagene 
Johannes Van Kleck 
Myndert Van Den bogert 
Harmon Rynderse 
Jan Ostrom 
Baranet Van Kleck 
Fransoy Le Roy 
Lowarance Van Kleck 
Jacobus Van Den Bogart 
Damon Palmater 

De Weden Van Baltus Van Kleck 
De Weden Van Myndert harmese 
Jan De Graef 
Bartholomous Hoogeboom 
Leonard Lewis 
De Weden Van Jan Keep 
Pieter Vielee 
Hendrick Pels 
Willem Titsoor 
Magiel Palmetier Junr 
Magiel Palmetier Siniur 
Pieter Palmetier 
Hendrick Buys 
John Egerton 
Thomas Lewis 
Thomas Shadwick 
^onas Slodt 
Richard Sackett 

As Wettniss our hands SS4 33 09 6iA 

Henry V D Burgh assr 

Johanes Van Kleck assor 

Lowerens Van Cleeck assor 

Jymes hussey 

Jacobes Van Den boogert assor 

H V Dr Burgh Clk 










































































































































dfefwifc-. i- 


The Inhabetents Residents Sojorners and 
Rated & assesed By the assessores Chosen 
Ward Viz 

Juerien Springhsteen 

Jacobus Cranckheit 

Lodewick De Dnytser 

John Brions 

Hendrick De Duytser 

Isack Hendricks 

De Weden Van Mr Roger Breet Decsd 

Pieter De Boys 

Rober Dengon 

James Hussie 

Johnnes Terbo'ss 

Jan Buyes 

Johnnes Buyes 

Abram Buyes 

Johnnes Metteler 

Everhert Jonge 

De Widive Van Simon Schoute 

John Scouten 

Pieter Lasselng 

Richard Cook . 

Isack Lassink 

Jan De Langen 

Frans De Langen 

Andries Frederick Pech 

Johnnes Devensher 

Gerret Van Vlied 

Markus Van Bomeln 

Aart Hasten 

Peter Teackselar 

Jacob Cooun. 

Hendrick Sweteslar 

Henry Van Derburgh 
Johnnes Van Kleeck 
James Hussey 
Lowrance Van Kleeck 
Jacobus Van Den Bogart 

free Holders of Dutchis County are 
for the day of 1717/18 For ye South 































































































































Tottall L330 L19 

The county tax list of December 1722 contains one hundred and 
eighty-three names with a total assessment of ^2243. A year later 



the population of the county, including forty-three slaves, was 1,083. 
For many years the progress of settlement was slow, and up to 1731 
Dutchess was the least populous county in the Province, its inhabi- 
tants then numbering only 1,727 of whom one hundred and twelve 
were "blacks." In 1740 the list of freeholders numbered two hundred 
and thirty-five, certified by "Ja. Wilson Sheriff." Many of these 
names are perpetuated to the present generation. For convenience 
they are here arranged alphabetically, but the original orthography, 
as in preceding lists, has been adhered to: 

Ackert, Jury 
Auchmoty, James 
Backus, Johannis 
Baily, John 
Beekman, Henry 
Berringer, Coeuradt 
Bloome, Ephraime 
Bogardus, Cornelius 
Bonesteel, Nicholas 
Boss, Daniell 
Brinckerhoff, George 
Brinckerhoff, Isaac 
Brinckerhoff, Jacob 
Brinckerhoff, John 
Britt, Robert 
Britt Francis 
Calkin, John, Junr. 
Carman, John 
Cole, William 
Concklin, John 
Cook, John 
Cool, Jacob 
Creed, Augustine 
Crego, Josias 
Crego, Stephen 
Davinport, Thomas 
De Dutcher, David 
De Graafl, Mosis 
De Graeff, Abraham 
DeWitt, Jacob 
De Yeo, Jacobus 
Drake, William 
Di%m, Jacob 
Dollson, Johannis 

Dollson, Issac 
Du Bois, Christian 
Du Bois, Mathys 
Du Bois, Lewis 
Du Bois, Peter, Jr. 
Du Bois, Jacob 
Du Bois, Jonathan 
Du Bois, Mathew, Jr. 
De Peyster, Jacobus 
Karnest, Mathys 
Ellsworth, George 
Emigh, Nicholas 
Emons, John 
Feder, Jury 
FeUer, Philip 
Filkin, Henry 
Filkin, Issac 
Filkin, Frans 
Flegelaer, Simon 
Flewellen, John 
Foelandt, Philip 
Freer, William 
Freer, Teunils 
Freer, Simon 
Freer, Abarham, Jr. 
Frelick, Stephen 
Gamble, John 
Gay, John 

Gerbrantz, Lowrance 
Germain, Issac 
Germain, Issac, Jr. 
Gonselesduck, Manuell 
Gtiffen, Joshua 
Griggs, Alexander 

Haber, Zacharias 
Hagaman, Francis 
HaUstead, Samuel 
Hasbrook, Benjamin 
Heermans, Hendrickus 
Hendrick, Godfreed 
Hendrickse, Arie 
Hermans, Andries 
Heyner, Hans 
Hoff, Jacob 
Hoff, Lowrance 
Hoffman, Martinus 
Hoffman, Nicholas 
Humphreys, William 
Kidney, Robert 
Kip, Abraham 
Kip, Jacob 
Kip, Hendrick 
Kip, Issac 
Kip, Johannis 
Kip, Roeloff 
Knickerbacker, Evert 
Knickerbacker, Lowrenc* 
Koens, Nicholas 
Kool, Simon 
La Count, Bowdewine 
Lambert, Hans 
Langdon, Thomas 
Lassing, Peter 
Lassing, Isaac 
Lassing, William 
La Roy, Frans 
La Roy, Simon 
Lewis, Thomas 


Londen, Philip 
Lossee, John 
Lossee, Cornelis 
Lossee, Lowrence 
Low, Jacob 
Marshall, Nathaniel 
Mathews, Samuel 
Middelaer, Johannis 
Montross, John 
More, Philip 
Mowl, Jacob 
Mufford, Hendrick 
MufFord, Peter 
Nauthrop, Mosis 
Neker, Fran 
Nellson, Francis 
Oosterhout, Lowrence 
Ostrander, Adam 
Ostrander, Peter 
Ostrander, Maes 
Ostrander, Arent 
Ostrom, Jan 
Ostrom, RoelofF 
Ostrom, Hendrick 
Outwater, Peter 
Owl, Hendrick 
Palmer, Joshua 
Palmer, Joseph 
Palmer, Peter 
Palmer, Samuel 
Palmer, William 
Palmatier, Peter 
Peelen, Gybsert 
Pells, Magiel 
Philip, Hendrick 
Polver, Michael 
Polver, Wendal 
Richart, David 
Rtfsekrans, Hendrick 
Rosekrans, John 
Ross, Josias 
Row, Nicholas 
Runnels, Issac 
Runnels, Issac, Jr. 
Runnels, Nehmiah 

Runnels, John 
Rykert, Joseph 
Sackett, Richard 
Schutt, WilUam 
Scott, William 
Secundus, William Smith 
Sheffer, Hendrick 
Sheffer, Hans felte 
Shoe, Martinus 
Shonk, Martin 
Shriver, Albartus 
Simon, William 
Simpson, Peter 
Sipperly, Fredricke 
Sipperly, Michael 
_St6ght, Mathys 
Smith, Zacharias 
Snyder, Johannis P. 
Snyder, Christophell 
Soefelt, Jury 
Soefelt, Jury Adam 
Spaller, Johannis 
Swartwoudt, Rudolphus 
Swartwoudt, Bamardus 
Swartwoudt, Abraham 
Swartwout, Jdcobiis 
Syfer, William 
Tappon, Johannis 
Ter Boss, Jacobus 
Ter Boss, Hendrick 
Ter Boss, Johannis 
Tiel, Martin 
Tiel, Lowrance 
Tietsort, Isaac 
Tippell, Peter 
Trever, Basteaan 
Van Amburgh, Isaac 
Van Benthuysen Jan 
Van Benthuysen, Johannis 
Van Benthuysen, Barent 
Van Bomell, Christaphell 
Van Bomell, Jacobus 
Van Bomell, Marcus 
Van Buntschoten, Elias 
Van Buntskoten, Teimis 

Van Campen, Jacob 
Van den Bogart, Jacobus 
Vandenbogart, Myndert 
Vandenburgh, Henry 
Van Dyck, Frans 
Van Etten, Peter 
Van Etten, Jacobus, Jr. 
Van Keuren, Mathewis 
Van Kleeck, Baltus B. 
Van Kleeck, Baltus J. 
Van Kleeck, Ahaswarus 
Van Kleek, Lowrence 
Van Kleek, Barent 
Van Kleek, Johannis 
Van Steenberg, Benjamin 
\San Tesell, Hendrick 
Van Vliet, Arie 
Van Vliet, Tunis 
Van Voorhees, Johannis 
Van Voorhees, Johannis 
Van Voorhees, Coert 
Van Vreedingburgh, 

William, Jr. 
Van Vreedingburgh, 

Van Wagenen, Goese 
Van Wagenen, Jacob 
Van Wagenen, Evert 
Van Wajgenen, Nicholas 
Van Wagenen, Gerret E. 
Van Wyck, Corneliis 
Van Wyck, Theodorus 
Veile, Peter 
Viele, Arnont 
Ver Planck, William 
Ver Veelen, Gideon 
Weaver, Johannis 
Westfall, Gysbert 
Widerwox, Andries 
WUlsie, Hendrick 
Willsie, Johannis 
Willsie, Cornelis 
WoUever, Hans felte 
Yager, Wendell 
Yomens, Daniel 


From 1749 to 1756 the county increased rapidly in population, 
exceeding, in the latter year, that of any other county in the Prov- 
ince, except Albany, as shown by the following table: 

Whites Blacks Whites Blacks 

New York X0,768 2,272 Westchester 11,919 1,338 

Albany 14,805 2,619 Kings 1,863 845 

Ulster 6,605 1,500 Queens 8,617 2,169 

Dutchess 13,289 859 Suffolk 9,345 1,045 

Orange 4,446 430 Richmond 1,667 465 

It is interesting to note a description of the county in 1756, which 
then included Putnam, by Judge William Smith, the New York his- 

"The south part of the county is mountainous and fit only for iron 
works, but the rest contains a great quantity of good upland well 
watered. The only villages in it are Poughkeepsie and the Fish 
Kill, though they scarce deserve the name. The inhabitants on the 
banks of the river are Dutch, but those more easterly. Englishmen, 
and, for the most part, emigrants from Connecticut and Long Island. 
There is no episcopal church in it. The growth of this county has 
been very sudden, and commenced but a few years ago. Within the 
memory of persons now living, it did not contain above twelve fami- 
lies; and, according to the late returns of the militia, it will furnish 
at present, above two thousand five hundred fighting men." 

In what is now the town of Germantown, which was a part of 
Dutchess, until 1717, when it was annexed to Albany county (now 
Columbia), was planted in 1710 a colony of German refugees, from 
the Palatinate, on the Rhine, numbering 1194. Their villages, which 
were nothing more than a series of small lodges or temporary huts, 
were located on a tract of six thousand acres, covered with a growth 
of pine timber, especially adapted to the industry in which it was 
proposed to give them employment, that of raising hemp and making 
tar pitch and resin for the English Navy.^ A similar colony was 
located on the west side of the river, in the town of Saugerties, Ulster 

1. At a council between the Governor and deputies representing the Palatines at the 
Manor of Livingston, the deputies "told his excellency that they would rather lose their 
lives than remain where they are, that they are cheated hy the contract, It not being the 
same read to them In England. That seven years after they had had forty acres given 
to^hem, they were to repay the Queen by hemp, mast-trees, tar and pitch or anything else 

so that it may be no damage to any man or his family 

See letters of Hunter to Lords of Trade, Col. Hist., Vol. V. 


county, and the two settlements were designated respectively East 
Camp and West Camp. Their affairs were managed by a board of 
commissioners, composed of Robert Livingston, Richard Sackett, 
John Cast, Godfrey Walsen, Andrew Bagger and Henry Schureman. 
These Palatines, however, soon became restive under the restraints 
imposed on them, and many removed to the Mohawk and Schoharie 
valleys. Others located at Rhinebeck about 1715, where they were 
known as the "High Butchers." They occupied the land of Henry 
Beekman north of the Hog Ridge and about the old German Re- 
formed Church at Pink's Corner, and the name of Ryn Beek was con- 
fined to these lands until the organization of the Precinct in 1734. 

The sheriff's list of landowners in the county in 1740, does not 
cpntain the names of the Quakers who formed a little community 
at Quaker Hill in the present town of Pawling, begun in 1730. Ben- 
jamin Ferris and Nathan Birdsall were here as early as 1728, coming 
from the town of Rye, Westchester county. Between the years 1730 
and 1740, the tide of emigration was brisk to this fertile section of the 
county. Among those who arrived at that period are found the 
names of Aiken, Irish, Wing, Taber, Osbom, Briggs, Hoag, Dakin, 
Toffey, Merritt, Russell. Many of these settlers came from Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island, although John Cox, Jr., Librarian of 
the Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends, says "the records do 
not show in any direct way where the members came from." Follow- 
ing a Colonial act passed February 19, 1755, relative to regulating 
the militia, an enrollment was made of the Friends or Quakers in the 
county who claimed exemption from military duty. They are thus 
recorded with their locations and occupations. 

Joshua Shearman, 

Beekman Precinct, 


Moses Shearman, 



Daniel Shearman, 



Joseph Doty, 



John Wing, 



Zebulon Ferris, 

(Oblong) do. 


Joseph Smith, son 

of Richard, 



Robert Whiteley, 



Elijah Doty, 

Oblong House, 


Philip Allen, 



Richard Smith 



James Aiken, 





Abraham Chase, son of Henry, 

David Hoeg, 

John Hoeg, 

Jonathan Hoeg, 

Amos Hoeg, son of John, 

William Hoeg, son of David, 

John Hoeg, son of John, 

Ezekiel . Hoeg, 

Judah Smith, 

Mathew Wing, 

Timothy Dakin, 

Jonathan Dakin, 

Samuel Russell, 

John Fish, 

Reed Ferriss, 

Benjamin Ferris, Junr., 

Joseph Akin, 

Israel Howland, 

Elisha Akin, 

Isaac Haviland, 

Nathan Soule, son of George, 

James Birdsall, 

Daniel Chase, 

Silas Mossher, Oswego in 

WiUiam Mosher 

Silvester Richmond, 

Jesse Irish, 

David Irish, 

WiUiam Irish, 

Josiah Bull, 

Josiah Bull, Junr., 

Allen Moore, 

Andrew Moore, 

William GifFord, 

Nathaniel Yeomans, 

Eliab Yeomans, 

William Parks, 

Beekman Precinct, 





















Rev. Warren H. Wilson of Brooklyn, published in 1907, a socio- 
logical study entitled "Quaker Hill," in which he gives a list of the 
heads of families in the Oblong Meeting of 1760; also those who had 
accounts at the store of Daniel Merritt, on Quaker Hill, in 1771, as 
the jiames appeared in his Ledger. These names, with those above 
quoted, practically include all the families who formed this interesting 


community, an account of which appears in the town history of Paw- 

A summary of the population by towns according to the first Fed- 
eral census, taken in 1790, and published in 1908 by the U. S. Census 
Bureau, places the total number of inhabitants in the county at 45,266, 
thus classified: 






North East .. 


Pbilipstown . . . 
Poughkeepsie . 


South East . . . 
Washington . . 





o E o 




white males 
ars and upwa 
ding heads 






























































































366S / 



Details of settlements are remanded to the histories of the towns 
in which they came to be included, a sufficient number of persons hav- 
ing been named who wrought the evolution of the county in the pioneer 

Fortunately these pioneers were not harassed by Indian wars which 
desolated other counties, but their herds and flocks did not enjoy equal 
immunity from the savage denizens of the forest. In 1726 and 1728 
laws were passed by the State Legislature for the destruction of wolves 
in Albany, Dutchess and Orange counties. Again in 1741 an act 
was passed "to encourage the destroying of wolves and panthers in 
Dutchess county." 


Contrary to the unfavorable opinion entertained of lands in the 
western portion of the county, which certain Dutch burghers from 
Ulster county reported were not worth crossing the river for, the soil 
possessed a fertihty unknown to the lands in many portions of the 
State, responding generously to the exertions of the pioneers. 

dpc-c^ c:P<^ 


S. ^.y^^z///.. i^u. /'''': hhs/! a 



WHEN Col. Thomas Dongan was appointed Governor of 
the province in 1682, he was instructed to organize a 
Council, to be composed of not exceeding ten of "the 
most eminent inhabitants," and to issue writs to the proper officers 
for the election of "a general assembly of all th* freeholders by the 
persons who they shall choose to represent them," in order to consult 
with him and his council "what laws are fit and necessary to be made 
and established" for the good government of the province "and all 
the inhabitants thereof." On the t7th of October, 1683, the assembly 
thus authorized met at Fort James in New York. It was composed 
of delegates from all parts of the province, and during its session 
of three weeks passed fourteen several acts, which were assented to 
by the Governor and his Council. Among these laws was one "To 
Divide the Province and Dependencys into Shires and Countyes," 
passed November 1st. Twelve counties were erected as follows: Al- 
bany, Cornwall, Duke's, Dutchess, Kings, New York, Orange, Queens, 
Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster, and Westchester. The county of Corn- 
wall consisted of what was known as the district of Penaquid (now 
in Maine), and Duke's county consisted of several islands on the coast 
of Massachusetts. These counties wtjre included in the patent to the 
Duke of York. They were detached on the reorganization of the 
government in 1691. 

The boundaries of Dutchess were thus defined: "to be from the 
bounds of the County of Westchester on the South Side of the High- 
lands along the east side of Hudson's River as far as Roelof Jansens 
Creeke and eastward into the woods twenty miles." This territory 
included the present county of Putnam and the towns of Clermont 
and Germantown in Columbia County. The latter were a part of 
Livingston's Manor and were annexed to Albany county May 27, 


1717. Putnam was constituted a separate county June 12, 1812. 
Although thus organized in 1683 it was only a county in name, — a 
district in the wilderness with boundaries upon paper; supposed to 
be uninhabited by white men ; and October 18, 1701, "having very few 
inhabitants," was provisionally annexed to Ulster county, where its 
freeholders were entitled to vote. It retained that connection until 
October 23, 1713, when having increased in population, a provincial 
act empowered the Justices of the Peace to issue warrants for an 
election to be held "at any time before the first Tuesday in Septem- 
ber next (1714), to make choice of one Free-holder to be supervisor, 
one Treasurer, two Assessors and two Collectors," for each ward. 
Although no records can be found of such election, it appears to have 
been held within the specified time, as evidenced by the following 
receipt, which names the collectors in the south ward.^ 

New Yorke 13 Augts: 1715. 
Then Received off John D: graeff & John Schouten Col- 
lectors off ye South ward In Dutchess County on ye Tenn 
thousand pound Tax the Summe off Seventeen pounds three 
pence halfe penny & Eight Shillings Eight pence halfe 
penny for ye Treasurers Salary I say Receved by ye hands 
of Mr. Richd: Saccatt. 

A. D. Peyster treasur 

Further indication of civil organization in the county at that period, 
is apparent from the fact that the name of Leonard Lewis is men- 
tioned in the civil list, as representing the County of Dutchess in the 
Fifteenth Assembly, 1713-1714; and Capt. Richard Sackett was ap- 
pointed the first county clerk in 1715. Lewis was a resident of Pough- 
keepsie and received the first appointment of the Court of Common 
Pleas in the county. Sackett, the pioneer settler of Amenia, lived in 
New York City until 1704. In 1711-12 he was assisting in the man- 
agement of the affairs of the Palatines at East Camp, and was prob- 
ably living in Amenia at the time he became county clerk. 

Records appear of elections held at Poughkeepsie the first Tuesday 
in A|)ril, 1718 and 1719, at which there was but one Supervisor chosen 

1. First Book of the Supervisors, 1718-1722. 


— Henry van Der Burgh — presumably for the Middle ward. Various 
other officers were elected for the three wards. In the election re- 
turns of April 5, 1720, the officers for each ward are thus given :^ 

Att an Ellection held at Pocapsing the first Tusday In April It being on the 
Sth of the Same Instant for the Year 1720 These are Officers Chosen for 
Dutchis County In Every Ward 

For the Middel Ward Pocapesing are Chousen 

Henry Van Der Burgh Supervisor 

Coll Leonard Lewis Treasurer 

Johannes Van Den Bogart Constable & Collector 

Johannes Van Kleck & Thomas Lewis Assessors. 

Fransoy Van Den Bogart Over Sere of the Kings High Way 

Peter Veley & Hendrick pels Survayors of the fencess 
For the South Ward the fSsh Kill are Chosen • 

James Hustey Constaple & Collector 

Johannes buys & Johannes Terbos Juner Assessors 

Johannes TerbosS Supervisor 

Robert Dingen Oversere of the Kings High Way 

Frans De Lange Oversere of the Way for pagquaick 

Gerrett Van Vledt & Jan Buys Survayors of the ffences 
For the North Ward are Chosen 

Jurie Priegel Constable & Collector 

Lourens Knickerbacker & Falentyn benner Assessors 

William Trophage Supervisor 

Tunnes Pier Oversere of the Kings High Way. 

William Trophage & Tunnes Pier Survayors of the ffences 

Ponnder for ofending beasts Jacob Ploeg 

Colonial act of June 24, 1719, legalized the division of the county 
into the Southern, Middle and Northern Wards and defined their 
boundaries. From the receipt previously quoted, and from the tax 
list given in a preceding chapter it is evident this division existed as 
early as 1715. The South Ward extended from the southern border 
of the county below the Highlands north to Wappinger Creek; the 
Middle Ward thence to Cline Sopus Island (Esopus Island opposite 
the central portion of the town of Hyde Park) and the North Ward 
thence to RoelaiF Jansens Kill. Although no eastern boundaries are 
stated, these wards probably extended to the Connecticut line. 

Each ward was entitled to one supervisor, chosen annually, of 
which the following is a complete list: 

1. First Book of the Supervisors, 1718-1722. 




Johannes Terboss 


Jacobus Du Poyster 


Peter Du Boys 


do do 


Jacobus Swartwout 


do do 


do do 


James Hussey 



do do 


do do 


James Hussey 


do do 


Peter Du Boyes 


do do 


Jacobus Swartwout 


Cornelius Van Wyck 


Abraham Brinckorhoif 


do do 


Henry Van Der Burgh 


Isaac Titsoort 


do do do 


do do 


do do do 


do do 

J 723 

Barent Van Kleeck 


Frans Filkins 

^Tr\T>T f? 


do do 


do do 



Jacobus Van Den Bogert 


do do 


Johannes Van Kleeck 


do do 


Myndert Van Den Bogert 


do do 


Peter Parmantor 


do do 


Hendrick Pells 


William Trophage 


Hendricus Heermanse 


do do 


do do 


Hendricus Beekman 


do do 


do do 


Barent Van Benthuysen 



Barent Van Wagenen 


do do 


do do 


Hendricus Heermanse 


Barent Van Benthuysen 


do do 


Hendricus Heermanse 


do do 


do do 


do do 

By Colonial act of December 16, 1737, Dutchess county was divided 
into seven Precincts — designated Beekman, Crom Elbow, North, 
Poughkeepsie, Rhinebeck, Rombout and South, with municipal regu- 
lations similar to those of towns. Beekman's covered a tract nearly 
corresponding with the boundaries of that patent. Crom Elbow cov- 
ered a portion of the Great Nine Partners grant and continued its 
existence until 1762, when it was divided into the precincts of Char- 
lotte and Amenia. North comprised the Little Nine Partners tract, 
and in 1746 was designated North East after its extension across the 
Oblong. Poughkeepsie corresponded with the present town of that 
nam% Rhinebeck included the towns of Red Hook, Rhinebeck and 
the northern half of Hyde Park. Rombout comprised the territory 

S3 S 








1— ( 





















1— 1 









I— ( 




















1— 1 
























I— 1 














ffl -A 



of the Rombout patent; and South extended below the Highlands to 
the southern border of the county. 

A reorganization of South in 1772, created the precincts of Philipse, 
Frederickstown and South East within the present limits of Putnam 
county. Other divisions of the original precincts were North East, 
December 16, 1746, comprising the territory of the present towns 
of Milan, Pine Plains and North East; Pawling, set off from the east- 
ern half of Beekman's, December 31, 1768, including the present 
towns of Pawling and Dover; Charlotte, March 20, 1762, consist- 
ing of the western portion of the Great Nine Partners tract ; Amenia, 
March 20, 1762, consisting of nine of the easternmost lots of the Great 
Nine Partners tract and of that part of the Oblong between these lots 
and the Connecticut line. 

By the act of 1737 the inhabitants of the Precincts were required 
to elect annually supervisors, assessors, collectors, etc., but Precinct 
clerks were not authorized until 1741. They neglected, however, to 
report a record of elections, and in 1748, Arnout Viele, Justice of the 
Peace, holding Court of General Sessions at Poughkeepsie, "ordered 
that all and every precinct clerk in this county * » * * make 
due return of the election of their respective precincts of the officers 
chosen * * * * unto the clerk of the peace, under penalty of 
thirty shillings to be paid by every such precinct or town clerk omit- 
ting." Whether the clerks in all precincts complied with this order 
cannot be ascertained. The earher records, which undoubtedly would 
contain much of historical interest, have, through the frequent changes 
of officials and their removal from place to place, been lost or destroyed, 
and those records now in possession of the towns, with a few excep- 
tions, are fragmentary and disconnected. 

The first record of Precinct Officers in the County Clerk's office be- 
gins with the year 1754. Officers of Poughkeepsie Precinct are com- 
plete from 1742, and the record book is preserved in the Adriance 
Memorial Library. 

From the records of Supervisors' Meetings beginning with the year 
1738, a hst of the Supervisors who were present appears as follows: 

1738 Francis Filkin, Hendricus Heermanse, Francis de Lange, Isack Filkin, John 

1739 Johannes Van Kleeck, Hendricus Heermanse, John Montross, Isack Filkin, 
John Carman. 



1740 Henry Heermans, John Van Kleeck, John Montross, John Carman, Henry 
Filkin, Francis Nellson. 

1741 Henry Heermans, John "Van Kleeck, Francis Nellson, John Carman, Henry 
Filkin, John BrinckerhofF. 

1742 Henry Heermans, John Van Kleeck, Francis Nellson, John Carman, Henry 
Filkin, John Brinckerhoff. 

1743 John Van Kleeck, Henry Heermans, Henry Filkin, Francis Nellson, John 
BrinckerhofF, George Ellsworth. 

1744 John Van Kleeck, Francis Nellson, Henry Filkin, Jacob Rutsen, John 
Brinckerhoff, Thomas Barker. 

1745 John Van Kleeck, Henry Brinckerhoff, Samuel Field, Jacob Rutsen, Henry 
Filkin, Isaiah Ross, Thomas Barker. 

1746 John Van Kleeck, Henry Filkin, Samuel Field, Henry Ter Boss, Jacob Rut- 
sen, John Carman. 

1747 John Van Kleeck, Samuel Field, Henry Filkin, Henry Terboss, James Dun- 
can, Arnout Viele, Martin Hoffman. 

1748 John Van Kleeck, Henry Filkin, Samuel Field, James Dunean, Martin 
Hoffman, Arnout Viele. 

With the exception of Poughkeepsie and Rhinebeck Precincts, the 
supervisors for the years 1749, '50, '51, '52 and 53 cannot be given, as 
diligent search and inquiry fails to locate the "Fourth Book of the 
Supervisors" covering that period. The following list classifies the 
supervisors according to Precincts: 


1763— '65 

Caleb Smith 

1749— 'SI 

John Van Dense 


Elisha Colven 

I7S2— '56 

Gerrett Van Benthuysen 

1767- '69 

Andrus Bostwick 

1756— '58 

Petrus De Witt 


James Attwater 

1759- '60 

Gerret Van Benthuysen 

1771— '74 

Morris Graham 


Petrus De Witt 

1775— '76 

Israel Thompson 


Peter Van Benthuysen 

1777— '78 

Hugh Rea 

1763— '66 

Peter Ten Brook 

1779— '81 

Lewis Graham 

1767— '71 

John Van Ess 


Hugh Rea 

1772— '74 

James Smith 


Uriah Lawrence 


John Van Ness 


Lewis Graham 

1776— '80 

Peter De Witt 

1785— '87 

John White 

1781— '85 

Anthony Hoffman 


1786— '87 

Peter Contine 

1754— '55 

Isaac Germond 


1756— '58 

William Doughty 


Arnont Viele 

1759— '61 

Charles Crooke 

1756— '60 

James I. Ross 

Divided into Precincts of Amenii 

1761 • 

No record given 

and Charlotte, 1762. 


James I. Ross 




1762 Capt. Stephen Hopkins 

1763 Edmund Perlee 
1764— '66 Stephen Hopkins 
1767 Edmund Perlee 
1768— '75 Ephraim Paine 
1776 Silas Marsh 
1777— '78 Roswell Hopkins 
1779— '80 Dr. John Chamberlain 
1781 Colbe Chamberlain 
1783— '83 Ephrlam Paine 

1784 — '86 Isaac Darrow 

1787 Barnabus Paine 


1762— '67 Tobias Stoutenburgh 
1768— '70 James Smith 
1771 No record given 

1773 Lewis Barton 

1773 Cornelius Humfrey 

1774 Jonathan Lewis 

1775 Cornelius Humfrey 
1776— '80 James Smith 
1781— '82 James Talmage 
1783 No record given 
1784— '85 Isaac Bloom 

Divided into Precincts of Washington 
and Clinton, 1786. 


1786 James Talmage 

1787 No record given 


1786 Cornelius Humphrey 

1787 Richard Cantillon 

1742— '52 John Van Kleeck 
1753— '58 Lawrence Van Kleeck 

1759 Capt. Teimis Tappen 

1760 Gabriel H. Ludlow 
1761— '67 Leonard Van Kleeck 

1768 Richard Snedeker 

1769 Gilbert Livingston 
1770— '71 Richard Snedeker 
1772_'76 Zephaniah Piatt 
1777_'79 Samuel Dodge 

1780— '82 

John Bailey, Junr. 


Peter Tappen 


Gilbert Livingston 


Lewis Du Boice 


Lewis Duboys 


John Van Kleeck 


1754— '58 

John Carman 

1759— '60 

No record given 

1761— '62 

Bartholomew Noxon 


William Humfrey 

1764— '69 

Bartholomew Noxon 

1770— '74 

Joshua Carman 

1775— '79 

James Van Der Burgh 

1780— '83 

Jonathan Dennis 

1784— '86 

Ebenezer Cary 


Jonathan Dennis 


1754 — '55 Thomas Langdon 

1756— '58 Dirck BrinckerhofF 

1759 — '60 No record given 

1761— '67 Dirck Brinckerhoff 

1768 — ^'73 Henry Rosekrans, Junr. 

1774 — '75 Jacobus Swartwout 

1776 Daniel Ter Boss, 

1777— '79 Abraham Brinckerhoff 

1780 Martin WUsie 

1781— '86 Abraham Brinckerhoff 

1787 William B. Alger 

1754— '56 Samuel Fields 
1757- '59 Petrus Du Boys 
1760— '62 PhiUp PhiUpse 
1763— '65 Beverly Robinson 
1766 Philip Philipse 

1767— '69 Beverly Robinson 
1770— '71 TertuUus Dickenson 
Divided into Philipse, Fredricksburgh, 
and Southeast in 1772. 


1772 Beverly Robinson 

1773 Moses Dusenberry 

1774 Beverly Robinson 




Joshua Nellson 


Joseph Crane, Jr. 

1776— '85 

No record given 

1774— '78 

John Field 


George Lane 

1779— '80 

William Mott 


John Hyalt 


Joseph Crane 


1772— '75 TertnUus Dickenson 
1776— '78 Henry Ludington 
1779— 'S4 Ruben Ferris 

1783— '87 


Isaac Crosby 
Joseph Crane 

Nathan Pearce 


No record given 

1771— '73 

John Kane 


Capt. John Drake 

1774— '75 

Andrew Morehouse 


Ruben Ferris 

1776— '80 

Jeremiah French 


1781— '83 
1783— '86 

Isaac Talman 
William Pearse 


No record given 


No record given 

The following assessment table shows the relative wealth of pre- 
cincts at different periods: 







£ 742 

£ 813 


















Crom Elbow 














North East 












A general organization act passed March 7, 1788, divided the State 
into fourteen counties, which were subdivided into townships instead of 
Precincts. Dutchess then comprised the following towns: Amenia, 
Beekman, Clinton, (formed March 13, 1786, from portions of Char- 
lotte and Rhinebeck Precincts) Fishkill, North East, Pawling, Pough- 
keepsie, Rhinebeck and Washington. The towns of Kent, Philipstown 
and South East, now in Putnam county, were also qrected by this act. 
Towns were formed by the Legislature until 1849, when power was 
given to the several Boards of Supervisors (except in New York 
County) to divide or erect new towns when such division does not place 


parts of the same town in more than one assembly district. Towns 
'erected subsequent to the general organization act are: Stanford, 
March 12, 1793; Carmel and Patterson (now in Putnam) March 17, 
1796; Dover February 20, 1807; Red Hook, June 2, 1812; Milan, 
March 10, 1818; Hyde Park, January 20, 1821; Pleasant Valley, 
January 26, 1821 ; La Grange (formerly Freedom) February 9, 
1821; Pine Plains, March 26, 1823; Union Vale, March 1, 1827; 
East Fishkill, November 29, 1849; W^appinger, May 20, 1875. A 
list of Town Supervisors will be found in connection with the various 
town histories. 

The construction of a county house and prison in Dutchess county 
was authorized by an act of the General Assembly passed July 21, 
1715. It directed the freeholders to elect two ^of their number to 
supervise its erection at such "place as to them shall be meet and con- 
venient, for the most ease and benefit of the Inhabitants of the said 
County." It further directed that a tax be levied on the county not to 
exceed "the Sum of Two hundred and fifty Ounces of good Mexico, 
PiUar or Sevill Plate," to defray the expense ; and that the building be 
constructed "within two years after the publication thereof." Ap- 
parently no action was taken by the freeholders at that time, and a 
second act passed May 27, 1717, directed the construction and com- 
pletion of the building within three years "at or near the most con- 
venient place at Poughkeepsie." Pursuant to the latter act the free- 
holders met at Poughkeepsie, June 22, 1717, near the house of Leon- 
ard Lewis, and chose "by plurallety of Voyses Capt. Bareendt Van 
Kleeck & Mr. Jacobes Van Den Bogert Tow Be the Supervisors and 
Direcktors for building & finisching the County house and presin att 
pochkeepsen." Subsequent records^ indicate that the first court house 
and jail were completed within the required time, and not in 1745 as 
stated in French's State Gazetteer. Taxes were collected in 1718 and 
1720 towards payment of the cost of this building, and the report of 
County proceedings in 1722, state that meetings were held in the court 
house. Colonial act passed December 17, 1743, authorized "the 
Justices of the Peace in Dutchess County to build a Court House & 
Goal or to enlarge and Repair the old one." This building was erected 
in 1746 ; the assessment of $18,000 being distributed among the vari- 

1. First and Second Books of the Supervisors and Assessors. 


ous precincts according to their population and valuation. The pre- 
cinct of Rhinebeck and Rombout paid one half of this assessment. The 
money was received and disbursed by Mr. Henry Livingston, chief of 
the Board of Commissioners, appointed to supervise its construction. 
It was in this Structure that the Legislature frequently held Sessions 
during the Revolution. Early in 1785 the building was destroyed 
by fire, and April 4th the Sheriff was directed to transfer his prisoners 
to the Ulster county jail. April ll, 1785, the sum of £1^500 was ap- 
propriated for its reconstructi6n,,and in 1786 arid 1787 a further tax 
amounting to £3,300, was levied. 

In 1788 the Legislature resumed its session in the new Court House. 
This building was also doomed to destruction by fire, which originated 
in one of : the lower apartments of. the jail, the night of September 
35th, 1806. Despite these fires, it is noteworthy that the public docu- 
ments were saved. Prepafa^tions for rebuilding were soon begun, and 
by act of March 24j 1809, $12,000 was set aside for that purpose; 
this sum was supplemented in 1810 by an additional $13,000. The 
building was erected on the same site, although many favored rebuild- 
ing in a new location. This court house and jail was succeeded in 
1902, ,by;the construction of the present commodious building, which 
the growth of the county necessitated. 

On the east side of this edifice a tablet was erected, in 1904), by the 
Daughters of theAmerican Revolution, in commemoration of the con- 
stitutionar convention of 1788, inscribed as follows: 


Of The 


By Their Convention 

Assembled In a Former 

Court House 

Which Stood 

On This Ground 


The Constitution 

Of The 

United States of America 

July 36, A. D. 1788. 

Asi account of this most important event in the history of the State 
of New York, will be found in Chapter XII. 







Represeittatives iir Colonial Assembly, 

1713-'14 Leonard Lewis 1737-'43 

1715 Leonard Lewis 

Baltus Van Kleeck 174,3-'S1 

1716-'26 Leonard Lewis 

Baltus Van Kleeck 1752-'S8 

Johannis Terbosch 

Henry Beekman 17S9-'68 

1726-'37 Henry Beekman 

Johannis Van Kleeck 1768-'7S 

Henry Beekman 
Jacobus TerBoss 
Henry ^eekman 
Johannis Tappen 
Henry Beekman 
Henry Filkin 
Robert Livingston 
Henry Livingston 
Leonard Van Kleeck 
Dirck Brinckerhoff 


One member from Dutchess, John Johnson, 1716-1722. 
Delegates to PaoviifCLAL Conventiok, 177S. 

Egbert Benson, Morris Graham, Robert R. Livingston. 
Deputies to Pboviitcial Congbesses. . 

First Congress, 177S. 
Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Anthony Hoffman 
Zephaniah Piatt 
Richard Montgomerie 
Ephraim Paine 
Gilbert Livingston 
Jonathan Landon X 
Gysbert Schenck r 
Melancton Smith 
Nathaniel Sackett 

Second Congress, 177S-'76. 
Petrus Ten Broeck 
Beverly Robinson 
Cornelius Humphreys 
Henry Schenck ■^ 
Gilbert Livingston 

John Kaine 
Jacob Everson 
Morris Graham 
Robert G. Livingston 
Third Congress, 1776. 
Robert R. Livingstdn 
James Livingston 
Gilbert Livingston 
Jonathan Landon 
Morris Graham 
Henry Schenck ^ 
Theodorus Van Wyck 
John Schenck "^ 
Anthony Hoffman 
Paul Schenck / 
Nathaniel Sackett 

Cornelius Humphreys 
Zephaniah Piatt 
James Vanderburgh 
Benjamin Delavergne 
John Field 
Fourth Congress, 177e-'77. 
Zephaniah Piatt 
Nathaniel Sackett 
Gilbert Civingston 
Doctor Crane 
Henry Schenck 
James Livingston 
John Schenck / 
Anthony Hoffman 
Robert R. Livingston 
Jonathan Landon 


First Council of Safety. 

May to September, 1777, Zephaniah Piatt. 

Second Cousrcii, or Safety. 

October 8, 1777, to January 7, 1778, Egbert Benson, Jonathan Landon. 

Council of Appointment. 

Zephaniah Piatt, appointed October 17, 1778, re-appointed October 25, 1781. 
Ephraim Paine, September 11, 1780.1 Jacobus Swartwout, January 31, 1784, 
re-appointed January 19, 1786. Anthony Hoffman, January 18, 17S8. Thomas 
Tillotson, January 14, 1791. Abraham SchencKf January 7, 1796. Abraham 
Adriance, February 7, 1804. Robert Williams, January 31, 1810. Peter R. 
Livingston, January 31, 1810. Stephen Barnum, February 3, 1819. 

Sechetahies of War. 

John Armstrong, appointed by President MadisoA 1813; Daniel S. Lamont, 

appointed by President Cleveland 1893. 
Secretaries op the Navt. 

Smith Thompson, appointed November 9, 1818. 

James K. Paulding, appointed June 35, 1838. 


Levi 'P. Morton, 1889-1893. 

Judge op the Supreme Court op the United States. 
Smith Thompson, appointed September 21, 1833. 

Judge of the United States Circuit Court. 

Egbert Benson, appointed February 30, 1804. 

Minister Plenipotentiary to France. 

John Armstrong, appointed June 30, 1804. 

Commissioner of the District of Columbia. 

John Henry Ketcham, appointed by President Grant 1874-1877. 

United States Senators. 

John Armstrong, appointed November, 1800. Theodorus Bailey, 1803. Nathan- 
iel P. Tallmadge, 1833, re-appointed 1840. 

Representatives in Congress. 

1789-'93 Egbert Benson 1817-'19 James TaUmadge, Jr. 

1793-'97 Theodorus Bailey 1819-'21 RandaU S. Street 

1797-'99 David Brooks 1821-'2S WilUam W. Van Wyek 

1799-'03 Theodorus Bailey 1835-'27 Bartow White 

1803-'— Isaac Bloom 1827-'29 Thomas Taber 

1803-'09 Daniel C. Verplancka 1839-'31 Abraham Bockee 

1809-'13 James Bmott 1831-'33 Edward H. Pendleton 

1813-'15 Thomas J. Oakley 1833-'37 Abraham Bockee 

•1815-'17 Abraham H. Schenck^ 1837-'39 Obadiah Titus 

1. Vacated by expulsion from the Senate, Marcb 15, 1781. 

2. Blected October 8, vice Bloom, deceased. 


1839-'41 Charles Johnson 1863-'65 Homer A. Nelson 

1841-'4S Richard D. Davis 186S-'73 John H. Ketcham 

184,S-'4,7 William W. Woodruff ].873-'7T John O, Whitehouse 

18S1-'S1 Gilbert Dean 1877-'91 John H. Ketcham 

1854-'S5 James Teller 1897-'05 John H. Ketcham 

18S7-'S9 John Thompson 1906-'08 Samuel P. McMillan 

1861-'63 Stephen Baker 1909-'— Hamilton Fish 


JtrDOE OP THE Court of Appeals. 

Charles H. Ruggles, elected June 7, 1847, re-elected November 8, 18S3. 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Smith Thompson, appointed February 3, 1814. 
Puisne Justices op the Supreme Court. 

Morgan Lewis, appointed December 24, 1792; Egbert Benson, appointed Janu- 
ary 39, 1794; Smith Thompson, appointed January 8, li03. 
Circuit Judges (Secoxtd Circuit). 

James Emott, appointed February 21, 1827; Charles H. Ruggles, appointed 

appointed March 9, 1831; Seward Barculo, appointed April 4, 1846. 
Justice of the General Term of the Supreme Court. 

Joseph F. Barnard (Second Dept.), appointed December 25, 1870. 
Justices of the Supreme Court. 

Seward Barculo, elected June 7, 1847; Gilbert Dean, appointed June 26, 18S4; 

James Emott, elected November 6, 1855; Joseph F. Barnard, elected November 

3, 1863, re-elected 1871 and 1885, retired 1893; Joseph Morschauser, elected 

1906, term expires 1920. 

Morgan Lewis, elected April 1804; Levi P. Morton, elected November 6, 1894, 

James Tallmadge, elected November 1, 1834; Peter R. Livingston, elected 

February 16, 1828; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler, elected November 6, 1906. 
Adjutant General op the State. 

J. WatiSs de Peyster, appointed January 1, 1855. 
Secretaries of State. 

Thomas Tillotson, appointed August 10, 1801, re-appointed February 16, 1807; 

Robert R. Tillotson, appointed February 12, 1816; Homer A. Nelson, elected 

November 5, 1867. 
Treasurers of the State. 

Joseph Howland, elected November 5, 1865; James Mackin, elected November 

6, 1877. 

Egbert Benson, appointed May 8, 1777; Morgan Lewis, elected November 8, 

1791; Thomas J. Oakley, elected July 8, 1819. 



State Tax Cosimibsiod'ebs. 

James L. WiUiams, appointed April 18, 1883; William H. Wood, appointed 
January 10, 1893; Martin Heermance, appointed January 20, 1896. 

Caxal Commissioners. 

James Hooker, appointed February 8, 1842. 

Fbisos' Inspector. 

James Teller, appointed April 1, 1811, re-appointed March 7, 1815 and Feb- 
ruary 24, 1821. 

Board of Regents. 

First Board, Anthony Hoffman, Cornelius Humphrey; Second Board, Gilbert 
Livingston; under system adopted 1787, Smith Thompson, appointed March 
13, 1813. 

Commissioners State Board of Charities. 

Harvey G. Eastman, appointed June 17, 1867, re-appointed March 19, 1873; 
James Roosevelt, appointed February 12, 1879; Sarah M. Carpenter, appointed 
January 21, 1880. 

Ptrntic Service Commissioner. 

James E. Sague, appointed 1907; re-appointed 1909. 


1788 — Jonathan Atkins, John De Witt, Gilbert Livingston, Zephaniah Piatt, Mel- 

ancton Smith, Jacobus Swartwout, Ezra Thompson.^ 
1801 — Jonathan Akin, Isaac Bloom, Caleb Hazen, Peter Huested, Edmund Farlee, 
Smith Thompson, Joseph Thorn, John Van Benthuysen, .Theodorus Van 
Wyck, Ithamer Weed. 
1821 — EUsha Barlow, Isaac Hunting, Peter R. Livingston, Abrahai^ H. Schenck, 

James Tallmadge. 
1846 — Peter K. DuBois, Charles H. Ruggles, James TaUmadge. 
1867— B. Piatt Carpenter, Wilson B. Sheldon, Homer A. Nelson.2 
1894--Charles W. H. Arnold. 
State Senators. 

1777-'79 Jonathan Landon 

1777-'83 Zephaniah Piatt 

1779-'81 Ephraim Paine 

1782-'8S Ephraim Paine 

1784-'95 Jacobus Swartvifout 

1787-'89 Cornelius Humfrey 

1788-'90 Anthony Hoffman 

1791-'99 Thomas Tillotson' 

1796-'99 Abraham Schenck 

1798-'01 Peter Cantine, Jr. 

1800-'02 Isaac Bloom 

1801-'02 David Van Ness 

1803-'06 Abraham Adriance 

1804-'07 Robert Johnston 

1808-'ll Robert Williams 

1811-'1S Morgan Lewis 

1812-'1S William M. Taber 

1816-'22 Peter R. Livingston 

1818-'21 Stephen Barnum 

1826-'29 Peter R. Livingston 

1." Atkins and Swartwout voted against the Constitution. Thompson did not vote. 
2. Dele(?ate-at-Iarge. 

5 (b 




1830-'33 Nathaniel P. Tallmadge 

1834-'37 Leonard Maison 

1838-'41 Henry A. Livingston 

1842-'4S Abraham Bockee 

1848-'49 Alexander J. Coffin 

18S2-'S3 John H. Otis 

1856-'S7 William Kelly 

1860-'61 John H. Ketcham 

1864-'6S John B. Dutcher 

1868-'69 Abiah W. Pahner 

1870-'71 George Morgan 

1873-'73 Abiah W. Palmer 

1876-'77 B. Piatt Carpenter 

1882-'83 Homer A. Nelson 

1884-'85 Thomas Newbold 

1892-'93 Edward B. Osborne 

1909-'— John F. Schlosser 


1777-'78 Egbert Benson 

Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Anthony Hoffman 
Gilbert Livingston 
Andrew Moorhouse 
John Schenck 
Jacobus Swartwbut 

1778-'79 Egbert Benson 

Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Joseph Crane, Jr. 
Samuel Dodge 
Anthony Hoffman 
Andrew Moorhouse 
Jacobus Swartwout 

1779-'80 Egbert Benson 

Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Annanias Cooper 
Samuel Dodge 
Henry Ludenton 
Brinton Paine 
Nathaniel Sackett 

1780-'81 Egbert Benson 
Ebenezer Cary 
Samuel Dodge 
Henry Ludenton 
Brinton Paine 
Guisbert Schenck 
Jacobus Swartwout 

1781-'82 Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Jonathan Dennis 
Cornelius Humfrey 
Ebenezer Husted 
Abraham Paine 
Thomas Storm 
Jacobus Swartwout 

1782-'83 Benjamin Birdsall 
Jonathan Dennis 
Corneliuls Humfrey 
Ebenezer Husted 
Matthew Patterson 
Thomas Storm 
Jacobus Swartwout 

1784 Dirck Brinckerhoff 

Jonathan Dennis 
Anthony Hoffman 
Cornelius Humfrey 
Ebenezer Husted 
Matthew Patterson 
Thomas Storm 

1784-'85 Adam Brinckerhoff 
Dirck Brinckerhoff 
Ebenezer Cary 
Cornelius Humfrey 
Brinton Paine 
Matthew Patterson 
James Tallmadge 

1786 Dirck Brinckerhoff 
John De Witt 
Lewis Duboys 
Jacob Griffin 
Henry Ludenton 
Brinton Paine 
Matthew Patterson 

1787 Dirck Brinckerhoff 
John De Witt, Jr. 
Lewis Duboys 
Jacob Griffin 
Henry Ludenton 
Brinton Paine 
Matthew Patterson 



1788 Egbert Benson 

Isaac Bloom 
Peter Cantine, Jr. 
John De Witt, Jr. 
Morris Graham 
Matthew Patterson 
Thomas Tillotson 

1788-'89 Jonathan Akin 

Samuel A. Barker 
Isaac Bloom 
John De Witt 
Jacob Griffin 
Gilbert Livingston 
Matthew Patterson 

1789-'90 Samuel A. Barker 
Isaac Bloom 
Joseph Crane, Jr. 
Jacob Griffin 
Ebenezer Husted 
Isaac J. Talman 
Thomas Tillotson 

1791 Jonathan Akin 

Samuel A. Barker 
Isaac Bloom 
James Kent 
Henry Schenck 
James Tallmadge 
David Van Ness 

179S Jonathan Akin 

Samual A. Barker 
Isaac Bloom 
Daniel Graham 
Morgan Lewis 
Matthew Patterson 
James Tallmadge 

1792-'93 Jonathan Akin 
Josiah Holly 
James Kent 
Ebenezer Mott 
Matthew Patterson 
Barnabas Payen 
WUliam Raddift 

1794 Samuel A. Barker 

James Bockee 
David Brooks 

John De Witt 
Jesse Oakley 
Jacob Radclift 
Isaac Van Wyck 

1795 Samuel A. Barker 
Jacob Brockee 
David Brooks 
Jesse Oakley 
Jacob Radclift 
Jacob Smith 
Isaac Van Wyck 

1796 David Brooks 
Richard Davis 
Jesse Oakley 
Jacob Smith 
Solomon Sutherland 
Jesse Thompson 
Isaac Van Wyck 

1796-'97 Samuel A. Barker 
Jacob Bockee 
Joseph Crane, Jr. 
Richard Davis 
Jesse Oakley 
William Pearce 
Jacob Smith 
Jesse Thompson 
William B. Verplanck 
William Wheeler 

1798 WilUam Barker 

Lemuel Clift 
Luther Holly 
Joseph Potter 
Philip J. Schuyler 
Jacob Smith 
John Thomas 
Jesse Thompson 
Samuel Towner 
WUliam B. Verplanck 

1798-'99 Abraham Adriance 
Lemuel Clift 
Henry Dodge 
Robert Johnston 
Ebenezer Mott 
William Pearce 
Piatt Smith 



Jonathan Soule 

William Taber 

John van Benthuysen 
1800 Abraham Adriance 

William Barker 

William Emott 

Joseph C. Field 

Robert Johnston 

Ebenezer Mott 

Isaac Sherwood 

William Taber 

Samuel Towner 

John Van Benthuysen 
1800-'01 Abraham Adriance 

Benjamin Akin 

EUsha Barlow 

Nichtdas H. Emlgh 

Robert Johnston 

Ebenezer Mott 

Zalman Sanford 

Isaac Sherwood 

Smith Thompson 

John M. Thurston 
1803 Abraham Adriance 

Benjamin Akin 

Theodorus Bailey 

Elisha Barlow 

Nicholas H. Emigh 

Harry Garrison 

Alexander Spencer 

John Thompson 

John M. Thurston 

1803 Joseph C. Field 
John Jewett 
John Martin 
Thomas Mitchell 
Philip Spenoer, Jr. 
Theodorus R. Van Wyck 
James Winchell 

1804 Joseph E. HafF 
John Martin 
Thomas Mitchell 
Zaimon Sanford 
Wiliam Taber 
Benajah Thompson 
Theo. R. Van Wyck 

1804-'05 Job Crawford 
Isaac Hunting 
John Patterson 
tCbraham H. Schenck 
Isaac Sherwood 
John Van Benthuysen 
John M. Thurston 

1806 Barnabas Carver 
Joseph C. Field 
Benjamin Herrick 

Abraham H. Schenck 
Jno. Van Benthuysen 
William D. Williams 
Veniah Wooley 

1807 John Haight 
Aaron Hazen 
John Storm 

TobiaS L. Stoutenburgh 
Martin E. Winchel 
Veniah Wooley 

1808 Albro Akin 
Devoue Bailey 
George Casey 
Cyrenus Crosby 
John Haight 

Tobias L. Stoutenburgh 
Martin E. Winchel 
1808-'09 Samuel A. Barker 
George Bloom 
Derick A. Brinckerhoff 
Ebenezer Haight 
Benajah Thompson 
Jesse. Thompson, 

1810 David Brooks 
Lemuel Clift 
Koert Dubois 
Ebenezer Haight 
Alexander Neely 
Isaac Van Wyck 

1811 Samuel A. Barker 
Lemuel Clift 
Koert Dubois 
Alexander Neely 
Shadrach Sherman 
Isaac Van Wyck 



1813 Joseph Arnold 
Cyrus Benjamin 
Isaac Bryan 
Henry Dodge 
John Warren 
Robert Weeks 

1812-'13 Joseph Arnold 
John Beadle 
Cyrus Benjamin 
Isaac Bryan 
Henry Dodge 
John Warren 

1814 William A. Duer 
James Emott 
Samuel Mott 
Joseph Potter 
Jesse Thompson 

1814-'15 John Beadle 
Joel Benton 
William A. Duer 
James Emott 
James Grant 

1816 William A. Duer 

Zachariah HofPman 
Thomas J. Oakley 
Isaac Smith 
John B. Van Wyck 

1816-'17 Joel Benton 

WUliam A. Duer 
James Emott 
Nathaniel Pendleton 
Abiel Sherman 

1818 Benjamin Haxton 
Thomas J. Oakley 
Andrew Pray 
Jehiel Sackett 
John W. Wheeler 

1819 John Beadle 
James Ketchum 
Thomas J. Oakley 
Jesse Thompson 
Dayid Tomilinson 

1830 Abraham Bockee 

Jacob Doughty 
Matthew Mesier 
Thomas J. Oakley 

John W. Wheeler 

1830-'21 Albro Akin 

Benjamin H. Conklin 
Coert Dubois 
Israel Harris 
Joseph I. Jackson 

1833 John Cox 

Daniel Northrup 
Philo Buggies 
Benjamin Sherman 
George Vandenburgh 

1833 Wheeler Gilbert 
Prince Hoag 

Peter R. Livingston 
Samuel M. Thurston 

1834 John Klapp 
Alfred S. Pell 
James Tallmadge 
Gilbert Thome 

1835 Eli Angevine 

John Armstrong, Jr. 
Enos Hopkins 
Gilbert Thome 

1836 Isaac R. Adriance 
Daniel D. Akin 
Martin Lawrence 
Thomas Tabor 

1837 Egbert Cary 
Jacob C. Elmendorf 
Samuel B. Halsey 
Henry A. Livingston 

1838 Taber Belding 
Francis A. Livingston 
George W. Slocum 
Nathan P. Tallmadge 

1839 Elijah Baker, Jr. 
Stoddard Judd 
Tobias Teller 
Stephen D. Van Wyck 

1830 James Hughson 
George P. Oakley 
Jacob Van Ness 
Philo M. Winchell 

1831 Joel Benton 
Samuel B. Halsey' 
William Hooker 
















John E. Townsend 

Robert Coffin 

Eli Hamblin 


Michael S. Martin 

Israel Shadbolt 

Daniel D. Akin 


Joel Brown 

Henry Conklin 

George LambSrt 

1848 1st 

Theo. V. W. Anthony 


Wm. H. Bostwick 


Henry Conklin 

1849 list 

James Mabbett 


Theodore V. W. Anthony 


David BarneJs, Jr. 

1850 1st 

Stoddard Jndd 


Stephen Thorn 


Abijah Benedict 

1851 1st 

Cornelius H. Cornell 


WiUiam Eno 


Stoddard Judd 

1852 1st 

Taber Belding 


John R. Myer 


David Sheldon 

1853 1st 

Cornelius Dubois 


Freeborn Garretson 


Jacob Sisson 

1854 1st 

Henry Conklin 


Jacob Sisson 


Daniel Toffey 

1855 1st 

Amos Bryan 


Henry Conklin 


Daniel Toffey 

1856 1st 

Jonathan Akin 


Edmund Elmendorf 


John Thompson 

1857 1st 

Peter K. Dubois 


John M. Ketchara 


Richard C. Van Wyck 

1858 1st 

Gilbert Bentley 


John Elseffer 

1859 1st 

John M. Ketcham 


Alexander H. Coffin 

1860 1st 

John K. Mead 


Ambrose L. Pinney 

1861 1st 

Epenetus Crosby 


Freeborn Garretson 
Walter Sherman 
Elnathan Haxton 
George T. Pierce 
Daniel Sherwood 
Epenetus Crosby 
Walter Sherman 
Aves I. Vanderbilt 
Edgar Vincent 
David Collins, Jr. 
James Hammond 
Edgar Vincent 
Wesley Butts 
James Hammond 
Charles Robinson 
Minor^C. Story 
Stephen Haight 
Charleis Robinson 
Howland R. Sherman 
William H. FeDer 
John S. Emans 
John M. Keese 
Augustus Martin 
John S. Emans 
James H. Weeks 
Augustus Martin 
Peter P. Montfoort 
George W. Sterling 
Wm. H. Bostwick 
Albert Emans 
Joseph E. Allen 
Ambrose Wager 
John H. Ketcham 
Daniel O. Ward 
Jacob B. Carpenter 
John H. Ketcham 
Franklin Dudley 
Cornelius N. Campbell 
Albert Emans 
Ambrose Wager 
James Mackin 
Samuel J. Farnum 
Abiah W. Palmer 
Richard J. Garretson 
John B. Dutcher 
Samuel J. Farnum 



1862 1st 

1863 1st 

1864 1st 

1865 1st 

1866 1st 

1867 Ist 

1868 1st 

1869 1st 

1870 1st 

1871 1st 

1872 1st 

1873 1st 

1874 1st 

1875 1st 

1876 1st 

1877 1st 

1878 1st 

1879 1st 

1880 1st 

1881 1st 

1882 1st 

1883 1st 


1884 Isl; 

John B. Dutcher 

1885 1st 

Edmund Green 


Luther S. Dutcher 

1886 1st 

Joseph C. Doughty- 


James Howard 

1887 1st 

John N. Cramer 


James Howard 

1888 1st 

Mark D. Wilber 


Abiah W. Palmer 

1889 1st 

Mark D. Wilber 


Joshua Smith 

1890 1st 

George C. Gibbs 


Augustus A. Brush-. 

1891 1st 

Alfred T. Ackert. 


David R. Gould 

1893 1st 

Wm. W. Hegeman 


James A. Seward 

1893 1st 

David H. Mulford 


Jam^s A. Seward 

1894 list 

David H. Mulford 


Edward M. Goring 

1895 1st 

Harvey G.. Eastman 


James Mackin 

1896 1st 

Jacob B. Carpenter 


James Mackin 

1897 1st 

Harvey G. Eastman 


James Mackin 

1898 1st 

Benjamin S. Broas 


Thomas Hammond 

1899 1st 

De Witt Webb 


Thomas 'Hammond 

1900 1st 

De Witt Webb 


Obed Wheeler 

1901 1st 

Peter Hulme 


Obed Wheeler 

1902 1st 

Cornelius Pitcher 


Isaac S. Carpenter 

1903 1st 

Cornelius Pitcher 


Isaac S. Carpenter 

1904 Ist 

James E. Dutcher 


Alfred Bonney 

1905 1st 

John O'Brien 


Storm Emans 

1906 1st 

Edgar A. Briggs 


James Kent, Jr. 

1907 1st 

Edward B. Osborne 


Joseph H. Storm 
Edward B. Osborne 
Joseph H. Storm 
John I. Piatt 
Willard H. Mase 
John I. Piatt 
Willard H. Maise 
John I. Piatt 
WiUard H. Mase 
Johnston L. De Peyster 
Willard H. Mase 
Johnston L. De Peyster 
Willard H. Mase 
Edward B. Osborne 
Obed Wheeler 
John A. Vandewater 
E. H. Thompson 
John A. Vandewater 
E. H. Thompson 
Augustus B. Gray 
E. H. Thompson 
Augustus B. Gray 
John A. Hanna 
Augustus B. Gray 
John A. Hanna 
Augustus B. Gray 
John A. Hanna 
William A. Tripp 
John T. Smith 
William A. Tripp 
John T. Smith 
William A. Tripp 
John T. Smith 
Francis G. Landon 
John T. Smith 
Francis G. Landon 
John T. Smith 
Francis G. Landon 
John T. Smith 
Robert W. Chanler 
John T. Smith 
Augustus B. Gray 
Myron Smith 
Augustus B. Gray 
Myron Smith 
Fred. Northrup 

C5 ^^COx^^^^-'^^^^^^i^le.^.-.^^ . 



19081st : 

Myroft Smith 

1909 1st 

Myron Smith 


Fred. Northrup 


Everett H. Travis 





Philo Ruggles 


Leonard Lewis 


Derrick B. Stockholm 


Jacob Terboss 


John Brush 


Martinus Hoffman 


Ebenezer Nye 


Jacobus Terboss 


James Hooker 


Beverly Robinson 


Robert Wilkinson 


Bphraim Paine 


Virgil D. Bonesteel 


Zephaniah Flatt 


John P. H. Tallman 


David Brooks 


Edgar Thorn 


John Johnstone 


Peter Dorland 


James Emott 


Milton A. Fowler 


Maturin Livingston 


Pet^ Dorland 


Daniel C. Ver Planck 


Collins Sheldon 


Edmund H. Pendleton 


Horace D. Hufcut 


Joseph I. Jackson 


Cyrenus P. Dorland 


Seward Barculo 


Cyrenus P. Dorland 


Abraham Bockee 


Willet E. Hoysradt 


John Rowleyi 


Charles A. Hopkins 


John Rowley 




lEgbert Q. Eldridge 


Jacob Radcliff 


Homer A. Nelson 


Smith Thompson 


Homer A. Nelson 


Randall S. Street 


Charles Wheaton^ 


Randall S^ Street 


Allard Anthony 


George Bloom 


Henry M. Taylor 


George Bloom 


B. Piatt Carpenter 


Philo Ruggles 


Daniel W. Guernsey 


Francis A. Livingston 


Daniel W. Gue'rnsey 


Stephen Cleveland 


Samuel K. Phillips 


George A. Schufeldt 


Samuel K. Phillips 


E. M. Swift 


Frank Hasbrouck 


William Eno 



Joseph T. Lee 


Gilbert Livingston 


James Eraott, Jr. a 


Anthony Hoffman 


Thomas C. CampbeU 


■Gilbert Livingston 


Silas WodeU 


James Tallmadge, Jr. 


B. Piatt Carpenter 


James J. Oakley 


Allard Anthony* 


George Bloom 


Allard Anthony 

1. OfiBce made' elective in 1846. 

2. Appointed vice Nelson resigned. 

3. Appointed vice Lee deceased. 

4. Appointed vice Carpenter resigned, elected in 1861. 




William I. Thorn 



Tristram CofiSn 



James L. Williams 



William R. Woodin 



William R. Woodin 



John Harkett 



John Hackett 



Martin Heermance 



Horace D. Hufcut 



George Wood 



George Wood 



William R. Lee 



William R. Lee 



John E. Mact 





J. Van de Voert 



William Squire 



James Wilson 



Henry FiUdn 



William Barnes 



Isaac Brinckerhoff 



Clear Everit 



James G. Livingston 



Henry Rosecrans, Jr. 



Philip J. Livingston 



Melancton Smith 



Lewis Dubois 



Harmon Hoffman 



John De Witt 



John Van Benthuysen 



John De Witt 



WiUiam Radcliff 



Robert Williams 



Joseph Thorn 



John Van Benthuysen 



Joseph C. Field 



John Van Benthuysen 



Joseph C. Field 



D. A. Brinckerhoff 



John Radcliff 



William Griffin 



Gilbert Ketchum 



R. C. Van Wyck 



William Griffin 


William Griffin 
John A. Wood 
Obadiah Titus 
Abraham Myers 
Thomas N. Perry 
S. D. Van Wyck 
Thomas N. Perry 
Alonzo H. Mory 
David N. Seaman 
Alonzo H. Mory 
Henry Rikert 
Moses C. Sands 
James Hammond 
Judah Swift 
George Lamoree 
Richard Kenworthy 
Cornelius Pitcher 
John G. Halstead 
David Warneri 
James E. Dutcher 
Sylvester H. Mase 
James E. Dutcher 
Charles W. Belding 
J. W. Van TasseU 
William H. Bartlett 
J. S. Pearce 
Myron Smith 
Allan H. Hoffman 
James H. Kipp 
Robert W. Chanler 
Richard Sackett 
Henry Vanderburgh 
Henry Livingston 
Henry Livingston 
Robert H. Livingston 
Gilbert Livingston 
David Brooks 
Philip Spencer, Jr. 
David Brooks 
Philip Spencer, Jr. 
David Brooks 
Philip Spencer, Jr. 
Jacob Van Ness 

1. Appointed March 7, vice Halstead, deceased. 



1819 John Van Benthuysen 

1820 John Johnston 
1831 Jacob Van Ness 
1833 Jacob Van Nessi 
1836 Clapp Raymond 
1829 Henry S. Traver 
1838 Daniel W. Beadle 
1841 Robert Mitchell 
1847 Joseph T. Adriance 
1853 George H. Tompkins 
1859 Wilson B. Sheldon 
1865 Edgar Vincent 

1871 John W. Vincent 

1874 Andrew C. Warren 

1877 William A. Fanning 

1880 Wilson B. Sheldon 

1883 William A. Fanning 

1886 Edward B. Osborne 

1889 Theodore A. Hoffman 

1892 Storm Emans 

1895 Theodore A. Hoffman 

1898 Theodore A. Hoffman 

1901 Frederick Bostwick 

1904 Frederick Bostwick 

1907 John M. Ham 


1738 John Tappen 

1745 Henry Livingston 

1771 Robert Hoffman 

1795 William Emotta 

1848 Albert Van Kleeck 

1851 Leonard B. Sackett 

1854 James H. Seaman 

1860 John F. HuU 

1863 Joseph C. Harris 

1866 Joseph C. Harris 

1869 Walter S. Fonda 

1872 Walter S. Fonda 

1875 Frederick W. Davis 

1878 Seneca V. Halloway 

1881 Seneca V. Halloway 

1882 Georgfe W. Chases 

1883 George W. Chase 
1886 George W. Chase 
1889 Isaac W. Sherrill 
1892 Isaac W. Sherrill 
1896 William Haubennestel 
1898 William Haubennestel 
1901 William Haubennestel 
1904 William Haubennestel 
1907 Charles H. Slocum. 

1. Office made elective. 

2. Served until 1811, from whicli year tbe records are missing until 1848, the office 
becoming elective under the Constitution of 1846. 

3. Appointed January 19, 1882^ vice Halloway, who failed to qualify ; elected Novem- 
ber, 1882, for full term. 





AS early as 1715, according to the military records in Colonial 
Archives (Vol. LX, page 78) in the possession of the State 
Library, Dutchess County, with a total population of less 
than five hundred, had a military force of sixty-three men, as follows: 

Dutchess County 1715 Novemb 21 

A List of the Military Fooiises V'l 

Capt Barend Z Van Kleeck 
Lt Johannes Ter Boss 
Ens Jacobes Van den Bogard 
Sar'ts Johannes Van Kleek 

pieter Lasseng 
Corp'r Harmon Ryndert 

John Schoute 

.pieter Van Kleek 
Lowrens Van Kleek 
Myndert VandenBogrt 
John I Van den Bogert 
fransois Van den Bogert 
John De Graef 
goose Van Wagene 
frans La Roy 
Hendrick oostrom 
Roelef oosterom 
Pieter fielee 
Jonas Slodt 
Hendrick pels 
Jacob Fit soor 
Isaac Fit soor 
Damen Falmetier 
Magiel palmetier 
Pieler palmetier 
Willem Lasseng 

Jacob Schoute 
Timon Schouten 
Andries Schouten 
Johannes Bos 
Jacobes Bos 
Johannes Buys 
Abraham Buys 
Johannes Hussie 
John Montras 
Hendrick Buys 
Thomas Shadwick 
Lowrens Oosterhout 
Evert Van Wagene 
Matias Slecht -J 
Hendrick Kyp 
Isaac Kyp 
pieter Ostrander 
William Ostrander 
William Trophage 

peeck Dewitt 
Jacob Kool 
adam Bresie 

Corneleus Knickerbacker 
Jacob Hooghteling 
Evert Aersen 
Hendrick Vandeburg 
Isaac Lasseng 
William Schudz 
Aert Masten 
frans De Langen 
pieter Du Boy 
Roger Britt 
Isaac Hendrickse 
John Brion 
Jurean Springsteen 
Jacobes Harckse 
Joseph Crieger 

Judge Henky Beekmak. Col. Henby Beekman, Jr. 

Gen. Richard Montgomery. Chancellor Livingston. 
Edward Livingston Gen. Morgan Lewis. 



In the Archives for the year 1737 (Vol. LXXII, page 35) appear 
the names of the oiScers for each of the eight Companies! from this 
county, and the number of enlisted men, but the names of the latter 
are not of record. 

In the same Volume (page 146) appear the names of the regi- 
mental officers arranged according to Precincts, but the names of the 
privates in these regiments are also missing. 

Further reference to the records (Vol. LXXXI, pages 74 and 94) 
furnish a complete enrollment of the men under command of Captain 
Peter Van Denburgh, in 1755, contained in the muster rolls of July 
11th and August 4th. 

A List of the Militie Ofpicees &c &c : of Dutchess County Viz 

TO 21 Dece'r 1737 
Henry Beekman, CoUo 
Bar"! Vancleek x Lu't Coll 
Gilb't Livingston, Major 
Elias Van Bnntshote, x Capt 
1 Lowrens "Van Cleek, Lut 
Baltiis Van Cleek, Ins 

This Comp'y Cons't of 60 Mn 

Evert Van Wagen, x Capt 

Jacob Kipp, Lut 

Gerrit Van Wagen, Ins'n 

Henry Heermans, Capt 

Larance Knickerbacker, x Lut 

John Van Benthuyse, Ins 

Frances De Lang, Capt 

John Montross, Lut 

Frances Brit, Ins'n 

Lowrens Oosterhout, x Capt 

James Van Etten, Lut 

Wouter Westfaal, remov'd x Ins'n 

Frances La Roy, Capt 
Micheel Van Cleek, Lut 
Abraham Swartwout, Ins'n 
James Hussey Dece'd x Capt 
Hendrick Ter Bos, Lut 
Lowrans Lossey, Ins'n 
Jacob Van Campen, Capt 
Jacob De Witt, Lut 
John Oosterhout, Ins'il 















These with this x marke will not sairve any longer and are dead or 
removed — By the best information I could get this being a true State 

Henkt Beekman. 

List op the Militaey Oeficees or Dutchess Cottnty, 17S9. 

Gilb't Livingston, Lut Coll, In the room of Lu't Coll, Bar't: Van Cleck, who 

Elias Van Buntschote, Maj'r, In the Room of Gilb't Livingston. 

1st Compa' of the Regiment of Beekman Precinct 

Johannes Dolsen, Lut. In the Room of John Montross under Capt Frans De 
Lange. In Beekman Precinct George Elsworth Ensign. 

Rynebeek 2d Compa' of the Regiment. 

Gisbert Westfale Ens. In the Room of Wouter Westfale who is moeved under 
Capt Lowrens Osterhowt. In Rhynbeek Preoeinct. 

All Remain as they are in Rhynbeek Preceinct. 

Abraham Swartwout, Lieut't in the Roomie of Meigle Van Cleck Dece'd, under 
Capt Frans La Roy. In Poghkeepsie Preceinct Symon Frere, Insign under Do. 

All Remaine as they are — In Beekman Preceinct 

6th Compa' of Regiment 
LowernS Van Cleek, Captain, in the Room of Elias Buntschote pret'd to be Maj'r. 

In Poghkeepsie Preceinct > 

Baltes Van Cleck, Lut Barent Luis, Ensign. 

7th (Co) of Regiment 

Jacob kip Captain In the Rome of Evert Van Wagen who dedins by Reason 
of his adge. 

In Rynbeck Preceinct 

Gerit Van Wagen Lu't't Aart Van Wagen Ens'n 

8th & 9th Companys, by this distinguished 

Hendrick Terbos In the Roome of James Hussey Dece'd 
In Rombout Preceinct 

Lowerens Loosey, Lut't John Brinckerhof Ens'n 

Frances Brit, Capt. Robert Brit, Lut Tunis Buntschote, Ens 
In Crom Elbow Preceinct. A New Company 

Isaac Tietsoort, Capt Henry ffilkins, Lut, Astyn Creed, Ens'n 

Martinus Hoof man Adjutant for the Reg't of Dutchess County. 

This last Dat'd 1st Nov'r the rest the 24th 1739. 

Mtistee Roll Captain Peteb. Van Denburgh's Company. 

July 11th, 1755. 
A List of a Company of Foot Raised in Dutchess County under the 
Command of 

Peter Van Denburgh Captain 
• Joshua Champlin iirst Lieuten't 

Zebulon Mead Second Lieu't 



Jacob Weaver 

Simeon Bowlen 

Eliphalet Stevens 

Johan Hendrick Specer 

Stephen HuU 

Lewis Bennet 

Amos Bennet 

Joseph Parish 

Jonathan PoUey 

Stephen Mead 

William Mills 

James Carrel 

Thomas Ingerson 

John Clemens 

John Wieler 

John Wood 

John Franklin,, Jun'r 

Simeon Oosterhout 

Increase Win • 

James Morey 

John Lewis 

Nathaniel Dunham, Jun'r 

Michael Walter 

William Steenbergh 

Joseph Steel 

Greorge Bondy 


Edward Hall 
John Ryan 

Ebenesar Merreck, Jun'r 
Ezra Kenny 
Daniel Davison 
Ebenezer Owen 
Samuel Reed 
Joseph Reed, 
Nathaniel Chapwell 
Jacob Brill 

Simeon Terbos — Clerk 
James Green — Serjeant 
Jacob Sutton 
William Johnston 
James Weeks 
Daniel Aldrich 
Timothy Larkin 
Michael Brown 
Ichabod Stockwell 
Elijah Harvey 
William Moore 
Michel McDannel 
Edward Dunfy 
John Roberts 
Daniel Lane 

Silas Bobbet 
Elijah Curry 
John Gellit 
Richard Nicholson 
Peter Caswell 
John HefFy, Jun'r 
Fletcher Smith 
John Crooke 
John Herrick 
Elkanah Cook 
Jeffery Nees 
Philip Whelply 
Robert Cook 
Jeremiah Binckham 
Francis Sawwood 
James Finly 
Samuel Johnson 
Thomas Champlin 
John Mass 
Jeames Dowle 
Roelif Sherrer 
Johannes Coenraetkerl 
Benjamin Utter 
Patrick Quin 
Jedediah Wells 
Nathaniel Rennie 

Henry Lewis 

Att a Muster of a Company at Poghkeepsie in Dutchess County 
on Friday the Eleventh day of July One Thousand Seven Hundred 
and Fifty Five, Raised by Capt. Peter Vanderburgh in Dutchess 
County Wee Mathew Dubois and Louwerins Van Kleek Two of his 
Majesties Judges of the Court of Comon Pleas for said County and 
Nicholas De Lavergne and Bartholomew Noxon Two of his Majesties 
Justices of the peace for said County Doe Certifie that the Men whose 
names are above written amounting to Seventy Eight Affective men, 
appeared at said Muster in our presence, who are all Inlisted' in the 
Company to be the said Vanderburgh as Captain thereof, as by the 
Certificates taken before and produced by severall Justices of the 
peace for County may appear In Testimony whereof we have hereunto 
set our Hands the day & year above written. 

Matthew Duboys 
LouwEEENs Van Kleeck 
Nicholas De Laveegne 
Baetho. Noxon 



List op Each Opficee and Sotjldtek Inlisted in Cap't Petek Van- 




ils ) 

Peter Vanderburgh^ 
Joshua Champlin 
Zebulon Mead 
Peter Casley 
S. Ebenezer Merrick 
Daniel Lane 

f Jacob Brill 

! James Green 
Sargants ^ j^^^^^^^ p„Uey 

i John Lewis 
Drummor, Silas Mather 

James Tinley 

timothy Larkin 

James Weaks 

James Dowdel 

WiUiam Gonson 

Jeremiah bringham 

John moss 

Jeremiah Wells 

Daniel holdredg 

JefFiy Nase 

Joseph Reed 

Ebanezar owin 

Mikel Walter 

Halimass' Stealbark 

Elisha Haruey 

WiUiam Moore 

Stephen meed 

Kain McKinney 

Mikel Brown 

Flitcher Smith 

Hazakiah Kinney 

Richard Balis 

Nathaniel Rappel 
Deserded July 35 Day 
1755 and Carried of 
all his Cloaths 

Elkany Cook 

John herrick 

John Ryne 

John Gillit 

Eliga Currey 

James Carrel 

Stephen Hull 

Patrick Quin 

John Wheeler 

John Wood 

Wait Weeks 

John Franklin 

Simon Ousterhouse 

Increse Winn 

Philip Welsee 

Thomas Ingerson 

John Clemmans 

Joseph Steal 

George Bunday 

Thomas Champlin 

Simon Terbush 

Samuel Read 

Fransis Sawwood 

John Andrews (carpenter) 

Edward Dunfee 

Mike McDaniel 

John Roberts 

Thomas Green 

Ichabod Stockwell 
John Hendrick (spicer) 
Joseph Parrish 
William Mills 
James mory 
Henry Lewis 
Nathaniel Dunham 
Jacob Weauour 
Simeon broughling 
Elifelet Stephens 
Amos Bennett 
John maburey 
Nathaniel Tinney 
Chisher Wandle 
John Ha£Fey 
Roulf Sherred 
Johanis Coonrot Karel 
John Thompson 
Jonathan Linsey 
Richard Nichoson 
Robert Cook 
Ben j amine Tidd 
Nathaniel Lane 
Daniel Dauison 
John Smith 
Silas Bobbet 

1. Captain Tanderturgh died AuguBt 21, 1755. 



MusTEE Roll of a Company of Peovincials in ye Pay of ye Peov- 

iNCE OF New Yoek foe Dutchess County Commanded 

BY Joseph Ceane Esa'E (1758)^ 

Joseph Crane, Esq'r 

Richard Ray 
Philip Paddock 

Non Commission'd Officers 
Benjamen Higgins 

John Cannon 
Simon Calkins 
Jonathan Vickry 

John McCrerey 
Eleazer Baker 
Stephen Fenton 
Eliphalet Whefeler 
John Bennett 
Phineas Woodward 
John Frankland 
Samuel Cogswell 
James Pingry 
Thomas Inckly 
James Lovelace 
Charles Barsleys 
Andrew Cowley 
Michal Tenry 
George Clasen 
David Hodges 
George Dickenson 
Caleb HiU 
Gilbert Clap 
David Vickry 
Eneos Nicholson 
Asa Cummins 
Joshua Barnum 
Jacob Ellis 
Bennoraia Graj 
Daniel Townsend 
David Sturdyvent* 

John House 
Joseph Parish 
Nathaniel Green 

Nathaniel Wescoat 


William Allen 
WiUiam Earl* 
Rossel Frankland 
Mathew Standish* 
Abner Edie 
Zachariah Huntington 
Edward Popple 
Stephen Hull 
John Martin 
Samuel Blackman' 
Simon Scouten" 
John Willm Loudenburgh 
Samuel Brewster* 
Cornielus Fuller 
Joseph Barlow* 
Noah Jelett 
Joseph HoUester 
Joseph Philips 
Amos Allen 
Moses Allen 
Daniel Allen 
Jeddiah Carley 
Samuel Boynton 
John Ashton , 
Daniel Atwood 
Matthew fuller 
Ruben Rapeljea 

Bethual Baker 
John Gray 
William Calkins* 
Stephen March 
Ebenezer Gage 
Enoch Seers 
Rowland Rosall 
Azariah Parish 
Daniel Cash 
Abel Sherwood 
Thomas Cole 
Jezediah Frost 
John Perry 
John Franklin 
Jacob Leonard 
Henry Gray 
Thomas Evans* 
Benjamen Harringtoa 
Benjamen Shaw 
Isaac Harrington* 
John Barber 
John D. Pew 
Conrad Sarenbergh* 
Philip Pear 
Andrew Silvernail* 
Reuben Crosby* 

In the above Company of Provincials the birthplace given In the records Is Great 
Britain or Ireland, excepting the names followed by an asterisk (•) which Indicates native 
of Dutchess County. 

1. Colonial Archives Vol. LXXXV. p. 132. 



MxJSTEE Roll of the Men Rais'd in ye County of Dutchess and 
Pass'd foe Capt Peter Hareis's Company May ye 1 : 1760 

Captain Peter Harris 

Joseph Power 
Isaac Conclin 


Bartho'lo Hoogeboom 
Marcus Snyder 
Thimoty Hewmans 
Tobias Steenbergh 
Capt Peter Harris 
Peter Cole 
John Buys 
John Tompkins 
Samuel Matthews 
Asa Perkins 
Natha'U Washburn 
Myndert V.D. Bogert 
Isaac Parmetier 
Richard Memyon 
-John Van Denbogert 
Dannlel Moore 
Isaac German 
Elisah Ballard 
Moses Prindle 
John House 
Samuel Benedict 
Amos Turner 
Jeremiah Steanburgh 
Jeremiah Wood 
Benjamin PhUlips 
William Buys 
Henry Buys 
Peter Ostrander 
Joseph Lott 
John Wording 
John Stone 
Isaac Beazel 
Benjamin North 
Christopher Smith 
Solomon Seaman 


William Pangborn 
Jacob Ladew 
Nucomb Smith 
A'braham Vredinborgh 
John Murry 
Leonard Hunold 
Jacob Shever 
Robert Cane 
Martin Simon 
Major Pawling 
Stephen Crons 
Garritt Van Ness 
Jacob Mare 
Peter Freden Burgh 
Anthoney Turtr 
Benj: Freden Burgh 
Daniel Welts 
George EUiout 
John Ferguson 
WUliam Tompkins 
WiUhelmus Steenbergh 
Israel Chllson 
Henry Rundel Indian 
Zacharias Snyder 
John Lassen 
Martin bush 
Peter Johnson 
Gedion Turner 
Abra'm Swartwout 
Isaac Burnet 
William Corkeren 
John Dandey 
James Webb 
Abraham Burrows 
James Allsworth 
Elisiah Powel 

Timity Harris 

Samuel Hoges 

Abraham Van Amborgh 

Darmon Bartley 

John Benndigen 

George Nease 

Joseph Hegman 

John ' Hickey 

Tunis Cole 

Peter Simson 

Jacob Jones 

Isaac Wanson 

John Graham 

John Lake 

WiUiam Conaly 

John Lake Jur 

Peter Wasfall 

Comb Wood 

Andrew Myers 

John Vredingbourgh 

Cyrenivs Newcomb 

Fransis Mathitt 

Peter Van Nallen 

Peack DeWitt 

Peter Cammell 

Al'abartis Sickner 

James Hobs 

Peter Lowdlwick 

John Ostrander 

Jacob Boice 

William Shilly 

Mattaves Freden Burgh 

Peter Weaver 

Jacobus Keep 

Fielx Layster 

The above Contains one Captain two Lieutts : & one hundred & four 
privates Musterd by me Barthow : Le Roux Muster Mastr of Dutchess 




Capt John Van Ness His Mustek Roll, May 1760 

Capt John Vi 

in Ness Samuel 

Whelpley ) ^ . , 
Barber } ^leuts. 


Oliver Ecker'^ 

Simeon Barber Lieut 

John Sharp 

Moses Barber 

Samuel Wheeler 

Isaack Betherton 

Roswell Nettleton 

Philip Johnson 

Jacob Miller 

Leonard Farguson 

Teznis Cover 

Benjamin Streater 

John Daly 

Peter Buckle 

Abraham Johnson 

John Sharp Junr 

Elisha Blin 

Nicholas Luyk Junr 

John Joshling 

Samuel Richards 

Nicholas Cramer 

Daniel Fenny 

William Willeby 

Jacob Cline 

MikeU Bnrk 

James Hurd 

Henry Kiefer 

John Gray 

Caleb Reynolds 

Isaac Cole Jun'r 

Eli Runnels 

Charles McCarty 

^Nicholas Huygh 

John Richardson 

Michael Stilwel 

Michael Lush 

David Sturdiwint 

Jacob Miller 

Jacobus Ostrander 

Isaack Betherton Jun 

Benjamin Brownel 

Adam Ostrander 

John Paddock 

Enos Ferguson 

Philip Tuff 

Jacob Spaner Bergh 

Henny Joshling 

Benedick Frits 

Johannes Lones 

William Ferris 

Elija Buttles 

Jseph Cooe 

Solomon Kinery 

William Powell 

Robert Willess 

Ebenezer AUwater 

Domeny Digers 

John Williams 

John Wilman 

Miles Grissil 

Adam Wolferron 

Silvanus Willibus 

Hendrick Ostrander 

John Morris 

Samuel Moore 

Adam Slouter 

The above Contains one Captain two Lieut'ts and sixty five privates 
Mustered by me Bartho'w Le Roux Muster Mast'r of Dutchess County. 

A Muster Roll of the Men Rais'd in the County or Dutchess 

AND Pass'd Muster eob Capt Rich'd Rea's Company 

May ye 1 : 1760 

Captain Richard (Rea) 

John Cannon 
Samuel Terry 


Oliver Fox 
Jeramiah Parmer 
Tilton Eastman 
James Richards 
Joshua Hill 
Capt. Rich'd Rea 

Samuel Terry Lieut't 
Solomon Cole 
Joseph Flee 
Natha'U Earl 
Thimoty Pierce 
Benjamin Franklen 

George Bundy 
Joseph Odel 
Benjamin Beamus 
Daniel Allen 
Thomas Wilcoks 
Joshua Loveless 



Stephen Hull 
Ebenezar Balie 
David Cash 
Asa Cummings 
Jesse Fairchild 
Austin Wright 
Benjam'n Higgens 
Natha'Il Green 
Lamuel Hopkins 
David Vlckrey 
Joseph Robins 
Cumfort Loudinton 
Obadiah Chace 
James Lovelace 
Ephaiiam Jones 
Isaac Wllcocks 
Caleb Worden 
John Sunderling 
Simon Covel 
Samuel Spalding 
Elamuel Fuller 
John Dean 
James Shaw 
Elijah Hamlen 
Stephen Fenton 
Natha'U HoUester 

Plagley Sprague 
Mahn Daggett 
John Barber Junr 
Ebenezer Robertson 
William Day 
John Canndn Lieut't 
William Eastman 
Samuel Dalie 
Isaac Ter Busch Lieut't 
Joseph Beavans 
Josiah Hall 
James Covee 
Benjamin Bennett 
Daniel Parks 
Samuel CoKwell 
Ephraim Darling 
Ichabud Parmiter 
Zeth Covel 
Wmiam Stephens 
Phineas Woodward 
James McNeal 
Joseph Ashcraft 
Abr'm Hartwell 
Theodoras Crosbie 
George Guage 
John Frost 

Richard Murch 
John Roberts 
Abner Doughty 
Thomas Merrick 
Benjamin Hopkins 
James Cowen 
Asa Loudinton 
Isaac Craw 
Jacob Pepper 
Abner Goodspeed 
John House 
John Bennet 
Jacob Burges 
Samuel Fox 
Gideon Hollester 
Zephaniah Little 
Jeradiah Davis 
Jonathan Lawrence 
John Hlames 
James Ravel je 
Lazures Ellis 
Andrew Atwood 
Samuel Nelson 
John Nelson 
Samuel Dimmuck 
William Roe 

The above Contains one Captain two Lieut'ts and Ninety three pri- 
vates mustered by me Bartho'w LeRoux Muster Master for Dutchess. 

Muster Roll of Men Rais'd in the County op Dutchess and Pass'd 
FOB Capt. Jacobus Swabtwout's Company May ye 1st 1760 

Capt Jacobus Swartwout 

Nicho's Emanuel Gabriel I 

Shadrack Baker 
John Schouten 
Henry Wright 
Joshua Barker 
Anthony CofiSn 
Henry Gray 
Daniel Nettleton 
William Prichett 
Amos \llen 
William Clark 

Isaac T'r Bush 




Samuel Clark 
Benjamin Cummins 
Hans Jere Weatman 
Oliver Cromwell 
Solomon Schouten 
William Green 
Wm. Woodford 
Robt. Shearer 
James Plckket 
Stephen Bedford 

Philip Smith 
Thomas Frost 
Zebulon Hosier 
Ezekel Gee 
John Conet 
Benjamin Hedger 
Nath'U Brock 
Edward Rose 
Henry V. Heynen 
Gedion Fitshoudt 



Ruben Mentor Junr 
Ebenezar Burliegh 
John Jordan 
Adam Miller 
William Ingram 
Joseph Mesner 
WiUiam Branderkin 
William Lent 
Capt. Jacobus Swart- 

John Weys Indian 
Comelus Willsie 
William MeMunnser 
Jacob Penner 
Esekiah Brown 
John Holms 
Jerediah Grare 
Benjamin Dailef 
John Thurston 
John Smawling 
John Johnson 
Simeon Schouten 
Jacob Schouten 

George Hicks 
Joseph Hornett 
James Bennit 
Thos. Coffin 
Joseph Mclntoch 
James Draper 
Ebeneazer Cummins 
John Adam Wert 
James brooks 
Ephariam Bartley 
Haramanus House 
Henry Wiltsie 
Evert Valker 
Mingo Lango 
Thomas Meridet 
Peter Storm 
William Camble 
Patrick Mitchel 
Azariah Parish 
Daniel Mead 
Lewis Mead 
David Richards 
William More 
Joseph Tucker 

James Doudle 
Danel Calagohun 
John Bradshaw 
Herculus Stanley- 
Benjamin Darling Jun 
Dennis Christie 
Hans Jere Hoftgood 
Thomas Carskaden 
Benjamin Post 
John Ames 
Lieut't Gabriel Eman- 
uel & 
Nicholas Myer 
David Carlie 
Bzecial Spicer 
B»rnabus Chapman 
Mathew Strait 
John Lougy 
Ga;shem Jones 
Jefferey Nearce 
Timity Barke 
Elkenney Cooke 
James Grees 

The above Contains one Captain two Lieut'ts and Ninety Eight 
privates Mustered by me 

Bartho'w Le Roux 
Muster Mast'r for Dutchess County 

A Mttstee RoLii OF THE Men Raised and Pass'd in the County of 

Dutchess for Captain Isaac Tee Bush Company, 

21st June 1761 

Isaac Ter Bush Captain 

Tunis Corsa 1 

Samuel Whelpley f Lieutenants 

Nehemiah Smith 
Edward Coffin 
Abraham Eynman 
Andries Schouten 
Robert Shearer 
Henry Wright 
Jonas Parks 

Christopher Stevens 
Phenias Woodard 
Joseph Langdon 
Isaac Craw 
Matthew Wineter 
William Fergison 
Benjamin Hedger 

Joseph Sutten 
David Young 
Francis Miller 
Robert Cain 
Nicholas Wager 
James Mansfield 
James Louden 



William Lant 
Elijah Dowee 
Thomas Knap 
Samuel Richards 
James Dowdle 
Daniel Hogan 
Ebebneizer Allien 
Andrew Ross 
William Watson 
Adam Miller 
Hugh Gamble 
Benjamin Cahoon 
Thorn's Green 
Peter Osterout 
John Kennedy 
Jeremiah Ness 
John McKenney 
Peter Avery 
Volentine Earnest 

George Scutt 
Moses Gee 
Robert Wier 
William Delaway 
John Schouten 
John Langdon 
William Cummings 
William Barken 
David Hammans 
David Smith 
Elijah Crosby 
Henry Webber 
Abraham Walker 
Jacob Van Tassel 
Christopher Stevens 
De Owen Le Flower 
Matthew Felix 
Peter Ostrander 
David Cash 
Daniel Sheepherd 

EUis Vinson 
Daniel Willcocks 
Martin Dowee 
Elisha Pain 
George Anderson 
John Jackson 
Anthony Sheniew 
Loudawick Creeles 
Myer Earn 
Jonathan Woodard 
Andrew Myers 
Daniel Callahon 
Abraham Johnson 
Peter Miller 
Joseph Worden 
John Burke 
Laurance Schael 
Gabriel Menter 
Robert Menter 

The above being one Captain two Lieutenants and Seventy nine men 
where Mustered and approved off for Capt Isaac Ter Bush's Company 
in the County of Dutchess 

Geo'e: Brewerton jun'r Coll. 

While the militia of Dutchess were called on to render services dur- 
ing the Colonial Period, the county was not the scene of active military 
operations. During the French and English war (1744 to 1748) the 
colonists of these respective nations were involved in these hostilities. 
A letter from Col. Beekman to Colonial Governor George Clinton was 
laid before the Council May SO, 1746, relative to the raising of men 
in Dutchess. The Governor was advised by that body to engage two 
hundred men from this county and to recommend the Assembly to pro- 
vide ammunition pay and subsistence for them. Nothing more than a 
petty warfare, however, followed the arrangements for the reduction 
of Canada. The war was terminated by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle 
in 1748, and the disbandment of the provincial forces followed in Sep- 
tember of that year. 

But peace was of short continuance, a final struggle between France 
and England for colonial supremacy in America was inevitable. In 
this conflict, begun in 1755, and known as the French and Indian war. 


the military forces of Dutchess were again called into requisition, and 
continued in the service until the final overthrow of the power of 
France in Canada in 1760. 

The forts at Oswego were surrendered to a French force under Gen. 
Montcahn, August 14, 1756, and September 6th of the same year, 
Gov. Hardy directed the Colonels of the militia of Dutchess and Ulster 
counties to repair immediately with their regiments to Albany, and 
thence to co-operate with Lord Loudon at Lake George. This cam- 
paign served as a training school for many who were destined to take 
a prominent part in the struggle then impending for colonial inde- 

The so-called "Anti-Rent War," of 1766 which distressed the in- 
habitants of Dutchess and other counties in the Hudson Valley, and 
necessitated the presence of the British troops ^28th Regiment) at 
Poughkeepsie and Pawling in July of that year, may be appropriately 
introduced in this chapter. 

The source of this insurrection was the granting of large tracts of 
land at the beginning of the century to favored persons, so that actual 
settlers could not become owners but only tenants. Popular discon- 
tent was emphasized in the armed refusal of settlers to pay the rents 

William Pendergast, who hved about a mile south of the village of 
Pawling, on the farm now occupied by William H. Arnold, was the 
leader of the insurgents in this county. The assemblying of his fol- 
lowers on Quaker HiU was so formidable that the grenadiers at Pough- 
keepsie waited for reinforcements of two hundred troopers and two 
field pieces from New York before proceeding against him. After a 
skirmish Prendergast surrendered, and with several others, was brought 
a prisoner to Poughkeepsie to be tried for high treason. So great 
was local excitement that to forestall an attempt to rescue, he was 
speedily removed to New York. Two companies of the regiment re- 
mained in Poughkeepsie "to guard the prison and prevent further 
commotions until the prisoners are tried." 

Prendergast was returned to Poughkeepsie for trial which occurred 
the first fortnight in August. Although ably assisted in his defense 
by his wife (nee Mehitabel Wing) treason was proved, and the prisoner 
was convicted and sentenced to be hanged in six weeks. Then the ef- 
forts of his valiant wife became more determined. She obtained an 


audience with Gov. Moore, and returned about the first of September 
with a reprieve. Her arrival was timely, for a company of fifty 
mounted men had ridden across the county to rescue her husband from 
jail. She convinced them of the folly of their contemplated act, and 
turned to the task of procuring a pardon from the King. In a letter 
dated October 11, 1766, from Governor Moore to the Earl of Shel- 
burne, the pardon of Prendergast is recommended, and George HI 
granted it in December of the same year. 

Prendergast finally acquired title to his farm, as is shown by a deed 
now in possession of Thomas J. Arnold, bearing date of 1771, by which 
the land was conveyed to him by the heirs of Frederick Philipse. He 
later sold this property to Humphrey Slocum and removed to the 
western part of the State. His son James settled, with other Prender- 
gasts, near Chautauqua Lake, and became the founder of Jamestown, 
where his family, now extinct there, presented a library to the city. 




THE War of American Independence was an event of vast imo- 
ment, affecting the destines of all nations. The question de- 
cided by the conflict was this: Whether the English colonies 
in America, becoming sovereign, should govern t hemselves or be ruled 
as dependencies of a European Monarchy. The decisTon was rendered 
in favor of separation and independence. 

The immediate cause of the Revolution was the passage by Parlia- 
ment of a number of acts destructive of colonial liberty. England de- 
manded that the people of the Colonies should be taxed to defray, in 
part at least, the expenses of the French and Indian War, which had 
been concluded by the signing of the Treaty of Paris February 16, 
1763. To this end a tariff was imposed on teas imported by the Col- 
onists. This was followed in March of 1765 by the odious Stamp Act, 
which required, after the first day of November of the same year, that 
every note, bond, deed, mortgage, lease, license and legal document of 
whatever sort used in the colonies, be executed on paper bearing an 
English stamp. This paper, furnished by the British government, 
cost from three pence to six pounds according to the nature of the doc- 
ument. Every colonial pamphlet, almanac and newspaper was required 
to be printed on paper of the same sort for which the value of the 
stamps ranged from a half-penny to four pence. The news of this 
act was received in America with indignation, and the day it went into 
effect ten boxes of the stamped paper were seized by the people of New 
York and openly destroyed. The act was repealed March 18, 1766, 
and in June 1767 an act was passed imposing a duty on glass, paper, 
painters colors and teas, imported into the colonies. Various other acts 
of Parliament affecting more particularly the people of Massachus- 
setts, aggravated the antagonism toward the Mother country, and in 
the Colonial Congress assembled at Philadelphia September 1774, it 
was unanimously agreed to sustain Massachusetts in her conflict with 


a wicked ministry. The people of New York, however, were eminently 
conservative and hopeful of a peaceful solution of the pending con- 
troversy, though not less earnest in their convictions. That the in- 
habitants of Dutchess inclined toward a peaceful adjustment of colonial 
grievances is shown by the following extracts from resolutions adopted 
at a meeting, held in Poughkeepsie August 10th, 1774: "That letters 
of instruction be directed to the Members of the General Assembly for 
the County of Dutchess, desiring that at the next meeting of the Gen- 
eral Assembly for the Province of New York, they will lay before that 
honourable House the dangerous consequences flowing from several 
late Acts of the British Parliament imposing duties and taxes on the 
British Colonies in America, for the sole purpose of raising a revenue, 
and that they use their influence in the said House, and with the several 
branches of the Legislature, to lay before his Majesty an humble 
Petition and Remonstrance, setting forth the state of our several griev- 
ances, and praying his Royal interposition for a repeal of the said 

"That they ought, and are willing to bear and pay such part and 
proportion of the national expenses as their circumstances will admit 

"That like sentiments, adopted by the Legislature of other Colonies, 
will have a tendency to conciliate the affections of the Mother country 
and the colonies, upon which their mutual happiness, we conceive, 
principally depends." 

In March 1775, the "Committee of Sixty," composed of the inhabi- 
tants of the city and county of New York invited a meeting 'of dele- 
gates from the counties of the Province, to serve in Provincial Conven- 
tion to be held in New York City, April 20, 1775, for the purpose of 
choosing delegates to represent the colony in the Continental Congress. 

Dutchess County was represented in its deliberations by Egbert 
Benson, Morris Graham and Robert R. Livingston. The following 
delegates were appointed to represent the Province of New York in 
the Congress at Philadelphia May 10th, 1775 : John Alsop, Simon Boe- 
rum, George Chnton, James Duane, William Floyd, John Jay, Francis 
Lewis, Philip Livingston, Robert R. Livingston, Col. Lewis Morris, 
Col. Philip Schuyler, and Henry Wisner . 

The Convention adjourned April 22nd, and the day following New 
York learned of the battle of Lexington. The people of this province 


were then thoroughly aroused. The "Committee of Sixty" was in- 
creased to a "Committee of One Hundred," and April 29, 1775, "the 
freeman, freeholders and inhabitants of the city and county of New 
York," met and formulated "Articles of Association" sometimes called 
the "Revolutionary Pledge." A call was issued for a new Provincial 
Convention or Congress and in volume I of the Calendar of Revolution- 
ary Papers in the Secretary of State's Office appears the following, 
relative to Dutchess County : 

"At a county meeting in consequence of notifications for that pur- 
pose on the 16th of May, Dirck BrinckerhofF, Anthony Hoffman, Zep- 
haniah Piatt, Richard Montgomery, Ephraim Paine, Gilbert Living- 
ston and Jonathan Landon Esqurs., and Messrs. Gysbert Schenck, 
Melancthon Smith and Nathaniel Sackett were by a majority of voices 
Elected Deputies for the term of Six months to represent the county 
of Dutchess in the Provincial convention to be held at the city of New 
York on the 22nd instant." 

One of the first acts of the Provincial Congress, to which the above 
delegates were elected, was the endorsement of the "Articles of Asso- 
ciation" and copies of the documents were placed in the hands of com- 
mittees to circulate through the counties for signatures. The pri- 
mary purpose of this "Pledge" was to bring the people up to the point 
of associated effort, and had no direct reference to an appeal to arms 
and separation from the English government. The "Pledge" itself 
reads : 

"Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of America 
depend, under God, on the firm union of its inhabitants in a vigorous 
prosecution of the measures necessary for its safety, and convinced of 
the necessity of preventing anarchy and confusion which attend a dis- 
solution of the powers of government. We, the Freeman, Freeholders, 
and Inhabitants of Dutchess, being greatly alarmed at the avowed de- 
sign of the Ministry to raise a revenue in America, and shocked by the 
bloody scene now acting in Massachusetts Bay, do in the most solemn 
manner resolve never to become slaves, and do associate, under all the 
ties of religion, honor, and love to our country, to adopt and endeavor 
to carry into execution whatsoever measures may be recommended by 
the Continental Congress, or resolved upon by our Provincial Con- 
vention, for the purpose of preserving our constitution and of opposing 
the several arbitrary acts of the British Parliament, until a reconcilia- 



tion beween Great Britain and America, on constitutional principles 
(which we most ardently desire) can be obtained, and that we will in all 
things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting the pur- 
poses aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order and the 
safety of individuals and property." 

In Dutchess County there were 1820 signers, and 964 persons who 
refused to sign. Some qualified their signatures by certain restric- 
tions. Lists were recorded of those who signed and of those who re- 
fused to sign, and are preserved in the American Archives. They show 
a radical difference in the views even of members of the same family, 
and in some of the Precincts, almost an equal division in numbers. For 
convenient reference the lists of signers and non-signers are now intro- 
duced, arranged alphabetically: 

The signers to the "Articles of Association," June and July, 177S. 

Adams, Elisha 
Adams, Abraham 
Adams, Williams 
Adams, Abraham, Jr. 
Adams, Jonas 
Adams, Joseph 
AUen, James 
Allerton, Jonathan 
Alsworth, William 
Ailey, Thomas 
Armstrong, Solomon 
Atherton, Corns 
Atwater, Levi 
Atwater, John 

Backus, Joseph 
Barnet, John, Jr. 
Barnet, James 
Barker, James 
Barker, William 
Barnes, Henry 
Barnes, Jonah 
Barry, John 
Barry, Henry 
Barlow, Nathan 
BaAow, Moses 

Bartow, John 
Beadle, James 
Beard, Elibu, Jr. 
Bennet, John 
Benedict, Samuel 
Benedict, John 
Besse, Ellas 
Besse, Ephraim 
Betts, James 
Blaksly, Daniel 
Blust, William 
Bosse, Ebenezer 
Boyd, John 
Brace, Jared 
Brack, Jonathan 
Bramball, Edmund 
Brown, Benjamin 
Brown, David, 
Brown, Moses 
Brown, Zedekiah 
Brunson, John 
Bruster, David 
Brunson, John, Jr. 
Brush, Lemuel 
Brush, Richard 
Brush, William 

Bryan, Ezra 
Buck, Israel 
Buck, Zadock 
Buel, Grover, Jr. 
Bull, Grover 
Burton, Isaac, Jr. 
Burton, Isaac 
Burton, Eli 
Burton, Judah 

Carter, Ebenezer 
Cariow, Elisha 
Castle, Daniel 
Castle, Gideon 
Chamberlain, William 
Chamberlain, John 
Chamberlain, Colbe 
Chapman, James 
Charts, Ledyard J. 
Child, Increase 
Cleaveland Josiah 
Cleaveland, Ezra 
Cline, John 
Cook, Simeon 
Cook, Simeon, Jr. 
Cook, Jacob 

TU^i^ ^LLCnyyi^eA^ fkh^d.i% 



Cook, Nathaniel 
Cole, Barnabas 
Collin, David 
Collins, John 
Connor, John 
Cornwell, Thomas 
Cornwell, William 
Cornwell, Samuel 
Coy, John 
Crofoot, Benjamin 
Crosby, Enoch 
Crippin, Jabez 
Crippen, Benjamin 
Curry, John 

Daily, Elijah 
Davis, Squire 
Davison, Daniel 
Dakin, Caleb 
Darrow, Isaac 
DeLavergne, Joseph 
DeLavergne, Lewis 
DeLametter, John 
DeLamater, Isaac 
Delamater, Martin 
Delane, Benjamin 
Delano, Stephen 
Denton, John 
Denton, Benjamin, Jr. 
Denton, Joel 
Denny, John, Jr. 
Dickson, Gabriel 
Dickson, James 
Dickinson, Versal 
Dodge, Samuel 
Doty, Joseph 
Doty, Reuben 
Doty, David 
Doty, Reuben 
Douglass, John 
Drake, John 
Dunham, Nehemiah 
Dunham, Samuel 
Dunham, Seth 

Elliot, Jacob, James, Jr. 

Farr, Archibald 
Farr, John 
Finch, William 
Fish, Jonathan 
Ford, William 
Ford, John 
Ford, James 
Ford, Ephraim 
Fort, Asa 
Foster, Nathaniel 
Fouler, Benjamin 
Fowler, Joseph 
Freeman, John 
Freeman, Robert 
Freehart, Robert 
Freeman, Elijah 
French, Abraham 

Ganong, Thomas 
Gamsey, Daniel 
Gates, Nathan 
Gates, Gerardus 
Gates, Nathaniel 
Gillet, Abner 
Gillet, David 
Gillet, Gardner 
Gillet, Moses 
Gillet, Joseph 
GQlet, Barnabas 
Gilson, Eleazer 
Gray, Samuel 
Gray, Jeduthau 
Grey, Joseph 
Green, Timothy 

Handley, Sylvester 
Hammond, Jason 
Hall, William 
Harris, Moses, Jr. 
Harvey, Obed 
Harvey, Obed, Jr. 
Harvey, Daniel 
Hebbard, James 
Hebbard, Abel 

Hebard, Robert 
Hellsy, Simson 
Herrick, Rufus 
Herrick, Samuel 
Herrick, Nathan 
Herrick, Benjamin 
Herrick, Stephen 
Herrick, Stephen, Jr. 
Hinns, Ebenezer 
Hinns, Elijah 
Holmes, Elijah 
Holmes, Benjamin 
Holmes, Ichabod 
Holmes, Abner 
Holmes, John 
Holmes, Samuel 
Hollifer, Elisha 
Hollister, Benjamin 
Hopkins, Noah 
Hopkins, Roswell 
Howard, John 
Himt, William 
Hunter, Jonathan 
Hewson, Alexander 

Jarvls, Samuel 
Johnson, Robert 
Johnson, Samuel 
Johnson, Ezekiel 
Johnson, Paul 
Johns, Benjamin 
Jones, John 
Jones, Eben 
Judson, Samuel 

Kelly, Seth 
Ketcham, Joel 
King, Samuel, Jr. 
King, William 
King, Samuel 
Kinne, Jesse 
Klyn, Peter 
Knapp, Zadoc 
Knapp, William 

Lamb, Isaac 



Lamb, Thiel 
LaTiabe, Richard 
Larrabe, Ebenezer 
Latimore, Elisha 
Latimer, Ebenezer 
Lathrop, Walter 
Lawrence, Thomas 
Levitli Lot 
Lloyd, John 
Lockwood, Theoph 
Losd, Joshua 

McCoIlough, William 
McNeil, John 

Marks, Isaac 
Marsh, Josiah 
Marsh, Silas 
Mathews, Obadiah 
May, Daniel 
Mayhew, Levi 
Maxam, Benjamin 
Mead, Job 
Mead, King 
Mead, John 
Mead, Isaiah 
Mead, John 
Mead, James 
Mears, John 
Merchant, John 
Minns, Stephen 
Mitchell, William 
Morse, Peter 
Morey, Thomas 
Mordack, John 
Morton, Eleazer 
Mott, Abiah 
Monlton, William 
Mygatt, Thomas 

Nye, Sylvannus 

Osborne, John 
Osbum, Isaac 
Orton, Levi 

Paine, Ichabod 
Paine, Barnabas, Jr. 
Paine, Ichabod, Jr. 
Paine, Abraham 
Paine, Elihu 
Paine, Brinton 
Paine, Barnabas 
Payne, David 
Palmer, James 
Palmer, Samuel 
Palmer, Nathan 
Parks, Isaac 
Park, Ebenezer 
Patrick, Robert 
Penoyer, Joseph 
Penoyer, Amos 
Perlee, Edward 
Pike, Jonathan 
Pinney, Nathaniel 
Porter, Elijah 
Power, Joest 
Power, Jacob 
Purdy, Moumouth 
Putney, Thorn 

Randle, David 
Reed, Ezra 
Reed, Elijah 
Reed, James 
Reed, C^roham 
Reed, Simeon 
Reed, EliaMm, Jr. 
Reynolds, Stephen 
Reynolds, William 
Reynolds, Jacob 
Roe, Silas 
Roe, Elijah 
Rogers, Jehea 
Rogers, Ichabod, Jr. 
Row, Nicholas 
Rowe, James B. 
Rudd, Zebulon 
Rudd, Barzillai 
Rundel, Jared 
Rundel, David 

Sackett, Ezekiel 
Sackett, Jolui 
Sackett, John, Jr. 
Sage, Benjamin 
Sage, Daniel • 
Seymour, John 
Shabalier, Abner 
Shavilier, Elias 
Shavelean, Solomon 
Sherwood, Parrock 
Sherwood, Asahel 
Shepherd, Samuel, Jr. 
Shepherd, Daniel 
Shepherd, Jonathan 
Sheppherd, Israel 
Shirtliff, Lemuel 
Slason, Bower 
Slavebean, Peter 
Slocum, Abraham 
Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Elijah 
Smith, Jesse, Jr. 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, Elijah 
Smith, Piatt 
Smith, James, Jr. 
Sniter, Samuel 
Southworth, Samuel 
Somburgh, George 
Sornburgh, Frederick 
Spalding, Elnathan 
Spuer, Nathan 
Spuer, Jacob 
Stevens, Mathew 
Stephens, Andrew 
Stephens, Elkanah 
St. Johns, Ezra 
Swift, Nathaniel 
Swift, Samuel 
Scott, John 

Talcut, Joshua 
Thayer, John 
Thompson, Samuel 
Thompson, Sam'l 
Thomas, Thomas 



Thomas, Beriah 
Thurston, Ezra 
Thurston, John 
Thurston, Joel 
Tilson, Timothy 
Torner, John 
Trusde!, David 
Trowbridge, Seelye 
Tubbs, Adin 
Tyler, Shulel 

Vendeusen, Mathew 
Vaun, Benjamin 

Wanning, Thed 

Ways, Ebenezer 
Waters, Samuel 
Waters, David 
Washburn, Joel 
Warren, Stephen 
Webster, Daniel 
Webb, Josiah 
West, Samuel 
Welch, Thomas 
Wilk, Job 
Willeman, Weight 
Wilson, Reuben 
Wilson, Robert 
Wilson, Justus 
Wiltsie, Laurence 

Wilsey, William 
Winegar, Conrad 
Winegar, Garrett 
Winegar, Henry 
Winegar, Asahel 
Willett, GUbert 
Wood, BUjah 
Wood, Robert 
Wheeler, Seth 
Wheeler, Solomon 
Wheeler Noah 
Wyants, William, Jr. 

Young, William 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Barlow, Nathan 
Benson, Joseph 
Benson, John 
Briggs, Ellis 
Bump, Edward 

Dorman, Jacob 
Dunham, John 
Dunham, Samuel, Sr. 

Finch, Albert 

Gates, John 

Gates, Stephen 
Green, Joseph 

Hamilton, Richard 
Heart, Samuel 

Mays, Elisha 
Marchant, Abell 

Reed, Silas 
Roberts, William 
Row, Garret 

Sackett, Richard 
Seeton, Rufus 
Swift, Judah 
Swift, Seth 

Washburn, Daniel 
Williams, Joseph 
Winegar, Samuel 
Winegar, Henry 
WWtcomb, Simon 
Woodworth, Dier 

RoswELi, Hopkins, Chairman. 

Silas Marsh, 

Samuel King, Assistants. 


The signers to the "Articles of Association," July, 1775. 

Abbet, David Amey, Nuklus Barber, William 

Acker, Johannes v' Andrews, John Beam, John 

Adriance, Albert Arnold, John Beckwith, Matthew 

Alger, William B. Gently, William, Jr. 

Alger, Jonathan Baker, Thomas Bently, William 

Alley, EUas Bailey, Henry Bently, Taber 



Bently, John 
Bentiy, Tillinghest 
Birdsell, Henry 
Birdsell, Benjamin 
Bockus, Addom 
Bouler, Joseph 
Brewer, William 
Brown, Zephaniah 
Brown, David 
Brill, David 
Bull, Peter 
Bush, Judiath J. 
Bullock, Thomas 
Burcfa, Joshua 

Calton, Isaac 
Carman, Andrew 
Carman, Joseph 
Carman, Joshua 
Carman, Joshua, Jr. 
Cartwright, Peter 
Cary, Ebenezer 
Cary, Nathaniel 
Carr, Joseph 
Carr, Joseph 
Champlin, Joshua 
Champlin, Elisha 
Champlin, William 
Champlies, Joshua, Jr. 
Clark, William 
Clark, Thomas 
Clements, Tobias 
Cash, David 
Cash, Sylvanus 
Cockrane, Andrew 
Conger, John 
Coon, Mathew 
Cooper, Obadiah, Jr. 
Compter, John 
Cornell, Henry 
Cornell, Martin 
Cornell, Thomas 
Comwell, Samuel 
Crandel, Samuel 
Crandell, Amos 
Greedy, James M. 

Cronkkill, George 

Dakin, Woos 
Delong, Johannes 
Denne, Joseph 
Denne, Abraham 
Dennis, Jonathan 
Dennis, Isaac 
Doxie, Thomas 

Eagles, John 
Eastwood, James 
Edget, Joel 
Eldredge, Casy, Jr. 
Edwards, Salmay 
Esmond, Jacob 
Everett, Clear 
Ewery, Samuel 

Fish, Daniel 
Fish, John 
Fish, Pardon 
Flagler, Zachariah 
Force, Timothy 
Force, Solomon 
Force, Benjamin 
Forgason, Benjamin 
Forgason, Elijah 
Forgason, Elijah, Jr. 
Forgoson, Stephen 
Forguson, John 

/Gardner, Samuel 
' Green, Job 

Hall, Gideon 
HaU, WiUiam 
Hall, Benjamin 
Halloway, Joseph 
Harris, Peter 
Harris, Peter 
Harris, Myndert 
Heayelton, Charles 
Hegeman, John 
Hicks, John 
Hm, John 

Hopins, John 
Howard, Edward 
Hubbard, Ezekiel 
Huling, Walton 
HuUng, John 
Humphrey, William 
Humphrey, Wm., Jr. 
Humfrey, James 
Hutchins, Jacob, Jr. 
Hyatt, Abraham 

IngersoU, Josiah 

Jenkens, Judiah 
Jenkins, John 
Jenkins, Jonathan 
Jenkins, Jonathan, Jr„ 
Johnson, Stephen 

KeUey, WiUiam 
Kelley, John 
Kimmee, Digmus 
Koons, Nicholas 

Lamb, John 
Lain, Jacob 
Lawless, Joseph, Jr. 
Lain, Johannes 
Lawrence, Daniel 
Leavens, Peter 
Lester, Nehemiah 
Lewis, Samuel 
Ley, Thomas 
Losse, Francis 
Losse, George 
Losse, John 
Lossing, Johannes 

McClus, Peter 
McDowell, William 
McLees, James 
McNeal, William 

Markes, Aholyab 
Maynard, Cornelius 



Mackrill, Richard 
Melony, John 
Miller, Jacob 
M'CoUom, James 
Mill, Garret 
Moon, John 
Mowry, Joshua 
Mowery, Stephen 
Mosher, Abraham 

Nethaway, Thomas 
Newton, Charles 
Noxon, Benjamin 
Noxon, Peter 

Oakley, Jesse 
Oats, John 

Parker, Abel 
Parkes, "Whiten 
Parks, Jonathan 
Pamer, David 
Pearsall, Henry 
Piatt, Charles 
Pleas, Morris 
Potter, Nicholas 

Randall, Amos 
Reinsoner, John 
Reynolds, Joseph 
Reynolds, GrifBn 
Reynolds, Arnold 
Rogers, Ezekiel 
Rogers, Hezekiah 
Ross, Zebnlon 
Rogers, Nathaniel 
Rouse, Jacob 
Rush, Benjamin J. 

Adams, Edward 
Akerbry, John 
Atherton, Jonathan 

Ball, John 

Rush, Isaac J. 

Shear, Henry 
Shear, Peter 
Shear, Peter, Jr. 
Simpson, Abel 
Smith, Henry 
Smith, Ezekiel 
Smith, Nathaniel 
Smith, William 
Smith, Maurice 
Smith, John 
Smith, Seth 
Shear, Lewis 
Shear, WiUiam 
Shearman, Job 
Sol, Ebenezer 
Sol, Nathaniel 
Spargue, Seth 
Spencer, Benjamin 
Spencer, Jabez 
Spencer, Thomas 
Spencer, William 
Stevenson, Nathaniel 
Stafford, Rowland 
Storm Peter 
Storm, David 
Storm, David, Jr. 
Sweet, Benoni 
Sweet, John 
Sweet, Samuel 
Sweet, David 
Sweet, Theophilus 
Sweet, John, Jr. 
Sweet, Lodrick 
Sweet, George 
Sweet, Nathaniel 

Tabor, William 
Tanner, Job 
Tanner, James 
Taylor, Joseph 
Thorn, Gershom 
Tomson, Samuel 
Totten, GUbert 
Townsend, Stephen 
Townsend, Caleb 
Tredwell, Edward 
Tripp, Nial 

Uhl, Daniel 

Vail, Isaac 

Vail, Israel 

Van Wyck, Cornelius 

Vincent, Philip 

Vinton, John 

Vosburgh, James 

Wait, Christopher 
Weaver, John 
Weaver, Edward 
West, F. 
West, Jonathan 
Wells, James 
Whikmon, Henry 
Whitman, Samuel 
Wicks, Nathaniel 
Wiltse, James 
WUtse, France 
Wightman, John 
Wooley, John 

Yerrington, Isaac 
Youmans, Elial 
Young, Samuel 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Beadle, Daniel Brundage, Thomas 

Booker, William 
Bowman, Ichabod 
Brill, Jacob 
Brown, John 

BuU, Josiah, Jr. 
Burtice, James 
Burtis, Garret 
Burnit, John 



Buyce, Peter, Lieut. 
Buyce, Peter, Jr. 
Buyce, Abraham 
Byce, Abraham, Jr. 

Chatterton, Peter 
Cole, Myndert 
Collins, Hey, Lieut. 
Cornell, Richard 
Cornell, Richardus 
Crandle, Samuel 
Crandle, Samuel, Jr. 

Davis, Charles 
Dayton, Comberry 
Dearstine, John 
Dean, Stephen 
Deeyo, Peter 
Delong, Francis 
Delong, Arey. 
Dope, Peter 

Easterly, Martine 
Emory, Rowland 
Emory, Rowland 
Emigh, Yerry, Captain 
Emigh, Lawrence 
Emigh Philip 
Emigh, Nicholas (ison of 

of Philip) 
Emigh, Hendrick 
Emigh, Peter 

Ferris, Daniel 
Ferguson, Jacob 
Flagler, Philip 
Fish, Preserved, 
Fullmore, Jasper 

Gaslin. James 
Gidley, Henry 
Giles, William 
Gifford, William, Jr. 
Gifford, WilDam 
Golder, John 

Harris, William 

Harris, Joseph, Capt. 
Hasver, Jacob 
Haxstum, Jeremiah 
Hegeman, Cornelius 
Heliker, Richard 
Hoag, Nathan 
Hogoboom, Peter 
Horton, Ephraim 
Hunt, Steph., Ensign 
Hutchings, Thomas 
Hyatt, Nathan 

Johnson, Peter 

Kedney, Peter 
Kenyon, Benjamin 
Ketcham, Abijah 
Klyn, Hendrick 

Lake, Crapo 
Langdon, Thomas 
Lasey, Aaron 
Levins, Peter St. 
Leuderbeck, Jeremiah 
Lockwood, Stephen 
Lossing, Yerry 
Losee, Laurence 
Losee, Joseph 

McDonald, John 

Miller, Philip 
Miller, Johannes 
Moon, Robert 
Morey, Roger 
Mosher, Nicholas 
Moyer, Christopher 

Noxon, James 
Noxon, Barthol, Jr, 

Overhaiser, Causper 
Overaker, Martine 

Paley, Peter 
Palmer, Elias 
Pettet, James 

Pine, Amos 

Richmond, Sylvester 
Rossell, Peter 

Shear, Johannes 
Shearman, Michal 
Shapher, Frederick 
Simson, Peter 
Skidmore, Andrew 
Sleeves, William 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, John 
Stover, "Valentine 
Striker, James 
Stringham, Samuel 

Thomas, Charles 
Thorn, Gilbert 
Thorn, Jesse 
Thorn, Robert 
Thorn, Jonathan 
Tripp, Richard 
Tripp, Richard, Jr. 
Tripp, Israel 
Tripp, Smighting 
Titus, James 
Titus, Israel 

Valentine, Mathias 
Valey, Byndert 
Veal, Isaac 
Veily, Baultis 
Veily, Barnt, Ensign 
Vincent, Charles 
Vincent, Richard 
Vincent, Michael, Capt. 

Waterman, Oliver 
Way, Daniel 
Whipple, Samuel 
Wilkenson, John 
Woolf, Michel 
Woolf, William 
Wood, Bartholomew 
Worden, Ebenezer 
DiRCE G. BEiis'CKEttHorp, Chairman. 

Erected in 1731. Provincial Convention met liere in 
1776. Militarj' Prison during the Revolution. 




The signers 

Atwater, Stephen 
Atwater, Benjamin 
Atwater, James 
Atwood, Nathan 
Ashley, Alden 
Avery, Edward 
Avery, John 

Baker, Daniel 
Bartel, John 
Beach, Ebenezer 
Bishop, Ebenezer 
Bishop, Asa 
Bostwick, John 
Brown, John 
Brownell, Jeremiah 
Bulkley, David 
Bullock, Asa 
Bull, John 
Burnett, John 
Buttolph, John 

Calkin, Elijah 
Calkin, David 
Calkin, Moses 
Calkin, Seth 
Carter, Jared 
Carpenter, John 
Campbell, Christian 
Casey, John 
Case, Seth, Jr. 
Case, Ichabod 
Case, Seth 
Clapp, Gilbert 
Close, Jonathan 
Coan, Ebenezer 
Colpland, John 
Colvin, John 
Colver, Elisha 
Conger, Samuel 
Conger, Benjamin 
Cornall, Jesse 
Covel, James 

to the "Articles of Association," July, 1776. 

Flnke, Wilhelm 
Foster, Joseph 
Foster, Vinant 
Fuller, Cornelius 
Fulton, John 

Covey, Benjamin 
Crandell, Samuel 
Crandle, John 
Crandell, Joseph 
Crandell, John 
Crandell, Samuel, Jr. 
Crandell, Samuel 
Crandel, Benjamin 
Crary, Joseph 
Craw, Ebenezer, Jr. 
Crosby, Thomas 
Crosby, ThomaiSi Sr. 
Crosby, Benjamin 
Cuthbert, Benjamin 

Dakin, Simon 
Dakin, Joshua 
Darling, Aaron 
Delamater, Cornelius 
Delis, Claudius 
Denton, Samuel 
Denton, Richard 
Dolph, Jonathan 
Dolph, Moses 
Dusenberry, Gabriel 

Edsed, Edward 
Edget, Stephen 
Edget, George, Jr. 
Egelston, Samuel R. 
Eggelston, Benjamin 
Egelston, Samuel 
Enery, Robert 
Estes, Richard 

Far, John 
Ferris, Jesse 
Ferguson, Orra 
Field, Michaelmas 
Fish, Moses 
Fish, Seth 
Fish, David 
Finch, Caleb 

Gifford, Jeremiah 
Gifford, Simeon 
Gray, Richard 
Graham, Morris 
Graham, Augustine 
Graham, Charles 
Grenell, Jonathan 

Hartwell, Abraham 
Hartwell, Ebenezer 
Harvey, David 
Hamblin, Joshua 
Hamblin, Joshua, Jr. 
Hagen, William 
Hayes, John 
Hawley, Luther 
Hawley, Josiah 
Hamblin, David 
Head, George 
Head, John 
Hedding, James 
Hedding, Marcus 
Hibbard, John 
Hill, Thomas 
Hitt, James 
Hoff, John 
Holmes, Sheubel 
Holmes, John 
Hommel, Petrus 
Horton, Peleg 
Housdell, John 
How, Libbens 
How, Charles 
Husted, John 

Jackson, Abner 
Jackson, Joseph 



Jofanston, Archabel 
Jones, EphTaim, Jr. 

Ketchum, Hezekiah 
Ketchuin, Joseph 
Ketchum, Joseph, Jr. 
King, Ebenezer 
Knapp, Thomas 
Knickerbacker, Benj. 
Knickerbacker, John 
Knickerbacker, Benj., Jr. 
Knickerbacker, James 
Knickerbacker, Lawrence 
Knickerbacker, Peter 
Knickerbacker, Peter, Jr. 

Lamb, Isaac 
Lake, Elijah 
Latton, John 
Lawrence, David 
Lawrence, Jonathan 
Lawrence, Uriah 
Lesh, Jacob 
Lennon, John 
Leggat, Joseph 
Lewis, Jonathan 
Link, John 
Love, David 
Lothrop, Nathaniel 
Lot, Philip 
Louinbery, Nathan 
Louisber}'', Epanetus 

May, John 
Mansfield, "William 
Mapes, Jonathan 
Mead, Titus 
Mead, Jonathan 
Mead, Nathaniel 
Mead, Elisha 
Mead, Jahiel 
Merritt, Ebenezer 
Merritt, Thomas 
Merritt, Stephen 
Melham, John 
Miller, Samuel 

Morehouse, George 
Mott, Samuel 
Myer, Simeon J. 
More, Samuel 

McDaniel, Cornelius 
McMuUin, Alexander 

Neely, Samuel 
Nehr, Carel 
Newcomb, James 
Norton, Caleb 
Norton, Winthrop 

Orr, David 
Orr, John 
Orr, Hugh 
Orr, Matthew 
Orr, Robert 
Orr, William 
Ostrim, Barnard 
Owenell, Asahel 

Palmer, Joseph, Jr. 
Palmer, Daniel 
Palmetor, John 
Parks, Daniel 
Parks, William 
Peck, Joseph 
Perry, Seth 
Perry, Benjamin 
Perry, Josiah 
Perry, William H. C. 
Piatt, Eliphalep 
Porter, John 

Quick, Andrew 

Rawlee, Levi 
Ralston, Janus 
Randall, Joseph 
Rea, William 
Rea, Hugh 
Reed, Lemuel 
Reynolds, Joseph, Jr. 
Reynolds, Caleb 

Rice, Phineas, Jr. 
Rice, Phineas 
RUe, Ezekiel 
Robins, David 
Robins, William 
Robins, John 
Robinson, Wheaton 
Robertson, George 
Rouse, John 
Rouse, Casper 
Rogers, Isaac 
Rogers, Joseph 
Row, Samuel 
Row, Samuel L. 
Row, Bastain 
Row, John 
Row, Michael, Jr. 

Salisbury, Gideon 
Sarlsbuiy, Joseph 
Schermerhorn, John 
Schneyder, George 
Seeton, Reuel 
Seeton, Willard 
Seton, John 
Sherburne, Henry 
Shaw, Jeremiah 
Sharer, John 
Sliter, Godwin 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Isaac 
Smith, Peter 
Smith, Peter, Jr. 
Smith, William 
Smith, Philip 
Smith, William, Jr. 
Smith, Jonathan 
Simmonsi J. 
Simmons, Smith 
Sinunons, Ensley 
Snider, Adam 
Soaper, Timothy 
Soule, Daniel 
Soule, Benjamin 
Southard, Benjamin 
Spencer, Philip 



St. John, David 
Stickle, Andrus 
Stuart, John 
Stalker, Levi 
Stalker, Joseph 
Stalker, Comfort 
Stickles, Frederick 
Stephens, James 
Stewart, William 
Stuart, James 
Stevens, Adam 

Ter Bush, Benj'n 
Thompson, Israel 
Tovrasend, Thomas 
Trowbridge, Absalom 
Truesdall, Charles 
Truesdel, Stephen 

Vandusen, Peter 
Vanery, Anthoe 
Van Luven, Peter 
Viller, Cornelius 

Wadleigh, Theophilus 
Wells, Cornelius 
Weaver, Jacob 
Winans, Ira 
WUtse, Motsie 
Wilkes, John 
Wiltsie, John 
Winchell, James 
Winchell, Lemuel 
WincheU, James, Jr. 
Wilcox, Abner 
WUcox, Josiah 
Williams, John 

Williams, Lemuel 
Wood, Isaac 
Woodward, Caleb 
Wager, James 
WeUdien, Benoni 
Wilson, James 
Wilson, James, Jr. 
Wilson, John 
WUson, Robert 
Wilson, Daniel 
Winans, Isaac 
Winans, William 

Young, Isaac 
Young, Ebenezer 
Young, James 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Allen, Isaac 
Allen, Peter 
Austin, Oliver 
Aveiy, Amos 
Amos, Nemiah 

Backer, John 
Bassoin, Peter 
Bathridk, Jonathan 
Bathrick, WiUiam 
Bearry, John 
Bill, Casper 
Bous, John 
Bous, Peter 
Brown, Asa 
Brimstool, Jacob 
Brjan, James 
Buttolph, Daniel 

Clark, Cornelius 
Clum, Philip 
Clum, William 
Colbox, Andrew 

CoUson, Andrew 
Colony, Michael 
Couse, Hontise 
Couse, Jacob 
Couse, Peter 
CrandeU, Laban 
Ciilver, Elisha 

Destin, Frederick 
Davis, Elisha 
Davis, William 
Deuell, Jonathan 
Doucher, Jacob 
Drum, Jacob 
Drum, John, Jr. 
Drum, John 

Eastis, Philip 
Eavery, Richard 
Embury, Robert 
Emet, Valentine 

Feeler, Leenes 
Fendik, Dirck 

Ferguson, Elijah 
Ferguson, Jeremiah 
Fillips, John 
Frothingham, George 

Gray, Thomas 
Green, William 
GifFord, Obadiah 
Gri£Sn, Jonathan 

Hapeman, John 
H^rtuf, John 
Hawley, John 
Herrick, John G. 
Holsop, Gerret 
Honk, Andrus 
Hoffman, Hendrick 
Hom, Frederick 
Honk, John 
Houghtaling, John 
Houghtaling, Isaac 
Houghtaling, Jacob 
Hover, Jacob 



Keefer, Hendrick 
Kiefer, Yerre 
Kilmer, Simeon, St. 
Knapp, Peter 
Kresser, Marts 
Krister, John 

Lindsey, Darby- 
Link, John 
Loucks, Jacob 
Loiike, Jacob 

Mead, Daniel 
Melious, Jacob, Jr. 
Melious, William 
Melham, Coonrod 
Merrifield, WUliam 
Miner, George 
Mills, WiUiam 
Mott, Joseph 
Mortain, Greorge 
Miltmore, Jacob 

McAlpine, John 
McAlpine, Daniel 
McAlpine, Walter 
McConnely, Daniel 
Mcintosh, Lockland 
Mcintosh, Alexander 
Mcintosh, William 

Niles, Nathaniel 
North, Daniel 
North, Robert 

Ostrander, Abraham 

Philips, Zachariah 
Pitcher, Adam 
Pitcher, Peter 
Pitcher, John 
Pulver, Andrus 
Pulver, John 
Pulver, Wandel 

Rector, WiUiam 
■Row, Motice 
Row, Michel, Sr. 
Row, Hendrick 
Row, John P. 
Row, John 
Row, Nicholas 
Row, Jacob 
Row, Hendrick Yost 

Scouten, Abraham 
Shaw, Aaron 
Shauer, Honeyfelt 
Sheridan, John 
Shaver, Jacob 
Silvemail, Nicholas 
Simmons, Michael 
Smith, John 

Smith, Tice 
Smith, Michel 
Smith, Nicholas 
Smith, Hontice 
Smith, Hontice, Jr. 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Philip 
Stickle, John 
Stickle, Frederick 

Teal, Christopher 
Tiets, Henry 
Tiets, Zachariah 

Vanbramer, Jacob 
Van Kamp, John 
Vanleuvan, Benjamin 
Vanleuven, Isaac 

Weaver, John 
Weaver, Harvey 
Weaver, Peter 
Weaver,) Wanant 
White, John 
Wilbur, Benjamin 
Wilsey, Tice 
WUde, John 
Wildci Richard 
Winter, Matthew 

Younkhaus, Hendrick 

Charles Gbaham, 


George Morehouse, 
WiLUAM Stewart, 
J. SiHUOira, 
Nathaxiel Meau, 
Joseph Ketchum, 
Uriah Lawrence, 
Peter Kniceerbacker, 
JoHAirms Reiveitberoer, 
Daxiel Wilson, 
Hugh Orr, 

> Committee. 



The signers to the "Articles of Association," June and July, 177S. 

Ackerman, Geleyn 
Adams, Ephraim 
Anneley, William 
Ashford, Nathaniel 

Bailey, John, Jr. 
Baily, John, Jr. 
Banlay, Abraham 
Bartley, Simon 
Bartly, Isaiah 
Beckwith, Silvanus 
Benschoten, Jacob V. 
Berner, Hans 
Billings, Andrew 
Bliss, Henry 
Boyce, Gideon 
Bout, Thomas 
Briener, John 
Brooks, George 
Brisby, James 
Brisleen, James 
Burnett, Matthew 
Burnett, Thomas 
Burnett, William 
Bush, Hendrick 
Bush, Martin 
Bush, Christian 
Burwell, Zachariah 

Carmen, Caleb 
Carmen, Caleb, Jr. 
Chaucer, Alex. 
Cooper, Ezekiah 
Cooper, Ezekiel 
Conner, Dorthir, Jr. 
Conlding, Matthew 
Conkling, John 
Conklin, Nathaniel 
Corey, Samuel 
Cooke, Samuel 

Davis, Richard 

Davis, John 
Denburgh, Richard, V. 
Denburgh, Jacob V. 
Dodge, Samuel 
Dodge, Henry 
Dubois, Lewis 
Dubois, John 
Dubois, Nathaniel 
Dubois, Jeremiah 
Dubois, Matthew 
Dubois, Joel 
Duteher, David 

Elderkin, James 
ElUs, Henry 
Everitt, Richard 

Ferden, Abraham 
Ferris, Jacob 
Ferris, Omar 
Forman, William 
Fort, Abraham 
Fort, Joharmus 
Freer, John 
Freer, Jacobus 
Freer, Jacobus, Jr. 
Freer, Simon 
Freer, Elias 

Greatwaks, Sylvanus 
Grigs, Alexander 

Haire, Alexander 
Hannes, Tunis 
Hegeman, Henry 
Hemsted, Nathaniel 
Hendrickson, Stephen 
Hill, John C. 
Hoefman, Carel 
Hoff, Henry 
Hoffman, Robert 
Holmes, Thomas 
Horn, Peter 

Howell, Lemuel 

Jacockes, Thomas 
Jaycock, Francis 
Jaycock, Benjamin 
Johnson, Jonathan 
Johnson, John 
Jones, William 

KeUey, William 
Kelley, Jones 
Kidney, Johannes 
Kingsland, John C. 
Kip, Henry 
Kip, Benoni 
Kornine, Isaac Jr. 

Lansing, Peter, Andes 
Lawson, William D. 
Lawson, William Jr. 
Leroy, Simon 
Leroy, Simon, Jr. 
Lewis, James 
Lewis, Barent 
Livingston, Henry, Jr. 
Livingston, James 
Livingston, Henry 
Lossing, Peter 
Lossing, Simon W. 
Lossing, Lariline, Jr. 
Low, Peter 
Low, Peter, Jr. 
Low, Jacob 
Luckey, James 
Luckey, Samuel 

Maxfield, John 
Mott, John 
Moss, Joshua 
Mullin, Peter 

Noa, Robert 
Noble, Cornelius 



North, Robert 

Pells, Hendrick 
Pells, Hendrick, Jr. 
Pilgrit, John 
Pitt, Abraham 
Piatt, Zephaniah 
Ploegh, Wilhelmus 
Poole, Isaac 
Poole, Thomas 

Reed, Aaron 
Reed, John 
Read, £11 
Read, James 
Ringland, John C. 
Roach, Wmiam 
Roades, Jacobus 
Robinson, John 
Romyne, John 
Rowse, Thomas 

Sands, George 
Saunders, John 

Sawckes, William 
/Schenck, John, Jr. 
^chenck, Paul 
Schryrer, Jacob 
Seabury, John 
Seabury, John, Jr. 
Shanhan, George 
Sharp, Mathias 
Smith, Samuel 

Shedeker, Richard 
Storm, Ck)rus 
Swartwout, Johannes 
Swartwout, Bamadus 
Swartwout, Minnard 
Swartwout, John 
Swartwout, Abraham 
Symmonds, Edward 
Sypher, Lodovick 

Tappan, Peter 
Tappen, Tennis 
Tappen, John 
Terry, William 
Ter Bush, John 
Townsend, John 
Tray, Nathan 
Travis, Thomas 

Van Bunschten, E. V. 
Van Bunschoten, J. 
Van Bunschoten, E. 
Van Blercome, Henry 
Van Denbogart, M. 
Van Denbogart, PI. 
Van Den Bogart, Jac. 
Van Denburgh, S. 
Van Dewater, Peter 
Van Keuren, M. 
Van Keuren, Abraham 
Van Keureij, Mat., Jr. 
Van Kleeck, Myndert 
Van Kleeck, Jac. 
Van Kleeck, John 

Van Kleeck, Law 
Van Kleeck, Pieter 
Van Kleeck, P. B. 
Van Kleeck, L. J. 
Van Kleeck, J. L. 
Van Kleeck, John T. 
Van Kleeck, Leonard 
Van Vliet, Gerrit 
Van Voorhees, S. 
Van VUet, Frederick 
Van Vliet, Peter 
Valleau, Peter F. 
Vielie, Cornelius 
Van Wagenen, Garrit 

Waddel, Hobert 
Waterman, John 
Wattles, Andrew 
Warner, Richard 
Westervelt, Casperos 
Westervelt, C. R. 
Westervelt, C. B. 
Weeks, Andrew 
WaterveU, Albo 
Westervelt, Enyamen 
Westervelt, Cornelius 
WUlsie, Henry 
Willsie, John 
WUsey, William 
Winchester, Azariah 
Winens, James 

Yerry, Michael 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Ame, George 

Babcock, Nathaniel 
Badger, Ebinezer 
Baldwin, George 
Baldwin, Isaac 
Baldwin^ Isaac, Jr. 
Barnes, Henry 

Barnes, William 
Beyex, Henry 
Bogart, John V. D. 
Boman, John 
Byndirs, Myndert 

Chaddirdon, Joseph 
Chiirehell, Robert 

Coopman, John 
Crannell, B. 
Crud, Axistin 

De Graff, John 
Douglass, James 
Dubois, Jeremiah 
Dubois, Peter 




Emons, Eli 
Emons, John 
Emmott, William 

Ferdon, John 
Ferdon, Jacob 
Ferdon, Esguire 
Ferdon, Zachary 
Frair, Abraham 
Frair, Abraham, Jr. 
Frair, Simon, Jr. 
Freer, Thomas 

Hull, Samuel 
Himt, John 

Kelly, James 
Kidney, Jacobus 
Kidney, Myndert 
Kidney, Robert 
Kipp, Matthew 

Laroy, Peter 
Lassing, Isaac J. 

Lassing, William 
Lasting, James 
Lewis, Felix 
Lewis, Melancthon 
Low, John 
Low, WUliam 

Meddlarj Arie 
Miller, Hendrick 
Miller, John 
Morey, Jonathan 

Noxen, B. 
Noxon, Simon 

Olmstead, Aaron 

Palmitear, Francis 
Palmitear, John 
Pelts, Evert 
Pelts, Francis 
Pelts, Michel 
Pinckney, Ezekiel 
Pinckney, John 

Pinkney, Thomas 
Pinckney, Samuel 
Polmatier, Jacob 

Read, Eli 
Rutsen, Michael J. 

Steenburgh, Flenmiing 

Thompson, Elias 

Van Deburgh, John 
Van Deburgh, H. J, 
Van Deburgh, Peter 
Van Denburgh, H. 
Van Denburgh, H.,Jr, 
Van Kleeck, Baltus 
•Van Kleeck, Peter P. 
Veal, Nehemiah 

Wellding, Michael 
Williamson, Tunis 
Wood, James 

Yelverton, Gail 

The signers to the "Articles of Association," June and July, 1775. 

Adams, James 

Backer, Zacharias 
Backer, Petrus 
Backer, Jonnes 
Backer, Christeaun 
Balist, John 
Bates, Uriah 
Beam, William 
Beekman, Henry 
Bemiger, William 
Berniger, Conrad 
Bemiger, Isaac, Jr. 
Berniger, Jacob 
Bender, John 
Berrger, Herrick 
Benson, Egbert 
Banks, John 

Benner, Frederick 
Benner, Johannes 
Benner, Henrich 
Benner, Johannes 
Benner, Jacob 
Binestal, Nicholas 
Binestal, Philip, Jr. 
Blair, John 
Bogardus, Benjamin 
Bouastcal, Philip 
Bovardee, Everardus 
Bowan, Andrew 
Brown, Peter 
Bull, George 
Bull, Henry 
Bunscoten, S. V. 
Burger, Martines 
Burgess, Henry, Jr. 

Campbell, Alexander 
Carney, William 
Chember, Joshua 
Coel, Simon, Jr. 
Cole, Peter 
Cole, John 
Cole, Isaac 
Cole, Abraham 
Cooper, Ananias 
Cowles, John 

Deninarh, Christ 
Dennes, John 
Demond, Cornelius 
De Witt, Peter 
Dillman, William 
Douglass, James 
Duncan, Herman 



Blemendorph, Jacob 
Elmendorpfa, Jan 
Elmendorph, Corn^ 
ElmendoTuh, Samuel 
Ellsworth, Joseph 
Ensell, Lodowick 
Everett, James 

Fero, Christian 
Fisher, Jacob 
Fitch, Christopher 
Fradenburgfa, V. 
Freligh, Henry, Jr. 
Folant, Jacob 
Fuller, Philip 

Garrison, John 
Gay, Godfrey 
Gisselbergh, Henry 
Green, Samuel 
Gruber, Paul 
Greves, Thomas 

Haass, John 
Haberlan, Casper 
Haines, Samuel 
Hannule, Johannes 
Harrison, William 
Hebart, Joseph 
Hendrick, Godfrey 
Hermanse, Jacoc 
Hermanse, Andrias 
Hermanse, Peter 
Hermanse, Nicholas 
Hermanse, Jacob 
Hermanse, John 
Hermanse, Plulip 
Hermanse, Evart 
Hermanse, John 
Hermans, Reyer 
Heermanse, Helmes 
Hinneon, Elias 
Hoffman, Herman 
Hoffman, Zacharias 
Hoffman, Zacharias, Jr. 
Hoffman, Nicholas 

Hoffman, Peter 
Hoffman, Martine 
Hogan, Patt 
Huffman, John 
Humphry, Thomas 

Jones, Levi 

Kierstead, Hans 
Kipp, Isaac 
Kipp, Jacob J. 
Kip, Jacob 
Kip, Jacob A. 
Kip, Jacobus 
Kip, R. J. 
Kip, Abraham 
Klum, William 
Klum, Henry, Jr. 
Klum, John 
Knickerbocker, H. I. 
Kod, Simon 

Lawrence, Joseph 
Ledervyck, Peter 
L«scher, Coenradt 
Lewis, John 
Lewis, Thomas 
Lewis, Jacob 
Lewis, James 
Litmer, Henry 
Livey, Hendrick 
Livingston, P. G. 

McClure, William 
McFort, John 

Mardin, Goetlieb 
Mardin, Hendrick 
Martin, David 
Mares, John 
Mares, Isaac 
Maul, Jacob 
Meyer, Jeab 
Miller, Hendrick 
Miller, Christeaun 
Miller, Johannes 

MUler, Cornelius 
Michel, Andres 
Mitchell, John 
MUlham, Simon 
Millham, Jacob 
Millham, Laurence 
Mulford, Lemuel 
Mulford, David 
Mohr, Christian 
More, Jacob, Jr. 
Moore, John 
Moore, Philip J. 
Moul, Frederick 
Moul, Jacob Sen. 
Moon, Henderick 

Neer, Zach 

Ogden, Daniel 
Osterhoudt, C. 
Osterhoudt, Benjamin 
Ostrander, James 

Pawling, John 
Pitcher, William 
Pitcher, William, Jr. 
Pitcher, Wilhelmus 
Pitcher, Petrus 
Powell, Solomon 
Powell, William 

Radcliff, Peter 
Radcliff, William 
Reystorf, George 
Richter, Johannes 
Rogers, Joseph 
Rogers, John 
Root, Zacharias 
Rydders, Everhart 

Sater, John 
Schermerhorn, Reyer 
Schermerhorn, Jacob 
Schermerhorn, C. 
Schermerhorn, John 



Schneyd, Christoff 
Schatzel, Michael 
Schultzs, William 
Schoot, Simon, Jr. 
Schoot, William, Jr. 
Scoot, Peter 
Scoot, Jonathan 
Scott, Abraham 
Scriver, Jacob N. 
Scutt, Johannes 
Sears, Stephen 
Sharp, George 
Sheldon, George 
Sheffel, Michael 
Shop, Henry 
Shopf, Peter 
Shiiltz, Jacob 
Sickner, Albartus 
Sickner, Jacob 
Sickner, Jacob, Jr. 
Simon, Andrew 
Skepmus, William 
Slaats, Philip 
Smith, Wilhelmus 
Smith, Johannes 
Sole, Simon C. 
Staats, John 

Staats, Peter 
Stetling, George 
Stickle, Nicholas 
Stickle, Nicholas, Jr. 
Swart, Cornelius 

TeU, John 
Teter, Hendrick 
Ten Broeck, Petrus 
Thomas, Jacob 
Traver, Peter 
Tremper, Jacob 
Tremper, John 
Troophage, William 
Tuttle, WiUiam 
Turck, Johannes 

Van Fradenburgh, P. 
Van Keuron, Johns 
Van Keuron, Tobias 
Van Nauker, Peter 
Van Ness, John 
Van Ness, David 
Van Steenburgh, B. 
Van Vredenburgh, B. 
Van Vredenburgh, W. 
Vhoevanburgb, R. 
Vosburgh, Evart 

Vosburg, Jeab 

Waldron, WiUiam 
Wagenen, Barent V. 
Weaver, John, Jr. 
Weir, Frederick 
Wenneberger, C. 
Westfall, Abraham 
Wood, Johannes P. V. 
Walwork, Isaac 
Waterman, Henry, Jr. 
Waterman, Jeab 
Wagner, Evert V. 
Wagener, Art. V. 
Waldom, William 
Waldorn, Stoffle 
Waldorph, H., Jr. 
Weaver, Christopher 
Westfall, Simon 
Westfall, Peter, Jr. 
Whitbeck, Harmen 
Wheeler, Edward 
Whiteman, Zacharias 
White, John, Jr. 
Williams, John 

Younck, Joseph 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Allemten, John 
AUemten, John F. 
Anderson, George 
Asher, Adam 
Asher, John 

Bander, John, Jr. 
Banmias, Coenradt 
Bargh, Christian 
Bargh, Christian, Jr. 
Barker, Johannes 
Barker, Martner 
Barker, Laurence 
Bennet, George 

Boutcher, Tunis 
Boutcher, Casper 
Bruce, Michael 
Bruce, Christian 
Brown, John 
Briant, Thomas 
Burgh, Adam 
Burger, Stephanus 
Bunchoten, Egbert 
Bunchoten, Harmanus 

CarneU, John 
Chafer, Jacob 
Cole, Jacob 

Cole, John J. . 
Cram, Petrus 
Cramer, Zacharias 
Cramer, Johannes 

Dedrick, Gerrit 
Dederlck, Christian 
Dericks, John 
Doom, Zacharias 
Doughty, Timothy 

Ecker, Adam 
Ecker, Peter 
Ecker, Johannes 



Ecker, Adam, Juiy 
Ecker, Hendk. Jr. 
Elen, Jacob 
Elkenbergh, Peter 
Elshaver, Lodowick 
Evans, Jacob 

Fero, Petnis 
Fradenburgh, Peter 
Fraver, Johannes 
Freligh, Peter 
Freligh, Stephanus 
Freligh, Peter 
Frusam, Peter 
Fuller, Corns., Jr. 
Fuller, William 
Fynhout, Cornelius 

Hallick, Zebulon 
Hallock, John 
Heermans, Hendrick 
Hendericks, Joseph, Jr. 
Holmes, John 
Hoffman, Juery 
Hoffman, Nicholas 

Kelder, Jacob 
Kattyman, John 
Kip, Jacobus, Jr. 
Kip, Jacob S. 
Kip, Jacobus 
Kip, John 
Kip, John B. 
Kip, Abraham 
Kip, Peter 
Kipp, Arent 
Kiselbargh, Jacob 

Lament, George 
Landen, Hugh 
Leister, Mordecai 
Lewis, Gradus 
Lewis, Henry 
Livingston, Phil. S. 
Loune, Philip 
Loune, Bashan 

Loune, Anderis 
Loune, Jacob 
town, David 
Lown, Johannes, Jr. 
Lown, Jacob 
Luych, Andris 

Mackay, William 
Marguet, John 
Marguet, George 
Meyer, Hendrick 
Miller, Jacob 
Miller, John G. 

Neer, Jose 
Nehis, Francis 
Nehis, Charles 
Nehis, Francis, Jr. 
Nile, Peter 

Pawling, Henry 
Pelts, Hendrick 
Pihek, Philip 
Pinek, John 
Pinek, Philip, Jr. 
Polver, Conradt 
Presses, Peter 
Prongh, Peter 
Prough, Powlis 
Puis, Michael 
Puis, David 
Puis, Christuffal 
Puis, Daniel 
Puis, George 
Puis, Michael 

Richart, Henry 
Richart, Dowie 
Richart, PhUip 
Richart, Johannes 
Righpenbergh, John 
Righpenbergh, Petrus 
Ring, Christopher 
Ring, George 
Ring, Johannes 
Ring, David 

Rysdorf, Johannes 
Rysdorf, Petrus 
Rysdorf, Laurence 

Sager, Johannes 
Schryver, Peter, Esq. 
Schryver, Hendk. A. 
Schryver, Marthen 
Schryver, Marthynes 
Schryver, John 
Schryver, David 
Schever, Joest 
Schever, Frederick 
Schever, Henry 
Scriver, Peter 
Seeman, Jeremiah, Jr. 
Seeman, Michael 
Seeman, Abraham 
Seeman, Jacob 
Seeman, John 
Seeman, Jacob, Jr. 
Seeman, David, Jr. 
Shook, Hendrick 
Shook, Christian 
Shook, Cobus 
Shook, George 
Shomaker, Jacob 
Shaver, David 
Shever, Adam 
Shults, Christian 
Shults, John 
Shufelt, Jury A. 
Shewfelt, Laurence 
Sickner, John 
Shewfelt, Petrus 
Shewfelt, Adam 
Slays, Frederick 
Smith, Jacob 
Streght, Lodowick 
Stover, George 
Strant, Anthony 
Stienburgh, Benj., Jr. 
Steenburgh, John V. 

Ted, Martha 
Teel, Laurence, Jr. 



Tennis, John 
Threecarter, Martin 
Tibbie, Adam 
Tibbie, Jacob 
Tile, John 
Traver, Philip 
Traver, Bastian 
Traver, Peter 
Traver, John 
Traver, John 
Traver, Peter H. 
Traver, John H. 
Traver, Frederick 
Traver, Jacob 

Van Alen, Peter 
Van Benthysen, B. 
Van Benthuysen, P. Sr. 
Van Benthuysen, J. 

Van Benschoten, T. 
Van Benschoten, E. 
Van E'sten, Jacob 
Van Esten, Johan, Jr. 
Van Etter, Matthew 
Van Eter, Cobus 
Van Etter, Isaac 
Van Etten, Benjamin 
Van Etten, Jacobus B. 
Van Etten, Jacobus 
Van Etten, Jacobus J, 
Van Etten, Abraham 
Van Etten, Benj., Jrj 
Van Etten, John 
Van Etten, Jacob 
Van Wagoner, Johan , 
Van Wagoner, Barent 
Vradenburgh, B. V. 
Vradenburgh, Jacobus 

Vradenburgh, Jacs., Jr. 

Wallace, William 
Wallace, Henry 
Waldron, William 
Wagor, Bashan 
Wagor, Powlis 
Wederwaks, Henry 
Wederwacks, Abraham 
Wels, John J. 
Wels, Benjamin 
Westfall, Benjamin 
Westfall, Peter 
Witterwax, Bastian 

Yager, Jacob 

Zipperley, Hans 

Egbert Bexsox, Chairman. 

The signers to the "Articles of Association," June and July, 1775. 

Ackerman, John 
Adriance, Isaac 
Adriance, Ham J. 
Adriance, John 
Adriance, George 
Adriance, Cornelius 
Akerly, Moses 
Anning, James 
Anning, Daniel 
Appleye, Coewradd 
Ardem, William 
Atwater, Benjamin 
Avery, Richard 

Barnes, James 
Barry, John 
Barber, Moses 
Balding, Jacob 
Bedell, Moses 
Bedell, Jease 
Belding, Joseph 

Bailey, Nathan 
Baker, Jesse 
Baker, William 
Bailey, Nathan, Jr. 
Baker, John 
Barker, William 
Bates, Stephen 
Backer, Jacob 
BedeU, Jeremiah 
Bennitt, John 
Bennitt, David 
Bell, Henry 
Bishop, Joshua 
Bise, Simon 
Boss, Zachariah 
Beourem, Hendrick 
Bogert, Adriance 
Boss, Johannes 
Bogart, Peter 
Bogardus, John 
Bogardus, Peter, Jr. 

Bennaway, Garret 
Bloom, George 
Bloodgood, John 
Brower, Nicholas, Jr. 
Brewer, Charles 
Brower, Adolphus 
Brower, Jacob 
Brinckerhoff, Johannes 
Briggs, Caleb 
Brinckerhoff, Dirck 
Brett, Theo. 
Brinckerhoff, John 
Branckerhoff, D. G. 
Brinckerhoff, Abm. 
Brinckerhoff, J. A. 
Brinckerhoff, J. G. 
Brinckerhoff, George 
Brinckerhoff, Stephen 
Brinckerhoff, Jacob 
Brinckerhoff, G. J. 
Brinckerhoff, Corns. 



Brower, David 
Brower, Cornelius 
Brown, Aaron 
Brown, James 
Brett, Robert 
Brown, Aaron, Jr. 
Brock, William 
Brocks, William, Jr, 
Bush, John, Jr. 
Bump, George 
Bump, Thomas 
Bump, Thomas, Jr. 
Bump, George 
Buys, Henry 
Buys, Jacob, Jr. 
Burhanse, Henry 
Bloom, George 
Bums, Nathan 

Cauniff, Johannes 
Canfield, Daniel 
Carley, Albert 
Carpenter, Henry 
Cease, Abraham 
Churchill, Edward 
Chase, Seth 
Climip, Peter 
Clump, Peter, Jr. 
Clark, Ebenezer 
Cospman, Jacob 
ComweU, Clement 
Cornell, Caleb 
Cornell, Jesse 
Conklin, Lawrence 
Conklin, Elias 
Conner, Hugh 
Cooper, James 
Cooper, John 
Cooper, John, Jr. 
Cooper, Obadiah 
Cooper, Myndert 
Coopeo, O. W. 
Cooper, O. J. 
Cooper, Myndert, Jr. 
Co£Bn, John 
Comfort, Richard 

Cole, Jacob 
Cole, Isaac 
Culver, James 
Culver, Dennis 
Culver, James, Jr. 
Culbert, John 
Cushman, WiUiam 
Cronckheit, Abraham 

Dates, Adam 
Darlon, John 
Davison, James 
Davis, John 
David, Daniel 
Du Bois, Jacob, Jr. 
Du Bois, Tunis 
Deets, Peter 
Depung, Peter 
Devoe, John 
De Graef, Jacobus 
De Groff, Jacobus 
De Groff, Jacobus, Jr. 
De GrofF, Moses 
De Grout, John 
De Foreest, Abm. 
De Witt, Johanns, Jr. 
De Witt, Abraham 
Dewitt, Johanns 
D'oxey, Stephen 
Du Bois, Elesa 
Du Bois, Tunis, Jr. 
Duncan, James 
Dutcher, David 
Dutcher, Barent 
Duryee, Abraham 

Earls, WiUiam 
Ellsworth, George 
Elsworth, Charles 
Emans, Jacobus 
Emmitt, Elihu 

Fairchild, Nathaniel 
Fitzmonns, Peter 
Fowler, Joseph 
Fowler, Austin 

Fowler, Austin, Jr. 
Fowler, William 

Gabriel, N. E. 
Gershom, Martine 
Godwin, Henry 
Golph, Moses 
Gosline, Samuel 
Gray, John, Jr. 
Gray, Abraham 
Graham, Dimcan 
Green, James 
Green, James, Jr. 
GriflSn, Jacob 
GrifFen, Joseph 
Griffin, Richard 
Griffin, Cornelius 
Griffin, William , 
Griffin, Joshua 
Griffin, John 
Griffin, Isaac 
Gulnack, Caustine 

Halstead, Josiah 
Hardenburgh, Hendk. 
Hardenburgh, Dirck 
Hardenburgh, Garret 
Haines, Henry 
Haight, Jonathan 
Haskin, William 
Hegeman, Isaac 
Hegeman, Francis 
Hegerman, Dirck 
Heyer, Walter 
HefF, Lawrence 
Hevan, Godfrey 
Hicks, Joshua 
Hill, Andrew 
Higby, Hemming 
Horton, Jacob 
Horton, Joseph 
Horton, Peter 
Horton, Mathias 
Howard, James 
Horton, David 
Holmes, WiUiam 



Holmes, Isaac 
Hoffman, Jurrie 
Hoffman, Michael 
Houghteling, J. 
Hogelandt, William 
Hogland, Dei-iah 
Hogeboom, Barthol 
Hulst, Peter 
Hutchins, John 
Hutchins, Isaac 
Hutchins, Jacob 

Innes, James 

Jackson, Richard 
Jewell, John 
Jewell, Isaac 
Jewell, Isaac, Jr. 
Jewell, John, Jr. 
Jewell, Richard 
Jewdl, George 
Johnson, Daniel 
Johnson, Peter, Jr. 
Johnson, John 
Johnson, Thomas 
Jones, Jeremiah 

Killboume, James 
King, Richard 
King, Jacob 
KnifBn, Israel 
Kniffln, Daniel 
Kniffin, Jnoathan 
Kip, John 

Langdon, John 
Langdon, Jonathan 
Lane, William 
Lane, William, Jr. 
Lane, Jacob 
Lane, Gilbert 
Ladn, Abraham 
Laughin, Hugh 
Lawrence, A. J. 
Lawrence, John 
Lawrence, Lawrence 

Lee, Joseph 
Lent, Abraham A. 
Lent, Peter 
Leroy, Francis 
Leroy, John 
Leroy, John, Jr. 
Leroy, Simon 
Lewis, Thomas 
Leyster, John 
Losee, Abm. L. 
Losee, John L. 
Lounsberry, Nathan 
Lyons, David 

Mabie, Tobias 
Marten, Henry 
Martin, Jeremiah, Jr. 
Main, Sabure 
May, Francis, Jr. 
Mayer, John 
Maynema, John 
Mead, Ezra 
Mead, Jeremiah 
Meyer, Peter 
Miller, James 
Miller, James, Jr. 
Moody, Walter, Jr. 
Morris, Harvey M. 
Morrell, Abraham 
Monfort, Peter 
Monfort, Peter JJ 
Monfort, Deminicus 
Monstress, Peter 
Mount, Timothy 
Moury, David 
Munfort, Elbert 

McBride, John 
McCord, Joseph 
McCutchin, Robert 
McKeeby, Edward 
McSheeby, Dennis 

Nan Voorhis, Jerome 
Nettlaton, Amos 
Niffer, Jacob 

Nichkilson, Robert 
Noorstrant, Peter 
Noorstrant, John 

Ostrander, Corns 
Ostrander, Thomas 
Ostrom, John 
Ostrom, Andrew 
Osboi-ne, Cornelius 
Osborne, Stephen 
Osborne, Richard 
Osburn, James 
Odgen, Joseph 
Outwater, Peter 
Outwater, Daniel 

farks, John 
Parker, Joseph 
Patterson, Alijah 
Pellet, David 
Pelts, Henry 
Pendy, Stephen 
Piatt, Eliphelat 
Pine, Philip 
Pine, Silvinus 
Pine, Silvinus, Jr. 
Philip, John 
Phillips, Ralf 
Phillips, John, Jr. 
Pinkney, Thomas 
Pudney, Thome 
Pudney, Francis 
Pudney, John 
PuUick, John 
Purdy, Jesse 
Polmetier, Peter 
PiiUick, John, Jr. 

Ranny, Jeremia 
Raun, Christopher 
Rathbun, Andrew 
Renvells, Andrew 
Reyner, Daniel 
Reynolds, James 
Reynolds, James, Jr. 
Roberts, Samuel 



Robinson, Peter 
Rosekrans, Frederick 
Rosekrans, James 
Rosekrans, Henry 
Rosekrans, Benjamin 
RoseKrans, John 
RoseKrans, John, Jr. 
Roe, Benjamin 
Rosekrans, H., Jr. 
Rogers, Robert 
Rogers, Flatt 
Runnels, John 
Rmmels, John, Jr. 
Rynden, James 
Rynden, Herman 

Saikryder, Timothy 
Saikryder, Moses 
Saikryder, Solomon 
■Schenck, Abraham 
Schenck, Martin 
Schendc, Roelef 
Schoonhore, Peter 
Scenck, Daniel 
■Schenck, Henry 
Schultz, Christopher, Jr. 
Schnltz, Christopher 
Schultz, Abraham 
Scouten, John 
Scouten, J. (son of Jerry) 
Scouten, William, Jr. 
Scouten, Simon S. 
Scutt, Frederick 
Sebring, Cornelius 
-Sebring, Isaac 
■Sebring, Cornelius, Jr. 
Sherburne, Henry 
Shaw, Daniel 
Shaw, Moses 
Shear, Abraham 
Sharrie, Johannes 
Simonton, Thomas 
Shute, Aaron 
■Sleght, Abraham 
ISleghV John H. 
Sleght, Jacobus 

Smith, Joshua 
Smith, Samson 
Smith, John 
Smith, Cornelius 
Smith, Isaac 
Smith, Martin 
Snyder, Peter 
Snider, Isaac 
Somes, Nathan 
Somes, Samuel 
Soaper, Timothy 
Somerdike, William 
Southard, Isaac 
Southard, Jonas 
Southard, John 
Southard, Zebulon 
Stanton, William 
Stienbergh, Peter 
Storm, Isaac 
Storm, Thomas 
Storm, Gores 
Storm, Garret 
Swartwout, Jacob 
Swartwout, Samuel 
Swartwout, John 
Swartwout, Jacob 
Swartwout, William, Jr. 
Swartwout, Cornelius 
Swartwout, Dalf 
Swartwout, James 
Swartwout, Jacs. 
Snediker, James 
Swart, Evart T. 
Skeet, Tunis 

Tappen, John 
Talmagee, Jonathan 
Talman, Timothy 
Ter Boos, Luke 
Ter Boss, Daniel 
Ter Boss, Isaac 
Ter Boss, Abraham 
Ter Bush, John 
Ter Bush, Peter 
Ter Bush, Isaac H. 
Ter Bush, Simon 

Ter Bush, John, Jr. 
Ter Bush, C. 
Terum, Albert 
Terry, Jonathan 
Teatsort, William 
Thaiker, Stephen 
Thurston, James 
Tirhum, John 
Tirhum, Daniel 
Tisdale, William 
Tood, Robert 
Tooten, Joseph 
Todd, Samuel 
Turner, Alexander 

Van Amburgh, Abm. 
Van Amburgh, A. H. 
Van Benschoten, L. E. 
Van Benschoten, M. 
Van Benschoten, J. 
Van Benschoten, P. 
Van Benschoten, T. 
Van Bunschoten, J. 
Van Bunschoten, E. E. 
Van Deursen, Peter 
Van Dewater, Peter 
Van Dewater, Francis 
Van Dewater, James 
Van Devort, P., Jr. 
Van Devoort, Jacob 
Vandevoort, John 
Van Kleek, B. J. 
Van Kleek, Peter, Jr. 
Van Kleek, Baltus 
Van Kleek, Barent 
Van Kleek, Sevaris 
Van Keuren, Charreik 
Van Voorhis, J., Jr. 
Van Voorhis, Henry 
Van Voorhis, Jacob 
Van Voorhis, Stephen 
Van Voorhis, Zach., Jr. 
Van Voorhis, Daniel 
Van Tyne, Abram 
Van Voorhees, Z. 
Van Voorhis, Abm. 



Van Voorhls, J., Jr. 
Van TjTie, Abm. 
Van Wyck, Theods. 
Van Wyck, Richard 
Van Wyck, William 
Van Wyck, T., Jr. 
Van Wyck, T., Jr. 
Van Wyck, Abram 
Van Wyck, Isaac 
Van Tyne, WiUiam 
Van Werkeren, George 
Van Wackere, Abm. 
Van Hyning, Andrew 
Van Tasel, Jacob 
Van Sulen, John 
Ver Velon, Gideon 
Var Velen, Jeremiah 

Ver Valin, John 
Vanelin, Moses 
Verrie, Cornelius 
Vlaikren, Merinus 
Vermillie, John 
Veal, Isaac 

Ward, William 
Ward, Daniel 
Walters, John 
Watts, John 
Way, Gideon 
Way, Thomas 
Way, Francis 
Weeks, James 
Westervelt, Abm. 
Westervelt, Jost. 

Wiltse, Johannes 
Wiltse, Martin 
Wiltse, Cornelius 
Wiltsey, Henry T. 
Wilsen, Teunis 
Wildee, James 
Wilde, Isaiah 
Winslow, William 
Wright, John 
Wright, Daniel G., Jr. 
Wright, William 
Wright, Thomas 
Wright, Daniel 

Yeumans, Thomas 
yurkse, John 

A list of the persons who refused to sign. 

Capt. Heganan'g Co, 
Baker, William 
Burhans, Peter 
Cailen, Henry 
Cock, Michas 
Cole, Daniel 
Crandle, John 
Medagh, Jas. 
Middagh, Jores 
Monfoort, Albert 
Rogers, William 
Snider, John J. 
Tarpanning, John 
Terwilger, Urean 
Van Kleek, Barent A. 

Capt. 8. Brinkerhoofs Co. 
Baker, Jessey, Jr. 
Baker, Thomas 
Boss, Peter 
Brown, Silas 
Carman, Thomas 
Cure, William 
Devoe, Johannis 

Doty, Benjamin 
Ellis, Benjamin 
Ferinton, Joseph 
Goodfellow, William 
Gray, Zebulon 
Haasbroock, Daniel 
Halsted, Joseph 
Hoisted, John, Lieut. 
Kranchite, Tunis 
Lee, Jonathan 
Losee, Semeon 
Main, Ezekel 
Martin, Thomas 
Merritt, Joseph 
Miller, John 
Morss, Joseph 
Morss, Philip 
Peck, Oliver 
PeUit, Ebenezer 
Robison, Joseph 
Roe, David 
Roens, Philips 
Smith, Joseph 
Snyder, Benjamin 

Stolker, Stephen 
Storm, Johannes 
Odle, Joshua 
Ogden, Richard 
Winter, Christopher 
Winter, Levi 
Winter, Joseph 
Wright, Isaac 
Wright, Jacob 
Yeats, Richard 

Ca^t. Southard's Co. 
Adams, Neliah 
Bogardus, Robert 
Britt, Francis R. 
Brogardus, Peter 
Cooper, Jeremiah 
Covert, John 
Gibson, Thomas 
Green, Jeremiah 
Green, Joseph 
Halsted, Jonas 
Miller, Thomas 
Mills, Henry 
Mills, Increase 



Mills, Robert 
Mills, Samuel 
Munger, Benjamin 
Nostrand Gerret 
FhUps, Abraham 
Philps, Henry 
Philps, Jacobus 
Philps, Peter 
Poyer, Thomas 
Purdy, Jesse 
Rider, Jacob 
Shoaf, Philip 
Southard, Daniel 
Southard, Gilbert 
Southard, Thomas 
Southard, Richard 
Southard, Richard, Jr. 
Sprage, Thomas 
Van Voorhees, EUas 
Vealey, Isaac 
Voorhees, Johannes 

Ca^t. John BedWi Co. 
Aulgelt, John 
Bailey, Sutten 
Bedele, John, Capt. 
Bounds, Gessom 
Brown, Samuel 
Buis, Matthew 
Burroughs, Joseph 
Carey, John, Jr. 
Carey, Joseph 
Carey, John, Sr. 
Caunef, John 
Craft, Thomas 
Cure, Matthews 
Cure, Samuel 
Daily, Lawrence 
Dubois, Peter 
Gerox, Benjamin 
Gerroson, Reuben 
Gerrison, Abraham 
Gildersleeve, Nathaniel 
Giou, Isaac 
Goslin, William 
Hasbrouck, Benjamin 
Hasbrook, F., Lieut. 

Hett, Jeremiah 
Kichim, Samuel 
Laduex, Nathaniel 
Laine, Joseph 
Lating, Ambrose 
LangdoD, John S. 
Larduex, Oliver 
I^core, Isaac 
Linabeck, John 
Light, Henry 
Lisk, Benjamin 
Lisk, John 
Mabee, Simeon 
Maley, Abraham 
Nefuss, Abraham 
Nefuss, George 
Peck, John 
Post, Joseph 
Purdy, Abraham 
Purdy, Enoch 
Rowland, Marvin 
Schutt, John, Lieut. 
Schutt, Jacobus J 
Schouten, Andrew J. 
Schouten, John J. 
Scouten, Ephraim 
Sloot, John 
Storm, Peter 
Storm, Nicholas 
Swartwout, Johannes 
Swartwout, Thomas 
Thomkins, Gabriel 
Travis, Abraham 
Van Hyning, Abraham 
Van Nostrand, George 
Van Vlaren, M. J. 
Venson, Charles 
Way, James F. 
Weekes, Stephen 
Winn, William 
Winn, Joseph 
Wood, Joseph 
Wood, Isaac 
Wood, John 
Wood, Thomas 
Wood, John J. 

Washboum, Isaac 
Young, Abraham 

Capt. Matthias Lyster't 

Barnes, Gilbert 
Bancker, Stephen 
Besship, Joshua 
/Brogardus, Francis 
Buchout, John 
Burch, Andrew 
Carnell, John 
Churchill, John 
Cook, John 
Dubois, Johannes 
Dubois, Jacob J. 
Duryee, Stephen 
Duryee, Abraham 
Haboun, John 
Harremens, Will H. 
Herremans, A., Lieut. 
Herremans, Andr., Jr. 
Herremans, John 
Hicks, James 
Hoff, Peter 
Hogeland, Abraham 
Hudson, John 
Huff, John 
Huson, Walter 
Keniff, John 
Lent, Abraham 
Livingston, Samuel 
Lyster, Matthias, Capt. 
Lyster, Dirck 
Lyster, Cornelius 
Lyster, Gerret 
Manfort, Adrian 
Manfort, John 
Monfoort, Albert 
Morgan, James 
Nostrand, Cornelius 
Ses, John 
Somes, Timothy 
Strong, Gilbert 
Strong, Undrel 
Tichout, Gideon 



Thorne, John 
Thome, Stephen 
Theale, Joseph 
Vanbrare, Thomas 
Vanderbilt, A., Ensign 
Van Cramer, Peter 
Van Sickler, Cornel 
Van Vleck, Hendrick 

Capt. Horton'g Co. 
Aulgett, Adam 
Brevoort, John 
Brush, Joseph 
Clapp, Benjamin 
Clapp, John 
Clapp, Thomas 
Delany, Peter 
Depue, Peter 
Depue, Abraham 
Duly, Joshua 
Hoff, Paule 

Hougen, Edward 
Huff, Abraham 
Jewill, Jacob 
Juell, William 
Lent, Isaac 
Lewis, Jacob 
McCrade, Chas. 
Snedeker, John 
Van Vlaeron 
Vermilyer, David 
Vermilyer, Gerradus 
Weel, John 
Wilddey, John 
Wiltsee, John 

Capt. Griffin's Ce. 

Ackerly, Benjamin 
Anderson, Joseph 
Bloom, Benjamin 
Bishop, Caleb 

Churchill, John 
Covenhoven, Adrian 
Dubois, Peter 
Griffin, Thomas 
Jay, John 
Miller, Philip 
Nostrand, George 
Obriant, Matthew 
Philps, Henry C. 
Purdy, Joshua 
Schouten, Andrew 
Thurston, Benjamin 
Thurston, Joseph 
Underwood, Henry 
Van Tessel, Henry, Jr. 
Verplanck, Philip 
Ward, Daniel 
Ward, James 
Ward, Jacob 
Woods, Solomon 

"FishkiU, August 23, 177S. 
Sir; Enclosed is the return of the persons who have signed the Association, 
and of those who have refused. In the latter you find many erasures, occasioned 
by their signing afterwards. This affair has been delayed thus long on account of 
pursuing lenient measures. 
I am by the order of the Committee, your most obedient servant, 

DiBCK G. Beinckerhoff, Chairman." 

The list of non-signers in Rombout Precinct is composed solely of 
members of military companies in the service of the Crown of England, 
and their signatures to the "Revolutionary Pledge" would have been 
a treasonable offence. 




Continental Line. 

THE first Provincial Congress of New York met May 22, 1775, 
in New York City, to devise measures for the general safety, 
and to authorize the recruiting of men. County Committees 
of Safety were formed and their duties were numerous and important. 
The following gentlemen composed the Dutchess Committee: Egbert 
Benson (Chairman), John Collen, Samuel Dodge, Elnathan Gregory, 
Jacob Grifiin, Herman Hoffman, Frederick Jay, Nathan Pearce, James 
Weeks. Precinct Committees were also formed, and one of their first 
duties was to visit the Tories in the county, and request in a friendly 
manner that they surrender their firearms for the use of the Con- 
tinental forces, at a reasonable price. In case of refusal the firearms 
were taken forcibly. A considerable number of guns were thus ob- 
tained, a total of 431 being delivered to the State by the Committee 
of Rombout Precinct alone, in 1776-'77. 

The Provincial authorities of New York in 1775, authorized the 
organization of four regiments, known as the Continental Line, to 
serve for six months, and thus designated: First New York, Second 
Albany, Third Ulster, Fourth Dutchess. The regiments were com- 
manded respectively by Alexander McDougal, Goose Van Schaick, 
James Clinton, and James Holmes. Zephaniah Piatt, Gilbert Liv- 
ingston and Melancthon Smith constituted the Military Committee for 
Dutchess county, and received the warrants for raising men for the 
Fourth or Dutchess regiment, which, when organized, June 30th, 
1775, had the following field and company officers: 

James Holmes, Col. (from Westchester dounty) ; Philip Court- 
landt, Lieut. Col.; Barnabas Tuthill, Major; Benjamin Chapman, 

1. C<4. Holmes and Major Tuthill became diaaatisfled with the arrangement In the 
rank of field officers of the four regiments and resigned. Col. Holmes joined the Tories. 
He was succeeded in command of the Fourth by Henry B. Livingston. 


Captains — Henry B. Livingston, Jonathan Piatt, Rufus Herrick, 
Daniel Mills, Ambrose Horton, Nathaniel Woodward, John R. Liv- 
ingston, Henry G. Livingston, Jacobus WynKoop, Joseph Benedict, 

First Lieutenants — Jacob Thomas, David Daw, Charles Graham, 
Elijah Hunter, David Palmer, Abraham Ricker, Leonard Ten Broeck, 
Samuel Van Vechten, Anthony Welch. 

The organizations composing the Continental Line were under pay 
of the Continental Congress, and in the service as the regular army 
and liable to duty in any part of the country, while the militia as such 
could not be taken outside of the States in which they resided. Wash- 
ington learned very early in the war that the militia was not a force 
which could be relied upon — ^that there must be a regularly consti- 
tuted army. For the making of an army no better material was ever 
found than the men drawn from the Militia of Dutchess. The follow- 
ing officers and privates composed the Fourth Regiment (Dutchess) 
of the Line, at various times during the whole period of the war: 

Colonel James Holmes Quarter-Master James Barrett 

Colonel Henry B. Livingston Quarter-Master Nememiah Carpenter 

Lieut. Col. Pierre Regnier Quarter-Master Gelston 

Lieut. Col. Frederick Weissenfels Quarter-Master Job Mulford 

Lieut. Col. Frederick Wiessenfels Quarter-Master Peter Vonk 

Major John Davis Paymaster John Franks 

Major Benjamin Ledyard Chaplain John P. Testard 

Major Joseph McCracken Surgeon Caleb Sweet 

Adjutant Peter Sacket Surgeon John Francis Vache 

Adjutant Samuel Tallmadge Surgeon John F. Vasher 

Adjutant John Tuthill Surgeon John Francis Vasher 

Captains — Joseph Benedict, John Davis, Henry Dodge, Edward Dunscome, Peter 
Elsworth, Theodorus Fowler, Silas Gray, Eufus Herrick, Ambrose Horton, William 
Jackson, Benjamin Marvin, Daniel Mills, Nathaniel Norton, David Palmer, Jona- 
than Pearsee, Jonathan Perry, Jonathan Piatt, Reeve, Daniel Roe, James 

Rosekrans, Samuel Sacket, Israel Smith, Nathan Strong, Nathaniel Strong, Jona- 
than Titus, Benjamin Walker, Nathaniel Woodard. 

LiEUTEiTAifTs — ^William B. Alger, James Barrett, Cornelius Becker, Ben- 
jamin, Leonard Bleecker, Gould Boughten, Henry Brewster, Brush, Man- 
ning Bull, Peter Bunshoten, Edward Conklin, Sylvanus Conkling, William Crane, David 
Dan, Daniel E. Deniston, Daniel Denniston, Henry Dodge, James Dow, Peter Elsworth, 
Peter C. Elsworth, William Theodosious Fowler, Joseph Frilick, Charles Graham, 
William Havens, Thomas Hunt, Elijah Himter, Abraham Hyatt, 'John Lawrence, 
Thomas Lee, John Lloyd, William Matthewman, Miles Oakley, Isaac Paddock, 



Samuel Tredwell Pell, AbTaham Riker, Isaac A. Rosa, 

Sayer, George Smith, 

Isaac Springer, Gilbert Strang, Jacob Thomas, Jesse Thompson, Daniel Topping, 
William Troop, Robert Troup, Azariah Tuthill, John Van Antwerp, Peter Van 

Bunschoten, Rudolph Van Hoevenbargh, Isaac Vanwart, Roswell Wilcocks, 


EusiSifs — John Barr, Caleb Bruister, Simon Cregier, Simon Crygier, Samuel 
Dodge, Joseph Froilick, Stephen Griffin, Joseph Morrill, John Punderson, Samuel 
Talmadge, Ephraim Woodruff. 

Acker, Henry •^ 
Acker, Jacob / 
Ackerson, C. 
Adams, Daniel 
Adams, Ebenezer 
Adams, James 
Adams, Jesse 
Adams, Major 
Adorns, Samuel 
Adurns, Thomas 
AUen, Samuel 
Allison, Richard 
Allport, John 
Alport, John 
Amberman, Cornelius 
Ambler, Benjamin 
Ambler, Stephen 
Ammerman, Cornelius 
Anderson, James 
Andress, Joseph 
Anson, James 
Anthony, Simon 
Antone, John 
Armstrong, Jonathan 
Ashford, Nathaniel 
Ashley, William 
Aston, Benoni 
Atkins, Robert 
Atwater, John 
Austin, Holmes 
Austin, Lockwood 
Avery, Nehemiah 
Avout, Philip 
Aymes, Francis 
Backus, Jacob 
Bailey, Elias 


Baker, Anthony 
Baker, Benjamin 
Baker, Elijah 
Baker, Henry 
Baker, John 
Baker, Joshua 
Baker, Pierce 
Balding, Jehial 
Balding, Nathaniel 
Baley, Jonathan 
Baley, Leonard 
Ball, Samuel 
Banker, Jacob 
Banker, William 
Baptist, John 
Barber, Reuben 
Baremore, Edward 
Barkens, William 
Barker, Jonathan 
Barlow, Nathan 
Bamhart, David 
Barnhart, Jeremiah 
Barns, Glean 
Barns, John 
Barns, Peter 
Barrows, James 
Barry, Charles 
Barlley, Andrew 
Barto, John 
Bartoe, Morris 
Basely, Cornelius 
Bassett, William 
Biayless, Richard 
Bayley, Daniel 
Beaty, Hugh 
Bebee, Benorger 

Becker, Peter 
Beckwith, Silas 
Beebe, Bonarges 
Beedle, WiUiam 
Beel, Matthew 
Bellamy, Silas 
Benedict, Ambrose 
Benjamin, David 
Benjamin, Stephen 
Bennadict, Benjamin 
Bennadict, Nathan 
Bennadict, Peter 
Bennet, James 
Bennet, William 
Bennett, Jacob 
Bennett, Timothy 
Benschoten, Elias 
Bentley, William 
Begordus, Peter 
-^Berrnard, Samuel 
Berry, Charles 
Berry, Jabez 
Berry, James 
Berry, John 
Bertley, Andrew 
Betson, Thomas 
Betts, Nehemiah 
Bingham, Abisha 
Bishop, Ebenezer 
Black, David 
Black, Richard 
Black, William 
Blank, Jasper 
Blaze, Christopher 
Blendberry, Elijah 
Blonck, J. 



Blonk, Jesper 
Bockus, Jacob 
Bodley, Andrew 
Bogardus, Henry 
Bogg, John 
Bogurdus, Nung 
Boice, James 
Boiles, James 
Boncher, William 
Bond, John 
Bonker, William 
Houghton, Moses 
Boughton, Simeon 
Bourne, William 
B'outen Samuel 
Bouton, Joseph 
Bouton, Joseph, Jr. 

Bowers, Isaac 
Bowers, James 
Bowman, Bacchus 
Bowne, Rodman 
Boyles, James 
Bradt, John 
Brady, John 
Bragame, John 
Brainerd, Ruben 
Braney, Lowring 
Brant, John 
Brant, William 
Brewer, Jeremiah 
Brewland, Johiel 
Briggs, Jacob 
Briggs, Jeremiah 
Brock, Robert 
Brooks, Daniel 
Brooks, Jedlah 
Brooks, John 
Brooks, Robert 
Brooks, Thomas 
Brown, David 
Brown, Deliverance 
Brown, Eliphelet 
Brown, Hubbard 
Brown, John 
Brown, Joseph 

Brown, Samuel 
Brown, Stephen 
Brown, William 
Brown, Zephanlah 
Brundage, Nathan 
Brunson, Samuel 
Brush, Selah 
Brush, Simeon F. 
Brustler, Daniell 
Bruton, Arthur 
Bryan, Thomas 
Buchannan, Samuel 
Buckingham, Stephen 
Buckleman, Henry 
Budd, John 
Budin, Francis 
Budine, Francis 
Bump, Joseph 
Sunday, Jeremiah 
Bunker, William 
Burch, Henry 
Burch, Jonathan 
Burd, Jeremiah 
Burdick, EUsha 
Surges, Stephen 
Burgess, Archibold 
Surget, Mlllbury 
Surhans, Fjerrick 
Burhans, John 
Surhans, Thirh 
Surhans, Yerlck 
Surkstaff, David 
Burnet, Ebenezer 
Surnet, Squire 
Bumham, William 
Surnhart, David 
Burns, Edward 
Burr, DanieU 
Burrance, John 
Surrit, William 
Burrows, James 
Surrows, Samuel 
Bush, Simon T- 
Sussing, John 
Bustee, Peter 
Camby, James 

Cammerson, Alexander 
Camp, Asa 
Campbell, Andrew 
Campbell, Jacob 
Campbell, James 
Campbell, John 
Canaday, John 
Canady, James 
Canby, James 
Canfield, Amon 
Canfield, Daniel 
Cankhert, Henry 
Carby, Richard 

Carney, Barny 
Carney, William 
Cskny, Thomas 
Captenter, James 
Carr, Anthony 
Carr, James 
Carrey, John 
Carrion, Green 
Case, Ichabod 
Casey, James 
Cashan, William 
Cashln, William 

Cato, Tunis 
Gavins, Patrick 
Chapman, Daniel 
Chappel, Benjamin 
Chappel, Benjamin, Jr. 
Charlesworth, John Miles 
Chase, Isaac 
Chatterton, James 
Cherry, John 
Chesley, John 
Chevalier, John 
Chlnander, John 
Chrlstee, J. 
Christen, Peter 
Cisco, Dick 
Clackson, George 
Clark, Barnabas 
Clark, Cornelius 
Clark, David 



Clark, Ephraim 
Clark, James 
Clark, John 
Clark, Joseph, Jr. 
Clark, Peter 
Clarke, Joshua 
Clements, John 
Cliff, Joseph 
Clift, Joseph 
Close, Christopher 
Closs, Peter 
Closser, Christopher 
Coats, Joseph 
Coe, Benjamin 
Cole, Aaron 
Cole, Abraham 
Cole, Barnabas 
Cole, Oliver 
Cole, William 
Coleman, Samuel 
CoUins, Edward 
Collins, John 
Colly, Henry 
Colver, Joseph 
Colvin, James 
Conden, Philip 
Conington, Joseph 
Conkling, Daniel 
Conkling, Edward 
Conkling, Nathan 
Conkling, William 
Conkright, Henry 
Conn, William 
Conner, Joseph 
Connerly, Dennis 
Connoly, James 
Connor, James 
Connor, John 
Connor, Patrick 
Connor, Timothy 
Constable, Garret 
Converse, Samuel 

Cook, Alexander 
Cook, Hanas 
Cook, George 

Cook, Moses 
Cook, Nathan 
Cook, Nathaniel 
Cook, Obadiah 
Coon, Jacob 
Coon, Peter 
Cooper, David 
Cooper, John 
Copinger, Walter 
Coppenger, John 
Corkangs, Eli 
Cornell, Caleb 
Cornwall, Caleb 
CornweU, Thomas 
Cortright, Henry 
Corwine, Edward 
Corwine, Gersham 
Cossington, John 
CottreU, Richard 
Couchoover, William 
Couray, Michael 
Cowan, Isaac 
Cox, John 
Cox, Simon 
Cozard, Richard 
Craft, Nathaniel 
Craig, John 
Crane, Josiah 
Crannell, Isaac 
Crawford, John 
Crawford, Thomas 
Cregear, John 
Crissler, John 
Gristle, William 
Cronch, James 
Cronk, Hendrick 
Cronk, Timothy 
Crosby, Enock 
Crosby, Isaac 
Crosby, Thomas 
Grossman, Dan ' 
Cross, John 
Grossman, Daniel 
Growfot, Nehemiah 
Cummers, Jonathan 
Cunningham, Archibald 

Cunningham, Henry 
Cunningham, John 
Cunningham, Shubal 
Curaw, Michael 
Curby, John 
Cure, William 
Curry, Elijah 
Gurry, Michael 
Cursor, Tunis 
Curtis, Naniad 
Curtis, Niard 
Curtis, Solomon 
Gurwin, Edward 
Curwin, Gersham 
Gurwine, Gersham 
Cuzard, Richard 
Daggett, Mahew 
Dale, Richard 
Daley, John 
Dalton, Walter 
Dan, Abijah 
Dan, Jonathan 
Danavan, Peter 
Daniels, John 
Dannolds, John 
David, Isaac 
Davids, William 
Davies, Chapman 
Davies, Joseph 
Davis, Caleb 
Davis, Chapman 
Davis, Henry 
Davis, John 
Davis, Joseph 
Davis, Joshua 
Davis, Patrick 
Davis, Peter 
Davis, Richard 
Davis, Thomas 
Davison, John 
Dawson, John 
Day, Aaron 
Day, Isaac 
Day, Jonathan 
Day, Lewis 
Dalley, John 



Dayton, Bennet 
Dayton, Samuel 
Dayton, Samuel, Jr. 
D'Bushe, Anthony 
Dean, Abram 
Deaton, Frederick 
Decker, George 
Decker, Jacobus 
Decker, James B. 
Decker, John 
Decker, Jonathan 
Decker, Michael 
Decker, Yerry 
Deen, Isaac 
Deen, John 
Deen, William 
DeFrees, Ebenzer 
DeFrees, Reuben 
Delaney, Dennis 
Demerest, John 
Demerest, Nicholas 
Demorest, John 
Demott, Peter 
Deniereft, Nicholas 
Dennis, Mydert 
Dennison, Thomas 
Denniss, Miner 
Denniston, Thomas 
Denny, Peter 
Depont, Bosteon 
Depue, George 
Derby, Thomas 
De Rusha, Anthony 
Desert, John 
Dew, Francis 
Dick, Henry 
Dick, Thomas 
Dickerson, Abraham 
Dickerson, Benjamin 
Dickerson, David 
Dickerson, Jeduthan 
Dickerson, John 
Dickson, Andrew 
Dickson, Gabriel 
Dickson, Nathan 
Dickson, Richard 

Dickson, William 
Dieson, John 
Dieson, Nathan 
Dimond, Jonathan 
Dodge, Samuel, Jr. 
Dodge, Stephen 
Dole, John M. 
Dollaway, Andrew 
Dolph, Jonathan 
Donnalds, John 
Dose, Richard 
Doty, John 
Dougherty, Mark 
Doughty, Elias 
Doughty, George 
Dowd, Isaac 
Downing, Andrew 
Doxey, Stephen 
Doyle, Hugh 
Doyle, John 
Drake, Benoni 
Drean, Patrick 
Drenning, Hamilton 
Duall, Samuel 
Ducher, Adam 
Duff, Peter 
Duguid, John 
Dunbar, William 
Duncan, Thomas 
Dunk, Henry 
Dunmore, Caesar 
Dunnavan, John 
Dunnavun, Peter 
Dunnivan, John 
Dunscomb, Edward 
Dupont, Bosteon 
Duran, Francis 
Dutcher, Bornt 
Dutcher, John 
Dwire, Simon 
Eaddy, James 
Earl, John 
Easton, Henry 
Eastwood, Benjamin 
Edgit, George 
Edwards, David 

Egberts, John 
Elker, Emmer 
Elliot, John 
Elliot, John, Jr. 
Elliott, Archibald 
EUis, John 
EUison, Isaac 
EUison, Richard 
Ellison, Thomas 
Elsworth, Ezekel 
Elsworth, John 
English, John 
Ennls, Peter 
Ephram, Ebenezer 
Epton, Benjamin 
Erwin, John 
Esmond, Isaiah 
Esmond, James 
Essmond, John 
Evalt, Philip 
Evens, William 
Everit, Francis 
Every, Nehemiah 
Fairly, William 
Fansher, John 
Fardon, Samuel 
Farrier, Thomas 
Fegan, Timothy 
Ferbush, Simon 
Ferdon, A. 
Ferdon, Thomas 
Ferdone, Samuel 
Ferguson, Samuel 
Ferris, John 
Ferris, Jonah 
Ferris, Joseph 
Ferris, Ludowick 
Ferris, Samuel 
Fichett, Abraham 
Filer, Thomas 
Finch, Eliatham 
Finch, Elnathan 
Finch, William 
Finton, Amos 
Fish, Ebner 
Fisher, James 



Fitch, James 
Fitzgerald, Christ" r Mille 
Flemming, Patrick 
Fletcher, Lawrence 
Flinn, John 
Flood, Cilas 
Forbush, Alexander 
Ford, William 
Forgison, Jeremiah 
Forsey, Josh. 
Fosburgh, Peter 
FosdidE, Samuel 
Foster, John 
Foster, Nathaniel 
Foster, Vincent 
Foster, William 
Fountain, Stephen 
Fowler, Philip 
Foy, Edward 
Fralick, John 
Francis, John 
Franke, Michel 
Franke, Peter 
Franks, Michael 
Frasier, Jeremiah 
Frayer, Simon 
Fredenbergh, James 
Freeman, Nathaniel 
Freeman, Robert 
Fross, Stephen 
Frye, Benjamin 
Fuller, Josiah 
Fulre, Thomas 
Furdon, Thomas 
Furman, Samuel 
Galasby, James 
Gantly, Patrick 
Gardner, Jesse 
Gardon, Andrew 
Garrisson, Abraham 
Garrisson, Peter 
Gates, Nathaniel 
Gee,. David 
Gee, Ezekiel 
Gee, John 
Geers, Benjamin 

Gibbons, John 
Gibson, John 
Gibson, Robert 
GUchrist, WiUiam 
Gillaspy, James 
Gillcrist, John 
Gillcrist, William 
Gillet, Joseph 
Glover, Thomas 
Gold, William 
Gdlden, Isaiah 
Golden, Thomas 
Croldsmith, Ezra 
Goldsmith, John 
Croodin, George 
Croodspeed, Hosia 
Goodwin, George 
Gordon, WUliam 
Gorman, Richard 
Gosper, John 
Gosper, Peter 
Graham, Alexander 
Graham, John 
Granger, John 
Graves, Josiah 
Graves, Seldon 
Gray, Benjamin 
Gray, James 
Gray, Samuel 
Greatman, John 
Green, Ebenezer 
Green, James 
Greer, David 
Gregeer, John 
Gregory, Jehiel 
Grey, Robert 
GrifSn, Barney 
Gri£Sn, Benjamin 
Grinnel, Amasa 
Grumman, Ephraim 
Guin, Michael 
Guy, Edward 
Guyre, Luke 
Haight, Jager 
Hains, Joseph 
Hains, Saunders 

Halenbeek, Abraham 
Hall, Isaac 
Hall, James 
Hallet, Jonathan 
Halsey, Abraham 
Halsey, Ethan 
Halsey, Job 
Halsey, Stephen 
Halsey, Thomas 
Hambleton, John 
Hanmion, Shason 
Hammon, Isaac 
Hand, Joseph 
Hanley, James 
Hanmore, Jabez 
Hannah, James 
Hannevan, Rice 
Hanries, William 
Happer, John 
Hardy, David 
Harmancy, John 
Harner, Nicholas 
Harper, William 
Harris, Abijah 
Harris, Cilas 
Harris, David 
Harris, Evans 
Harris, Moses 
Harris, William 
Harris, Zach 
Hartness, Andrew 
Hartnys, Andrew 
Hartshorne, John 
Harvey, David 
Hatt, Frederick 
Haukins, Samuel 
Hawkins, David 
Hawkins, Noah 
Hawkins, Zachariah 
Hawkins, Zopher 
Haynes, Joseph 
Hazard, James 
Heartness, Andrew 
Hedges, Nathan 
Helmer, John 
Henderson, Alexander 



Hennesey, John 
Henry, David 
Hermance, John 
Hermans, Edward 
Hermanse, Edward 
Herrick, Amos 
Herrick, Samuel 
Herrick, William 
Herrington, John 
Hicks, Jacob 
Higby, Samuel 
Higgins, Moses 
High, Benjamin 
Hike, John 
Hill, Asse 
Hill, Thomas 
Hill, William 
Himes, Joseph 
Hinkley, Thomas 
Hissam, John 
Hitchcock, John 
Hodges, Joseph 
Hoff, Bastian 
Hoff, Henry H. 
Hoff, William 
Hogarty, Bernard 
Hoit, Job 
Hoit, Silvanus 
Holloway, Joseph 
Holly, John 
Holly, Samuel 
Holmes, Asa 
Holmes, Becker 
Holmes, Daniel, Jr. 
Holmes, James 
Holmes, John 
Holmes, Nathan 
Holmes, Thomas 
Homan, John 
Hooker, John 
Hopkins, Eli 
Hopkins, James 
Hopper, John 
Hopper, Samuel 
Horsford, Ithamer 
Horton, David 

Horton, Frederick 
Hosport, Samuel 
House, Jacob 
House, Zachariah 
How, Libeous 
Howe, John 
Howe, Silas 

Howell, George 
Howell, Jehiel 
Howell, Seth 
Hoyt, Thomas, Jr. 
Hubbard, Abel 
Hubbard, John 
Hubbard, Kzekiel 
Huber, Jacob 
Hubert, John 
Hudman, Charles 
Huff, WilUam 
Huffman, John 
Hufman, Gabriel 
Hughes, John 
Hughson, WiUiam 
Humphrey, John 
Humphrey, Samuel 
Hunt, David 
Hunt, Solomon 
Hunt, Theophilus 
Hunter, Benjamin 
Hunter, Ezekiel 
Hunter, Jonathan 
Huson, William 
Hutchings, Gabriel; 
Hyatt, Abraham 
Hymes, Joseph 
Hyser, Henry 
Ice, Daniel 
Impson, Elias 
Impson, Robert 
Indian, Thomas 
Ingalls, Elihu 
Inglish, John 
Israel, Aaron 
Jacklin, Samuel 

Jackson, Thomas 
Jamerson, WilUam 
James, Ebenezer 
James, Richard 
Jane, Jotham 
Jarman, David 
Jarvis, Nathaniel 
Jarvis, Thomas 
Jay, David 
Jay, John 
Jeffries, John 
Jeyne, WiUiam 
Jillet, Joseph 
Jillon, P. 
Johns, Silas 
Johns, Thomas 
Johnson, Davis 
Johnson, Isaac 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, John 
Johnson, Joseph 
Johnson, Samuel 
Johnson, Uriah 
Johnson, William 
Johnston, Benjamin 
Johnston, Samuel 
Jones, David 
Jones, Evans 
Jones, Jacob 
Jones, James 
Jones, John 
Jones, Sguire 
Jones, Thomas 
Joy, Samuel 
June, Stephen 
Kader, Adam 
Kader, John 
Keaffer, WiUiam 
Keder, Stephen 
Keefe, Arthur 
Keefer, William 
Keeler, David 
Keeler,j Ebenezer 
KeUey, Dennis 
KeUey, Isaac 
KeUey, Robert 



Keljy, Maurice 
Kelly, Morris 
KeUy, Robert 
Kennedy, John 
Kenner, Jonathan 
Kenney, Charles 
Kenney, Jese 
Kenny, Charles 
Ketcham, John 
Ketcham,, Samuel 
Keynon, Robert 
Kiff, John 
Kilsey, John 
King, William 
Kinner, Jonathan 
Kinney, Charles 
Kinney, Elijah 
Kuffen„ James 
Ladoo, John 
Ladow, John 
Lamb, Isaac 
Lamb, Joshua 
Lambert, Cornelius 
Lambert, Joseph 
Lane, Jeremiah 
Lansing, John 
Larable, Elias 
Laraby, Elisha 
Lashier, Abraham 
Latham, John 
Lawrence, John 
Lawrence, Uriah 
Lawrence, W. 
Leak, J. 

Leawrance, Richard 
Lee, James 
Lee, Japath 
Lee, Seth 
Lee, William 
Lent, Hendrick 
Lent, Jacob 
Leonard, David 
Leonard, Edward 
Leopard, John 
Lepper, John 
Leveraga, Samuel 

Leverage, William 
Levey, Jacob 
Lewis, Henry 
Lewis, Jabez 
Lewis, Samuel 
Lhommedieu, Mulford 
Light, John 
Light, Lemuel 
LUey, John 
Linch, John 
Lincfa, Laurence 
Lines, Hosea 
Link, Henry 
Lion, Hosea 
Liscomb, Isaac 
Liscomb, Samuel 
Little, William 
Livingston, Dick 
Livingston, Richard 
Lloyd, James 
Loanis, John, 
Lock, John 
Lockwood, Azariah 
Lockwood, Hezekiah 
Lodcwood, Israel 
Lockwood, Jonathan 
Lockwood, Nathan 
Lockwood, Reuben 
Lodovick, Peter 
Loeson, Laurence 
Longworth, Isaac 
Looper, James 
Loper, Abraham 
Love, John 
Love, Waiiam 
Love joy, Andrew 
Lovelis, George 
Lovelis, Jeremiah 
Lownsberry, Nathaniel 
Lowree, William 
Ludliun, Daniel 
Ludlum, John 
Lufberry, Jonathan 
Lusee, E. 
Lusk, Jacob 

Lusk, Michael 
Lusk, William 
Lwinas, Herry 
Mabee, Tobias 
McAlester, William 
Macaulay, Charles 
McCaffety, James 
McCarty, Dennis 
McCauley, Charles 
McCharlesworth, John 
McCIain, John 
McClarien, David 
McCIean, Neal 
McClow, Joseph 
McColister, WiUiam 
McCollem, John 
McCollum^ Malcom 
McColum, John 
McCracken, John 
McCuIlough, Andrew 
McDaniel, John 
McDole, John 
McDoll, John 
McDonald, John 
McDonald, Michael 
McDougall, D. 
McDowal, WiUiam 
McDowel, John 
McElley, John 
McEntach, WiUiam 
McEvers, John 
McFairley, WiUiam 
McFaU, David 
McGUles, Hugh 
McGUori, Fergus 
McGowin, Duncan 
McGready, James 
Mcintosh, WiUiam 
McKee, Michael 
McKiel, Adam 
MackrUl, Richard 
McLain, Hugh 
McMannuss WilMam 
McMicken, Ebenezer 
McNeal, Charles 
McNeil, Charles 



McNeil, Thomas 
McOlister, Alexander 
McPherson, Lawrence 
McWhorster, John 
Mahane, Patrick 
Mahone, James 
Mahony, Cornelius 
Main, Robert 
Makraback, Dyke 
Maloy, John 
Mapes, John 
Marchant, Able 
Mark, G. 
Marks, Aholiab 
Marling, Deliverance 
Marr, James 
Marray, Warren 
Marsh, Benjamin 
Marshal, Amon 
Marshall, James 
Martin, Archibald 
Martin, James 
Martin, Michael 
Martin, Samuel 
Marvin, Stephen 
Mason, Francis 
Mason, Thomas 
Masson, Francis 
Masters, Jonathan 
Matthews, Henry 
Mattlson, Aaron 
Maxwell, ComeUus 
Mead, David 
Meaker, Daniel 
Medler, Chri'stian 
Medler, Christopher 
Meed, Ezekeel 
Meeker, TJzual 
Meesy, Benjamin 
Merrill, Joseph 
Merrit, Ebenezer 
Merrit, Luke 
Merry, Benjamin 
Metzger, John 
Midler, Christ'r 
MiUer, Benjamin 

Millar, John 
Miller, Frederick 
Miller, George 
Miller, Jesse 
Miler, Jack 
MiUer, John 
MiiUer, Justus 
Miller, Lewis 
Miller, Peleg 
Miller, Peter 
Miller, William 
Miler, Zephaniah 
Milles, Jesse 
Mills, Andrew 
Mills, James 
Mingos, Haronlmus 
Mink, Johannes 
Minks, John 
Mires, John 
Mitchel, Greorge 
Mitchel, Samuel 
Mitchel, William 
Money, WilUam 
Moody, James 
Mooney, William 
Moore, Frederick 
Moore, John 
Moore, Joseph 
Moore, Robert 
Moore, Thomas 
More, Martin 
More, Robert 
More, Thomas 
Moreign, Alex 
Morpeth, William 
Morrel, James 
Morrel, Jesse 
Morrel, John 
Morrell, WiUiam 
Morris, Edward 
Morris, Robert 
Morrison, Dimcan 
Morse, John 
Mosher, John 
Moss, David 
Moulton, Cato 

Moulton, Josiah 
Moulton, WiUIam 
Mount, Thomas 
Mow, James 
Mucklow, Joseph 
Mulford, Samuel 
Mulliner, Moses 
Munday, James 
Munn, Benjamin 
Munroe, Peter 
Murfe, John 
Murn, Muhel 
Murphy, Daniel 
Murphy, James 
Myer, Christ'r G. 
•Myers, David 
Myers, Zach 
Nail, Henry 
Neal, Henry 
Neder, John 
Neelson, W. 
Neilson, Thomas 
Nelson, Thomas 
Neves, W. 
Newman, Abraham 
Newman, Jeremiah 
Newman, Joshua 
Nevraian, N. 
Nichols, James 
Nickols, Isaac 
Nicols, Simon 
Nipper, John 
Nogert, John 
Norstrandt, James 
Norton, Abel 
Norton, Calvin 
Norton, George 
Norton, Sible 
Nostrander, James 
Nostrant, George 
Notingham, Lewiis 
Nucom, Thomas 
O'Brien, James 
O'Brion, Paul 
Ogden, David 
Ogden, John 



Ogden, Jonathan 
Ogilsvie, John 
OgstrandeT, Peter 
O'Kie, A. 
Olden, Daniel 
Onderdunck, Abraham 
O'Neal, Thomas 
Orr, William 
Orsor, Abraham 
Orsor, Edward 
Osbom, Abraham 
Osborne, Henry 
Osburn, D. 
Osterout, Gilbert 
Ostrander, Henry 
Ostrander, James 
Ostrander, Peter 
Owen, Moses 
Owens, Ameziah 
Owens, Elisha 
Owens, Terrence 
Pain, Silas 
Palmer, Amaziah 
Palmer, Isaac 
Palmer, James 
Palmer, Jonathan 
Palmer, Silas 
Palmiteir, John 
Pangbourn, John 
Fangbourn, William 
Pangbum, John 
Pangburn, William 
Pardy, Nathaniel 
Parent, Nathaniel 
Parisoneous, J. 
Park, John 
Park, Robert 
Parker, Ebenezer 
Parker, Joseph 
Parks, John 
Parks, WiUiam 
Parsells, Matthew 
Parshall, James 
Parsong, Charles 
Paterson, Simon 
Paid, Joseph 

Peck, Nathan 
Peirce, Thomas 
Pell, John 
Pembrook, W. 
Pemderson, John 
Pendle, Jonathan 
Pennear, Peter 
Penney, John 
Pennoyer, Jesse 
Penoyer, Israel 
Penton, Amos 
Perkins, Thomas 
Perlee, Edmond 
Perry, David 
Pershall, James 
Persons, John 
Peterson, Simeon 
Pettit, Abraham 
Pettit; Daniel 
Pettit, Samuel 
Phillips, David 
PhUlips, Jonathan 
Pickle, Henry 
Pickle, John Henry 
Pierce, Thomas 

Piggs, Richard 
Pinyard, WiUiam 
Place, Christopher 
Place, James 
Plank, Nicholas 
Plass, Michel 
Plans, Peter 
PUmley, William 
Plosser, Peter 
Plumb, Stephen 
Poimer, Peter 
Polamater, John 
Pollard, Thomas 
Pdlly, Hugh 
Pond, Samuel 

Post, Samuel 
Potter, George 
Potter, William 

Poular, John 
Powd, Vinson 
Presher, Abraham 
Presher, WUliam 
Preston, Benjamin 
Pride, J. 
Prim, Azariah 
Prime, Peter 
Primm, Peter 
Prior, Abner William 
Futman, William 
Quant, Henry 
Quinded, David 
Quinn, Thomas 
Racket, Noah 
Raigins, William 
Raimond, Benjamin 
Rainey, Jeremiah 
Ramis, James 
Randall Nathaniel 
Randle, Moses 
Randle, Seith 
Raney, John 
Ransier, George 
Ray, Charles 
Raymond, James 
Raynor, Ichabod 
Reader, Jacob 
Reed, Gceorge 
Reed, James 
Reed, John 
Reeve, Luther 
Reeves, Israel 
Reives, Nathaniel 
Renny, Jesse 
Reymond, lisaac 
Reynolds, Briggs 
Reynolds, David 
Reynolds, Ebenezer 
Reynolds, Eli 
Reynolds, James 
Reynolds, John 
Rejmolds, Timothy 
Rice, Ezekiel 
Rice, Samuel 



Rich, Henry 
Richards, David 
Richards, John 
Riggs, Daniel 
Ritchie, Alexander 
Ritchie, Isaac 
Roader, Jacob 
Roads, Jacob 
Roberds, Edmun 
Roberts, Amos 
Roberts, John 
Robertson, James 
Robins, Evans 
Robinson, Andrew 
Robinson, D. 
Robinson, James 
Robinson, Matthias 
Robinson, Peter 
Rockwell, Ebenezer 
Rodgers, Own 
Roe, John 
Roe, Lemon 
Roe, SiUeman 
Roe, Simon 
Rofft, Aaron 
Rogers, John, Sr. 
Rogers, John, Jr. 
Rogers, Owen 
Rogers, William 
Romer, Benjamin 
Romer, Peter 
Roome, Benjamin 
Roomer, Hendrick 
Rose, Andrew 
Rose, Jonathan 
Rosman, Adam 
Rosman, Henry 
Rosman, Philip 
Ross, Aaron 
Ross, Nathaniel 
Ross, Waiiam 
Rossell, Thomas 
Rough, Conrade 
Row, John 
Row, Simon 
Rowland, Philip 

Rowland, Thomas 
Ruland, Jehiel 
Rundle, David 
Runnels, Abijah 
Runnels, Joseph 
Russsell, Jonathan 
Russigue, Abraham 
Russle, W. 
Sage, Allen 
Sagor, John 
St. Lawrence, George 

Salmon, Absalom 
Salyer, Zaccheus 
Sanderson, James 
Sandford, Daniel 
Sandford, John 
Sanford, Daniel 
Sattally, Richard 
Saxton, Gilbert 
Sayrs, Nathaniel 
Scantling, Jeremiah 
Scates, James 
Schofleld, Samuel 
Schofleld, Silas 
Schofleld, Smith 
Schouten, Henry 
Schouten, John 
Schriver, Jacob N. 
Schut, Frederick 
Schui^ James 
Schut, Tennis 
Scott, Alexander 
Scott, Elijah 
Scott, Henry 
Scott, James 
Scott, John 
Scott, "William 
Sloulen, H. 
Scriver, Christian 
Scriver, Henry 
Scutt, William 
Sealey, Joseph 
Seaman, Moses 
Seaton, Rufus 
Seeds, George 

Seers, Joseph 
Seward, John 
Shannon, Robert 
Shatton, David 
Shaw, John 
Shaw, Michael 
Shaw, Peleg 
Shay, M. 
Shea, Philip 
Shear, Lodiwick 
Shelp, Joseph 
Sherkeys, J. 
Sherwood, Micajah 
Shevalier, John 
Sibbio, Thomas 
•Sickler, Coonradt 
Sickler, Mitthias 
Sicknar, Jacob 
Simmons, Caleb 
Simmons, E. 
Simmons, John 
Simmons, Joshua 
Simmons, Samuel 
Sinnott, Patrick 
Sisco, Dick 
Sisco, Philip 
Sitzer, Barrant 
Size, Gilbert V. 
Slason, Stephen 
Slosson, Ambs 
Slutt, A. 
Slutt, M. 
Slutt, W. 
Sly, William 
SmaUy, Timothy 
Smith, Benjamin 
Smith, Caleb 
Smith, David 
Smith, Ebenezer B. 
Smith, Ebner B. 
Smith, Ezekiel 
Smith, Gersham 
Smith, Gideon 
Smith, liSaac 
Smith, James 
Smith, John 



Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Josiah 
Smith, Moses 
Smith, Nathan 
Smith, Nathaniel 
Smith, Obediah 
Smitd, R. 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Solomon 
Smith, Thaddeus 
Smith, WiUlam 
Snadiker, Moses 
Snedeker, Moses 
Snowden, John 
Snyder, Peter 
Southerland, James 
Speed, George 
Speed, Henry 
Spicer, Jacob 
Sprage, Alexander 
Spring, Nathaniel 
Springer, Isaac 
Springston, Jacob 
Squire, Jacob 
SquirreU, Jacob 
Stagg, Adam 
Stagg, John 
Stalker, S. 
Standish, Amos 
Stanford, John 
Stanley, Daniel 
Staples, Nathan 
Stebbins, Lewis 
Steen, William 
Steenborgh, Peter 
Steeples, Nathan 
Stephans, Jessee 
Stephens, John 
Stephens, Justice 
Stephens, Thomas 
Stewart, John 
Still, James 
Still, John 
Stitt, iohn 
Stokes, William 
Stone, Asa 

Stone, David 
Storms, Abraham 
Stratten, Samuel 
Streat, H. 
Streat, W. 
Stringham, Henry 
Strong, John 
Strong, William 
Stuard, John 
Sturdifent, Jonathan 
Suckinut, John 
Suffrin, George 
Suitt, William 
Sullivan, James 
Swan, Robert 
Swartwout, Henry 
Swartwout, John 
Swartwout, William 
Sweed, William 
Sweet, Amos 
Sweet, Benoni 
Sweet, George 
Sweet, John 
Sweet, John, Jr. 
Sweet, Nathan 
Sweet, Robert 
Swift, Ambrose 
Talmadge, John 
Talmage, Joseph 
Tappen, Daniel 
Tappen, N. 
Tarrent, Thomas 
Tattenton, Jeptha 
Taylor, Jasper 
Taylor, Joseph 
Taylor, Oliver 
Taylor, William 
Teatter, John 
Teller, J. 
Ter Boss, J. 
Terboss, Simon 
Terbush, C. 
Terbush, Simon 
Terry, Elijah 
Terry James 
Terry, Samuel 

Thaire, J. 
Thomas, G. 
Thomas, John 
Thomas, Richard 
Thompson, Benjamin 
Thompson, EUas 
Thompson, James 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, Richard 
Thompson, WiMiam 
Thomson, Zebulon 
Thorp, Peter 
Tice, John 
Tice, Joseph 
Tieman, Peter 
Tinkler, Henry 
Titus, Isaac 
Titus, James 
Titus, Jonathan 
Tompkins, Edward 
Tompkins, Nathaniel 
Tool, John 
Topping, Daniel 
Town, Jacob 
Townsend, Absolom 
Toy, Samuel 
Traver, Francis 
Traver, Nicholas 
Travess, Jacob 
Travis, Silvanus 
Travis, Robert 
Trewilleger, J. 
Trim, Azariah 
Trowbridge, James 
Tubbs, Stephen 
Tubee, John 
Tucker, John 
Tucker, Joishua 
Tucker, Samuel 
Turn, David 
Tuman, David 
Tuman, Peter 
Tuman, Peter, Jr. 
Turner, Joseph 
Turrel, Jones 
Tuthill, James 



Tuttle, Moses 

Tyler, Shuble 

Underdunk, T. 

Unter, Josiah 

Upton, Benjamin 

Utley, Ase 

Utter, Joseph 

Utter, William 

"Vail, Thomas 

Vallentlne, Gab'r 

Valts, Coonrod 

Van Allen, J. 

Vanarter, James 

Van Benscoten, Elias 

Vandebogart, John 

Van Debogart, Minard 

Van DeBogart, Myndert 

Vandemark, G 

Vandervort, Jacob 

Vandevour, John 

Vandu'Sen, Peter 

Van Etten, Peter 

Van Gelder, Isaac 

Vanhoosen, Rinier 

Van Hooser, Rynier 

Van Horn, John 

Van Houten, John 

Van Hoven, Ryner 

Vanlene, R. 

Vanline, J. 

Van North, John 

Vancore, Philip 

Van Size, Gilbert 

Van Steenbergh, Peter 

Vantassellj Isaac 

Van tassell, John 

Van Volkenborgh, 

Van Wicklen, Fred- 

Vanworma, Cornelius 

Vanna, Vincent 

Venier, Peter 

Vise, Daniel 

Voh, Peter 

Vonck, Henry 

Vredenburgh, James 
Wade, Elia 
Wait, Christopher 
Walker, Edward 
Walker, Mathew 
Walker, Matthias 
Wall, John 
Wallace, Benjamin 
Wallice, Uriah 
Waner, KiUean 
Ward, Abijah 
Ward, Jadoc 
Ward, Robert 
Ward, Zedock 
Warden, Benard 
Waring, Newman 
Warner, Martin 
Warson, Thomas 
Washburn, Joel 
Waterbury, Ely 
Watkins, William 
Watson, Thomas 
Watson, William 
Wattaker, Edward 
Wattles, William 
Weaver, John 
Webb, Ebenezer 
Webb, Silvanus 
Webster, Joseph 
Weed, Abijah 
Weed, Gilbert 
Weed, John Drew 
Weed, Nathan 
Weed, S. 
Weeks, James 
Weeks, John 
Weeks, Jonathan, Jr. 
Weeks, Macejah 
Weiss, Daniel 
Welch, Elijah 
Welch, Ephraim 
Welch, Henry 
Welch, Isaac 
Welch, James 
Welch, John 
Welch, Joseph 

Welch, Luke 
Welch, Thomas 
Welch, William 
Wells, Calvin 
Wells, Elijah 
Wells, P. 
WeUs, William 
Wentworth, James 
West, Ase 
West, Jacob 
West, Joseph 
West, William 
Westfall, Levi 
Whaley, Samuel 
Whaley, Timothy 
Wheeler, James 
*Wheeler, John 
Wheeler, S. 
Wheeler, Thomas 
Whipple, Nathan 
White, Ephraim 
White, George 
White, Henry 
White, John 
White, Samuel Curran 
White, Stephen 
White, Thomas 
Whitehead, Aaron 
Whitehead, Isaiah 
Whitehead, William 
Whitman, John 
Whitney, Jacob 
Wickham, Stephen 
Wicks, James 
Wicks, Jonathan 
Wiggins, WiUiam 
Wilcout, W. 
Wildley, Edward 
Wiley, Edward 
Wilkinson, Robert 
Wilks, Willis 
Williams, Aaron 
Williams, Abiah 
Williams, Adam 
Williams, Charles 
Williams, David 



Willams, John 
Williams, Peter 
Williamson, James 
Willis, Abraham 
Willis, David 
Willis, W. 
WiUis, J. 
Wilsee, H. 
Wilson, John 
WUson, Michael 
Wilson, Nathaniel 
Wilson, Samuel 
WUson, W. 
WUson, Walter 
WOtice, Joseph 
Winass, Silas 

Winchall, Samuel 
WincheU, James 
Witteker, Edward 
Wood, Jacob 
Wood, John 
Wood, Matthew 
Wood, Nathan 
Wood, Samuel 
Wood, William 
Wood, Zopher 
Woodruff, David 
Woodruff, Jeremiah 
Woodruff, Joshua 
Woodruff, William 
Word, Abijah 
Worden, Darious 

Worden, James 
Wordin, Shubel 
Worpeth, WiUiam 
Wright, John 
Wyer, Jeremiah 
Yarrington, WiUiam 
Yeoman, EUezer 
Youmans, Eleazer 
Youmans, Jonas 
Youmans, Jones 
Young, Isaac 
Young, John 
Young, Thomas 
Yurks, Harmanus 
Zedmond, Bartho'w 

The four regiments composing the Continental Line were brigaded 
under that gallant officer, General Richard Montgomery of Rhine- 
beck, and in September of '75 marched away to Canada with orders 
to secure possession of the Canadian government. After capturing 
St. John and Montreal, Montgomery garrisoned the conquered towns, 
and proceeded with his regiment, now reduced to three hundred men, 
against Quebec. On the march he was reinforced by the troops lead 
by Col. Benedict Arnold. Montgomery assumed command of the 
whole force, which did not exceed nine hundred eifective soldiers. For 
three weeks he besieged the town with his handful of men. Before 
daybreak on the 31st of December, 1776, he determined to stake every- 
thing on an assault. Dividing his little army into four columns, he 
led the first division in an attack on the Lower Town in the neighbor- 
hood of the citadel. A battery lay just before, and it was thought 
the gimners had not discovered the assailants. "Men of New York," 
said the brave Montgomery, "you wiU not fear to follow where your 
General leads ! Forward !" As the Americans rushed forward, the 
battery burst forth with a storm of grape-shot. Montgomery and 
both his aids fell dead. The men, heartbroken at the death of their 
beloved General, staggered a moment, then fell back, and returned to 
Wolfe's Cove, above the city. 

Arnold who attacked the town on the north was also severely 
wounded. Of the men from Dutchess who lost their Hves in this cam- 
paign there is, of course, no record. The worst calamity was the 


death of General Richard Montgomery. Even in England it was men- 
tioned with sorrow. Born of an illustrious Irish family, he became a 
soldier in his boyhood. He had shared the toils and the triumph of 
Wolfe. To the enthusiasm of a warm and affectionate nature he joined 
the highest order of mihtary talents and the virtues of an exalted 
character. In July, 1773, he married Janet, eldest daughter of Rob- 
ert R. and Margaret (Beekman) Livingston of Rhinebeck. 

Some years after the death of Gen. Montgomery, his widow erected 
a mansion just south of Annandale in the town of Red Hook, and, in 
1818, from a portico of this building she watched the remains of her 
husband, which had been disinterred and borne from Canada under a 
mihtary escort, conveyed by the steamboat Richmond, to the final 
resting place beneath the chancel of St. Paul's Church in New York 



MtrsTEB, R01.1.S. 

ACCORDING to the rolls of the State, Dutchess county had 
seven regiments during the war, which included a regiment 
of "Minute Men," under command of Col. Jacobus Swart- 
wout. Ezekiel Cooper also commanded a company of sixty-six men, 
known as Cooper's Rangers. 

The militia was called out when wanted, kept as long as wanted, and 
the soldiers then sent to their homes. Sometimes a regiment would be 
called out half a dozen times in the course of a year, and for half a 
dozen days at a time, and again it might not be needed in the entire 
year. The regiment of Minute Men and the Sixth Regiment, com- 
manded respectively by Colonels Jacobus Swartwout and Morris Gra- 
ham, took part in the battles of White Plains and Harlem. 

Officers and men seem to have often served in different organiza- 
tions. A change in the arrangement of the miUtia caused many 
transfers of officers of the regiments and in their companies during 
the two years following the original organization in 1775; numerous 
resignations followed. This has led to much confusion in the records. 

The names of the officers and enlisted men of the regiments raised 
in Dutchess as they stand on the pubhshed roll in "New York in the 
Revolution," follows — except the privates in Col. Frear's regiment, of 
which no record can be found. These names were compiled by the 
State from that highest of sources, the original muster and pay-rolls, 
and are the same as have been transcribed and placed in the records 
of the War Department at Washington. The orthography in the 
original manuscript has been adhered to, and a blank line inserted 
where uie letters were undecipherable. 




Captains — Stephen Duryee, Henry Goodwin, George Lane, Comfort Ludington, 
William Mott, William Perce, Abraham Schenck, Barnardus Swartwont, Israel 
Veal, Cornelius Van Wyck. " ^ ^ 

LiEUTEifANTs — Henry Bailey, John Berry, Nathaniel Butler, William Colkin, Jon- 
athan Crane, Benjamin Elliot, Joseph Garrisqn, Abraham Hiat, Jacob Horton, 
John Langdon, Andrew Lawrence, John Manroe, Henry Mott, Thomas Ostrander,. 
Charles Piatt, Nathaniel Smith, Isaac Townsend, Peter Van Bunschoten, John T. 
Van Kleak. 

Adoms, Jesse 
Adreanse, Thead 
VAkerby, Benjamin 
Allen, Jorge 

Anderson, eth 

Appleyee, Coonraad 
Ashbe, Zebulon 
Askin, WiUiam 
Aslen, Abm. 
Aubley, William 

Babcock, eph 

Bailey, Daniel 
Bailey, Ebenezer 
Bailey, Elias 
Baker, Eleazer 
Baker, Elisha 
Baker, Joshua 
Baker, Francis 
Ball, Elephalet 
Barker, Richard 

Barkins, avid 

Barnes, Henry 
Barns, Will 
Barse, Zebulen 

Bartley, hall Pels 

Baxter, Thomas 
Bell, Henry 
Bennet, Elihu 
Benny, John 
Bently, Joseph 
Berger, Andrew 

Beugus, Thomas 
Billings, John 


Birdall, Jacob 
Bishop, Joshua 
Bishop, Livy 
Boga — —, Peter 
Bokardus, Lewis 
Bolt, Moses 
Bonker, Dolf 

Boyd, mes 

Boyington, Solomon 
Bozworth, Hezekiah 
Bradley, Nathan 
Branah, James 
Brill, Jacob, Jr. 
Brinckerhoff, Hen 
Brisbend, James 
Brock, William 
Brower, Charles 
Brower, Hindrick 
Brower, Lazareth 
Brower, Rodolphus 
Brown, Stephen 
Brumsfleld, James 
Brustead, William 
Bimschout, Elias C. 
Burbanks, Noah 
Burch, David 
Burch, Jeremiah 
' Burch, Silas 
Burdsill, Jacob 
Burges, Thomas 
Burlonon, Feamot 
Burnet, Isaac 
Burnett, Peter 
Byington, Solomon 
Camfield, James 

Carl, Joseph 
Carman, John 
Champenois, Daniel 

^hamplin, Joshua, Jr. 
Chapman, Enoch 
Chapman, Samuel 
Chase, Seth 
Christian, Zechariah 
Christie, John 
Clapp, Benjamin 
Clark, Joshua 
Clark, Stephen 
Cole, Andrew 
Colkens, Eli 
Conner, John 
Cornell, Samuel 
Cornwell, Sylvenus 
Corsa, Abrah 
Corsa, Isaac 
Courtright, John 
Craft, Caleb 
Crane, Ira 
Croft, Jacob 
Crowfoot, William 
Crumwell, Aac 
Currer, Elijah 
Curtis, Andrew 
Dart, Hozell 
Davids, John 
Davis, David 
Davison, James 
Davison, John 
Dean, Stephen 



Degrote, John 
Dervoort, Sam L. 
Dimmick, Shubal 
Disbrow, David 
Dodge, Will 
Dollaway, Jerem 
DoUaway, WiUiam 
Downen, Cornelius 
Doxey, Amos 
Draper, John 
Draper, Joseph 
Drew, WiUiam 
Dmiekin, John 
Dutcher, David 
Edams, Joseah 
Ede, Joshua 
Edget, John 
Egelston, James 
Elderkin, James 
Eldige, Jonathan 
Eldridge, Elisha 
Eldridge, Michael 
EUembatz, Eman'l 
Elliott, Abn. 
ElweU, Ezra 
ElweU, Jabes, Jr. 
Emegh, Jeremiah 
Evens, John 
Evens, Thomas 
Fairchild, Nathaniel 
Fetch, Jerry 
Fileow, Enoch 
Fileow, Phineas 
Finch, Ruben 
Force, Timothy 
Forgason, Abram 
Forguson, Samuel 
Foster, David 
Poster, John 
Foster, Thomas 
Fowler, Austin 
Fowler, Isaac 

Frear, raham, Jr. 

Frear, Thomas 
Frost, *rhomas, Jr. 
Frost, William 

Fuller, Isaac 
Fullmore, Jasper 
Garrison, Abraham 
Gedeons, Joseph 
Gee, John 
Gielwack, Michel 
Gifford, Samuel 
GifFord, William 
Goldin, Rob 
GoodfeUow, Wffl 
Griffen, Isaac 
GrifFen, William 
Giigory, Daniel 
Grigory, Josiah 
Halsted, Thomas 
Halsted, WiU 
Harris, Peter 
Harriss, Mendt 
Hawkins, James 
Hawkins, Samuel 
Hayburn, John 
Heacock, John 
Hempstead, Nathaniel 
Henkly, Josiah 
Hervy, Peter 
Heucldy, Isaac 
Hicks, Jacob 
Hicks, Nathaniel 
Higbee, William 
Hill, Antiney 

Hill, ^bert 

Hitchcock, Joseph 
Hoeg, Nathan 
HofF, Abraham 
HojEFman, Charles 
Hopkins, Thacher 
Howe, William 
Howes, Moody 
Hoyt, Michael 
Hubbard, Joseph 
Huff, Gamaliel 
Huling, Walter 
Hunt, Jessee 
Hunt, William 
Hutchings, John 
Hyatt, Steve 

Ingersol, ^pheus 

Jewet, John 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, Sabin 
Jones, Jeremiah 

Jones, ^lias 

Jones, Nathan 
Jordan, John 
Judd, Ebenezer 
Keating, Isaac 
Keelar, Ezra, Jr. 
KeUy, Shubal 
King, Jacob 
King, Richard 
Kipp, Hanry 
Kipp, Matthew 
Kipp, Pater 
Kirkem, Seth 
Koonts, Nicholas, Jr. 
KsnifSn, Amos 
Laine, Jacob 
Lake, Benjamin 
Lamb, Joseph 

Latson, James, Jr. 
LaughUn, Hugh 
Lawrance, John 
Lawson, Isaac 
Leggett, Abraham 
Lent, Ab'm 
Lent, Abraham A. 
Lent, James 
Lent, Peter 
Lewis, Thomas 
Lossen, And 
Lossen, Richard 
Lossing, Pater Q. 
Loveless, Joseph 
Ludington, Stephen 
Lyons, James 
McCavey, Edward 
McChucking, Thomas 

McColm, ^mes 

McCreedy, James, Jr. 
McCullough, And 
McCutchen, Rob 




McGragor, unian 

McLoud, Alexander 

McNeil, ry 

Malties, — ^m'l 
Manrow, Justice 
Maston, Ezekiel 
Mathews, Justice 
Merrick, Done 
Merritt, David 
Miles, John 
Miles, Noah 
Miller, Godfrey 
Miller, John 
Miller, Solomon 
Mitchell, George 
Moe, Isaac 
Morehouse, John 
Morehouse, Samuel 
Morehouse, Stephen 
Morey, Lotrip 
Morfort, Peter 
Morgain, James 
Morgan, Reuben 

Morison, ^bald 

Morse, Phil 
Moure, David 
Murray, James 
Nelson, Paul 
Nichels, Epraim 
Nickerson, Eliphalet 
Nickerson, Mulfort 
Nicolls, Thomas 
Nikeson, Thomas 
Noortshant, Peter 
Noortsrant, George 
Nostrant, Johanes 
Oats, James 
Ockerman, Casparus 
Olmstead, Ebenezer 
Ornes, George 
Osborn, Peter 
Ouslin, Thorn 
Parker, Nathaniel 
Parks, Andrew 
Parks, John 
Parks, John ye 2d 

Parrash, Azariah 
Parrish, Silas 
Peet, Abraham 

Pelse, hn 

Pelse, oen 

Perce, "William, Jr. 
Persons, Moses 
Philipse, Hen 
Pindle, Jonathan 

Plugh, Ihamus 


Polhamus, dan 

Polmeteer, Peter 
Pooler, Joseph 
Post, Absolom 
Potter, Gilbert 
Potter, Samuel 
Pudney, Francis 
Purdy, Abraham 
Rainey, John 
Recorde, Wetmore 
Reed, Aaron 

Reed, ohn 

Reynolds, hardson 

Reynolds, Jesse 
Rhynhart, Johanes 
Richards, James 
Robbards, Benjamin 
Roberts, Peter 
Robinson, Andrew 
Robinson, John 
Robinson, Jones 
Robinson, Lewis 
Robison, Andrew 
Roe, Benjamin, Jr. 

Romer, , Jr. 

Romyne as 

Roschrans, Peter 
Runals, David 
RuneUs, James 
Runnels, Jonathan 
Rush, Frederick 
Rynders, James 
Sabin, Elijah 
Saminds. Jacob 

Saris, Nathaniel 
Saunders, John 
Schonover, Peter 
Schonter, Andrew 
Scott, Timothy 
Serherve, John 
Shapprong, Jan 
Shared, William 
Shaw, Daniel 
Shaw, James 
Shear, Henry B. 
Shear, Lodwich 
Sherwood, Nathan 
Shutt, Fradrick 
Shutt, Simes 
Sickle, Fard C. 

• Sickler, George 
Simkins, Daniel 
SJack, ^ile 

»''^iecht, Ab 
SmaUee, James 
Smith, David 
Smith, Eph 
Smith, John 
Smith, John, Jr. 
Smith, Joseph, Jr. 
Smith, Joshua 
Smith, Nemiah 
Smith, Samson 
Smith, William 
Snedeker, James 
Snedeker, John 
Snider, Isaac 

Snyder, ^hn 

Soatpard, Benjamin 
Somes, Nathaniel 
Storm, Jacob 
Strickland, Samuel 
Surrine, Charles 
Swartout, Jacobus C. 
Swartout, Cornelius 
Sweet, John 
Sweet, Robert 

Talmen, ^kim 

Tanner, John 
Taylor, Gamiliel 



Taylor, John 
Ter Boss, Simon 
Terbus, Peter 
Tevinis, John 
Thomas, Daniel 
Thompson, Thomas 

Thorn, horn 

Totten, ^mes 

Townend, Joseph 
Townsend, Daniel 
Townsend, James 
Travis, Abrm. 
Travis, Silvanus 
Tripp, Othenial 
Underwood, Hen 
Utter, Amos 
Van Cleck, Bardard P. 
Van De Burg 
Van Deburgh, Henry I. 
Van De Burgh, Stephen 
Van Der Bogert, Peter 
Van Der Vort, Paul 
Van Devaters, Jacobus 
Van Devaters, James 
Van Stern Bergh, 

Van Tassel, John 
Van Vlerken, Benja- 
Van Wagenar, John 
Varmiliah, John 
Vasdawl, Disak 
Virmilyan, William 
Wagoner, Tobias 
Wait, Christopher 
Ward, Daniel 
Ward, Samuel 
Wareing, Thadeus 
Waron, Tedes 
Way, Giddeon 
Weaver, Edward 
Weaver, Peter 
Weaver, William 
Webb, Henry 
Weddle, Robert 
Weeks, Abraham 
Weeks, Micajah 
Western, John 
Westervelt, Benjamin 
Westervett, Caspau- 

rac C. 
White, Daniel 

Whitney, Josiah 
Wickson, Solomon 
Wilis, Reuben 
Willcocks, Stephen 
WiUcox, Barnabas 
Willis, Thomas 
WilUss, Hen 
Wilsee, Grandus 
Winstead, Charles 

Wood, eph 

Wood, Solomon 
Wood, Timothy 
Woodard, Ephraim 
Woodard, Samuel 
Wooden, John 
Worden, Shuble 
Wester, William 
Wright, Daniel 
Wright, Gabriel, Jr. 
Wright, John 
Wright, Thomas 
Yames, Reuben 
Yeomans, John 
Yeomans, Jonas 
Young, Jacob 


Colonel Abraham Brinckerhoff 
Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Griffen 
Major Andrew HiU 
Major Richard Van Wyck 
Adjutant Jacob Brinkerhoff 

Quarter Master William GoseUne 
Quarter Master Uriah Hill 
Quarter Master Isaac Sebring 
Quarter Master Cornelius Van Wyck 

Captais-s — George Brinkerhoff, George G. Brinkerhoff, John G. Brinkerhoff, 
Nicholas Brower, Joseph Horton, Abraham Lent, John Schutt, Thomas Storm, 
Evert W. Swart, James R. Swartwout, John Van Bunschoten, Matthew Van Bun- 
schoten, Isaac Van Wyck. 

Lieutenants — Cornelius Adriance, Robert Brett, John Cooper, Johannes Dewitt, 
Christian Dubois, Stephen Osborne, Benjamin Rosekrans, Jacobus Scautt, Abraham 
Schultz, William Swartwout, Robert Todd, Barent Van Claeck, Isaac Van Cleef, 
Barent Van Kleeck, Abraham Van Wyck, Francis Way, Johannes Wiltsie. 

Ensigns — ^Moses Barber, Jacob Bisse, Lawrence Haff, Charles Hoffman, Abra- 
ham Hageland, Abraham Ladue, Daniel Schenck, Jacob S. Swartwout, Jacobus 
Swartwout, James P. Swartwout. 



Ackarman, John 
Adriance, Cornelius 
Adriance, George 
Adriance, Isaac 
Adriance, John 
Adriance, Ram., Jr. 
Adriance, Rem 
Adriance, Theodorus 
Aldyck, John 
Algatt, WilUam 
Atgelt, John 
Algelt, William 
Altgelt, WiUiam 
Ammerman, Albert 
Annin, Daniel 
Annin, James 
Appelge, Coenrad 

Applee, Coenradt 
Atgelt, John 
Avery, John 
Backer, Jacob 
Bailey, John 
Bailey, Nathan 
BaUey, Sutton 
Baker, James 
Baker, Jesse 
Baker, Peter 
Baker, Thomas 
Baker, William 
Baldwin, Joseph 
Barber, John ^ 
Barber, Moises 
Barber, Stephen 
Barker, John 
Barker, Samuel 
Barkins, David 
Barnard, Thomas 
Barnes, Solomon 
Barnes, William 
Barns, John 
Bates, Stephen 
Bedel, Jesse 
Bedle, Jesse 
Beedle, John 


Bell, Henry 
Bell, John 
Benjamin, Chester 
Bennet, Joseph 
Berkinis, David 
Bernard, Thomas 
Berry, Nicholas 
Berry, Peter 
Bigbey, Christopher 
Bise, Simon 
Biship, Levi 
Bishop, Caleb 
Bishop, Joshua 
Bisse, Jacob 
Bloom, Benjamin 
Bloom, Sylvester 
Bocker, Adolph 
Boerum, Hendrick 
Boerum, Nicholas 
Boerum, William 
Bogardus, Cornelius 
Bogardiis, Francis 
Bogardus, Mathew 
Bogardus, Peter 
Bogardus, Shibboleth 
Bogart, Daniel 
Bogart, Ort 
Bogart, Peter 
Boice, Henry 
Boice, Simon 
Bomp, Joseph 
Boncker, Nathaniel 
Boncker, Stephen 
Bower, Daniel 
Bown, Joseph 
Brandage, James 
Brannah, James 
Brett, Francis B. 
Brett, Rambout 
Brett, Robert 
Brett, Theodorus 
Brewer, Charles 
Briggs, Caleb 
Brinckerho, Abraham J. 
Brinckerhoff, Abraham 

Brinckerhoff, Abra- 
ham I. 

Brinckerhoff, Abra- 
ham J. 

Brinckerhoif, Daniel 

BrinckerhofP, DerickJ. 

Brinckerhoff, Dirck 

BrinckerhofP, Dirck, Jr. 

Brinckerhoff, Dirck T. 

Brinckerhoff, George 

Brinckerhoff, Henry 

Brinckerhoff, Isaac 

Brinckerhoff, Jacob 

Brinckerhoff, John S. 
• Brock, Francis 

Brooks, William 

Brower, Daniel 

Brower, David 

Brower, Garret 

Brower, William 

Brown, Aron 

Brown, Jacob 

Brown, James 

Brown, Samuel 

Brown, Stephen 


Bruer, Wilam 

Brumfield, James 


Budd, John 

Bump, Jacob 

Burhans, Peter 

Burlyson, Ferenot 

Burnet, Isaac 

Burroughs, James 

Bush, John 

Bush, Peter 

Bush, Zachariah 

Bussing, Abraham 

Butcher, Robert 

Byce, Henry 

Canfield, Daniel 

Canfield, James 

Canfield, Titus 

Canniff, John 



Canniff, Levi 
Carman, John 
Carman, Thomas 
Carpenter, Henry 
CaT7, John 
Cary, Joseph 
Chatfidd, WUUam 
Chnrchill, Edward 
Churchill, Isaac 
Churchill, Jacob 
Churchill, John 
Churchill, Jonas 
Churchill, Joseph 
Clapp, John 
Clark, Samuel 
Clarke, Matthew 
Cleyland, William 
Cochran, William 
CofSn, John 
Cole, Aaron 
Cole, Jacob 
Cole, Aron 
Comfort, Richard 
Compton, John 
Concklin, Elias 
Concklin, John 
Concklin, Lawrence 
Concklin, Matthew 
Concklin, William 
Connor, James 
Connor, John 
Connover, Benjamin 
Cook, John 
Cook, William 
Coons, Philip 
Cooper, Cornelius 
Cooper, Cornelius, J. 
Cooper, Jacob 
Cooper, John 
Cooper, Minderd 
Cooper, Obadiah 
Cooper, Obadiah I. 
Cooper, Obadiah J. 
CoOpma)!, Jacob 
Coopper, Doct 
Cooper, Obadiah 

Corker, John Rynas 
Cornell, John 
ComweU, Clement 
ComweU, Silvester 
Covenhoven, Adrian 
Covert, John 
Covint, John 
Cowenhoven, Benjamin 
Cowinhoverd, Adrjian 
Craft, Thomas 
Crandel, Abraham 
Crawford, William 
Crinck, Abraham 
Cronck, Abraham 
Cronck, Lawrence 
Cronk, Valam 
Cuer, Nathaniel 
Cuer, Samuel 
Cuer, William 
Culver, Dennis 
Cure, Matthew 
Currie, Archibald 
Currie, John 
Cushman, William 
Dannels, James 
Darlon, Jacobus 
Dates, John 
Datin, Corrinbary 
David, Henry 
Davis, John 
Davison, James 
Dayton, Hezekiah 
Dean, Stephen 
Deboisi Christian 
Deets, John 
Degraff, Moses 
Degraff, Simeon 
Degrutia, Elias 
Delamater, William 
Delaway, Jeremiah 
Demilt, Garret 
Demilt, Isaac 
Demitt, Garret 
Depue, Peter 
Devine, Asher 
Devoort, Samuel 

Dewitt, John 
Dewitt, Peter 
Dickinson, John H. 
Diness, Mynard 
DoUoway, Jeremiah 
Donalds, James 
Doxey, Stephen 
Dubois, Cornelius 
Dubois, Gideon 
Dubois, Jacob 
Dubois, Koert 
Dubois, Peter 
Dubois, Tennis 
Dubois, Thomas 
Duboys, Jacob T. 
Durtwater, Daniel 
Duryce, Abraham, Jrj. 
Duryee, Charles 
Duryer* Abraham 
Dutcher, Barnt 
Dutcher, David 
Dycker, David 
Eldred, William 
Ellis, Henry 
Elsworth, Ahasserus 
Eleworth, Alexander 
Emans, Jacobus 
Enness, James 
Every, John 
Farington, Joseph 
Parrel, Daniel 
Fawlor, Austin 
Ferhone, John 
Ferrington, Joseph 
Fitchout, John 
Flegler, Zachariah 
Flowers, Benjamin 
Flynn, Patrick 
Forbes, John 
Forguson, Samuel 
Fowlar, Joseph 
Garrison, Reuben 
Gault, Matthew 
Gauslin, William 
Gee, Jno. 
Gerow, Benjamin 



Gerow, Daniel 
GUdersleeve, James 
Gildersleeve, Joseph 
GUdersleeve, Nathaniel 
Giles, WiUiam 
Godfellow, WiUiam 
Golnack, Michael 
Goodfellow, William 
GoTsline, Samuel 
GorsUne, WiUiam 
GosUng, Samuel 
GosUng, WiUiam 
Green, Ezekiel 
Green, Gilbert 
Green, Isaac 
Green, James 
Green, James, Jr. 
Green, Jeremiah 
Green, John 
Green, Joseph 
Green, Joseph, Sr. 
Green, Joseph, Jr. 
Green, Stephen 
GrifiSn, Cornelius 
Griffin, Isaac 
Griffin, Jacob 
Griffin, John 
Griffin, Joseph 
Griffin, Joshua 
Griffin, Peter 
Gue, Isaac 
Gulnack, Jacob 
Gulnecfc, Michael 
Haasner, Jacob 
Hageman, Francis 
Hageman, Jeremiah 
Hageman, Peter 
Haines, John 
Hair, Amos 
Hallett, R. 
Halstead, Thomas 
Halstead, William 
Halsted, Josiah 
Hames, John F. 
Hanly, Matthew 

Hanson, Aurt 

Hanson, John 

Hardenbergh, Dirck 

Hardenbergh, Garret 

Harris, Minderd 

Harsincise, Isaac 

Hart, Michal 

Hasbrook, Jacob 

Haskins, WiUiam 

Hasner, Jacob 

Hawk, John Baron 

Hayburn, John 

Heeremans, Henry 

Heermans, John 

Hegamen, Peter 

HeUker, John 

Hicks, John 

Hicks, Joshua 

Higbee, Flemming 

Higbee, Lemuel 

Higby, FlimmewiU 

Higby, Lemuel 


Hilton, Joseph 

Hodge, Abraham 

Hoffman, Daniel 

Hogjaboom, Bartholo- 

Hogan, Edward 

Hoghtalen, John 

Holmes, Issac 

Holmes, William 

Homes, WiUiam 

Honson, John 

Hoogeboom, Barthol- 

Hoogland, Derick 

Hoogland, William 

Hoogtalen, John 

Horsuer, Jacob 

Horton, Gilbert 

Horton, Joseph 

Horton, Joseph P. 

Horton, Joshua 

Horton, Matthias J. 

Horton, Peter 

Hosher, Stephen 
Howard, Joseph 
Huff, Angel 
Huff, Lawrence 
Huffman, Daniel 
Hughson, Gabriel 
Hughson, John 
Hughson, WiUiam 
Hulst, Peter 
Humfrey, Henry 
Hutchings, Jacob 
Hutchins, Benjamin 
Hyer, Walter 
Innes, James 
Innis, Peter 
•Isaac, Burnet 
Jackson, Joseph 
Jarepenning, John 
Jarow, Daniel 
Jarowe, Benjamin 
JerwiUinger, Jerean 
JeweU, Abraham 
JeweU, George 
JeweU, John 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, Thomas 
Johnson, Robert 
Jones, David 
Kappelye, Issac 
KeUy, WiUiam 
Kennedy, Henry 
KerriUy, Daniel 
Kershon, Isaac 
Ketcham, Titus 
King, WUliam 
Kip, John 
Kipp, Abraham 
Klump, Zachariah 
Knapp, Shadrack 
Kniffen, Jonathan 
Kniver, Jacob 
Kronk, James 
Ladeau, Daniel 
Ladeu, Nathaniel 
Ladeu, Oliver 
Ladew, Abraham 



Ladua, William 
Ladue, Peter 
Lane, Gilbert 
Lane, Gilbert, Jr. 
Lane, Jacob 
Lane, Jesse 
Lane, Joseph 
Lane, Joshua 
Lane, William 
Lane, WiUiam, Jr. 
Landgon, Jonathan 
Lany, William, Jr. 
Larry, Jno. 
Lattemore, Thomas 
Lattin, Ambrose 
Lawrence, John 
Lean, Joseph 
Lieavy, John 
Ledeau, William, Sr. 
Ledue, Daniel 
Lee, Jonathan 
Leghtatn, John 
Lent, Abraham, Jr. 
Lequiere, Abraham 
Leroy, Francis 
Leroy, Peter 
Leroy, Simon 
Lerye, WiUiam 
Light, William 
Light, Woilsey 
Linderbeck, John 
Lisk, Benjamin 
Losee, Abraham 
Losee, Abraham L. 
Losee, Jacob 
Losee, John A. 
Losee, Simeon 
Low, Jno. 
Low, John 
Luckey, Samuel 
Ludenton, Steapen 
Ludington, Stephen 
Luord, Josiah 
Luyste^ Dirck 
Luyster, Peter 
Lyster, Garret 

McBride, John 
McCaby, Edward 
MacCrady, James 
McCredy, James 
McCudgeon, Robert 
McKaby, Dennis 
McKeeby, Darius 
McKeeby, WiUiam 
McKeely, Edward 
McKeUy, WUliam 
MeManness, Michael 
McNeal, Henry 
Major, James 
Mannery, WiUiam 
Marcius, C. 
Marston, Aurt 
Marten, Aert 
Marten, Peter 
Martense, Adrian 
Martin, Ezekiah 
Martin, Gershom 
Martin, Jeremiah 
Martin, Thomas 
Masten, Aert 
Mastin, Ezechiel 
Maxfield, James 
Mead, David 

Meddagh, Aurt 

Medew, Lewis 
Meed, Jeremiah 

Meger, WilUam 

Menema, John 

Meritt, Joseph 

Mestin, Aurt 

Meyer, Abraham 

Meyer, James 

Meyer, Peter 

Middagfa, Aurt 

Middagh, James 

Miels, Bennajah 

Miels, Noah 

Miles, John 

Miles, Noah 

MiUer, Ezra 

MiUer, James 

Miller, PhiUp 

Mills, Benajah 
MUls, Robert 
Mogar, Caleb 
Moger, William 
Monfoort, Albert 
Monfoort, Domenicus 
Monfoort, Elbert, Jr. 
Monfoort, John 
Monfoort, John C. 
Monfoort, Peter 
Monfort, Elbert 
Monfort, John P. 
Monger, William 
Monson, George 
Montanye, Benjamin 
Morse, Joseph 
Mortisa, Adriaan 
Munfort, Adrian 
Myer, Abraham 
Myer, Adolph 
Myer, Jacob 
Myer, John 
Myer, John, Jr. 
Myer, John Dikman 
Meyer, Peter 
Myer, William 
Myers, Abraham 
Naddue, Lewis 
NeaUy, Samuel 
Neeley, Rolette 
Neepes, Abraham 
Nelson, Paul 
Nettleton, Amos 
Newton, Charles 
Nifer, Jacob 
Noorstrant, John 
Noorstrant, Peter 
Norstrand, Cornelius 
Norstrand, Jacobus 
Norton, Peter 
Nostrand, George 
OdiMa, WiUiam 
Oestrande, Cornells 
Ogden, Benjamin 
Ogden, Joseph 
Osbern, Richard 



Osborn, Doct 
Osborn, James 
Osborn, Peter 
Osborn, Richard 
Osborn, Samuel 
Ostram, John, Jr. 
Ostrander, Cornelius 
Ostrander, Henry 
Ostrom, John 
Outwater, Daniel 
Paddock, Peter 
Palen, Hendriek 
Palen, Peter 
Paling, Peter 
Palm, Hendriek 
Palmetier, Petrus 
Pardon, Thomas 
Parker, Joseph 
Parker, Nathaniel 
Pating, Hennery 
Patterson, Abijah 
Peck, Joseph 
Peck, Oliver 
Petet, Ebenezer 
Pettit, David 
Phlips, James 
Philips, Ralph, Jr. 
Philips, Roelof 
Philips, William 
Philips, WiUiam C. 
Phillips, Abraham 
Phillips, David 
Phillips, Henry 
Phillips, Jacobus 
Pierce, Richard 
Pine, Philip 
Pine, Robert 
Pine, Silvanus 
Pine, Thomas 
Pollock, William 
PoUom, Tice 
Post, Joseph 
Potten, Danel 
Pudney, Cornelius 
Pudney, Francis 
Pudney, John 

PuUick, John 
PuUick, William 
Purdy, Elisha 
Purdy, Gilbert 
Purdy, Joseph 
Purdy, Nathaniel 
Quan, John 
Rantsier, Andrew 
Rapalgee, John 
Rapelsee, Isaac 
Rayer, Daniel 
Raynor, Daniel 
Reynolds, Andrew 
Right, Daniel 
Robinson, Jonas 
Roe, Benjamin 
Roe, Daniel 
Roe, David 
Rogers, Joseph 
Rogers, Micah 
Rogers, Michael 
Rogers, Piatt 
Rogers, Robert 
Rogers, Uriah 
RoU, Henry 
Romer, John 
Rosekrans, Benjamin 
Rosekrans, John 
Rosekrans, Peter 
Rosekrans, Thomas; 
Roukrans, Dirck 
Rowland, Mai^n 
Runnels, Andrew 
Ryce, Peter 
Rycel, Peter 
Ryder, Caleb 
Ryer, Tunis 
Ryndass, John 
Ryness, Abraham 
Ryness, Andrew 
Ryness, John 
Sackett, Ananias 
Santon, William 
Schenck, Daniel 
Schenck, Philip 
Schenck, Roeloff 

Schounhover, Peter 
Schouten, CorneUus 
Schouten, Ephraim 
Schouten, John 
Schouten, Simon 
Schouten, William 
Schouter, Cornelius 
Schutt, Abraham 
Schutt, James 
Schutt, John, Jr. 
Schutt, Joseph 
Schutt, Stephen 
Schutt, Tennis 
Scofield, Silvanus 
Scot, Walter 
Scouten, Andrew 
Scouten, Andris 
Scouten, Ephraim 
Scouten, Johannes 
Scouten, John 
Scouten, Simon 
Scutt, Dennis, 
Scutt, Joseph 
Sebring, Cornelius 
Sebring, Isaac 
Secord, Isaac 
Secord, Josiah 
Seton, Heskieh 
Shaff, Frederick 
Shear, Abraham 
Sherer, James 
Shevling, John 
Shults, Christopher 
Shute, Aron 
Sickles, John, Jr. 
Skutt, Teunjs 
Slack, William 
-Sleight, Abraham 
^Sleight, John 
flight, Abraham, Jr. 
Sloot, John 
Smith, Isaac 
Smith, Jacob 
Smith, John 
Smith, Joseph 



Smith, Joseph, Jr. 
Smith, Joshua 
Smith, Martin 
Smith, Maurice 
Smith, Morris 
Smith, Richard 
Smith, Sylvester 
Smith, WilUam 
Snider, George 
Snider, Moses 
Sodem, John 
Soden, John 
Somendyke, Jacob 
Somemdike, William 
Somes, Nathaniel 
Somes, Richard 
Somes, Stephen 
Southard, Gilbert 
Southard, Henry 
Southard, Isaac 
Southard, John 
Southard, John, Jr. 
Southard, Richard 
Southard, Thomas 
Southerd, Jones 
Spence, John 
Spencer, John 
Stanton, William 
Storm, Isaac 
Storm, John 
Sutton, Joseph 
Swartwort, James 
Swartwout, Cornelius 
Swartwout, John 
Swartwout, Richard 
Swartwout, Samuel 
Swartwout, Thomas 
TaUman, Timothy 
Tanner, Zopher 
Tarpennye, John 
Taylor, Stephen 
Teller, Oliver 
Terbosh, Abraham 
TerBush, Luke 
Tercoss, William 
Terhune, John 

Terhune, Daniel 
Terpanning, John 
Terwilger, Juryan 
Thatcher, Stephen 
Theal, Joseph 
Thomas, Johnson 
Thompson, Ezra 
Thorn, Gershom 
Thurston, Benjamin 
Thurston, James 
Totten, Daniel 
Traverse, Nathaniel 
Tremper, Michael 
Turhune, Abraham 
Turhune, John 
Turner, Alexander 
Turner, Elljck 
Vail, Isaac 
VaU, Jesse 

Van Amburgh, Abra- 
Van Banech, Jacob 
Van Benchoten, , James 
Van Bomal, Christo- 
Van Bomelj Peter 
Van Bonnel, Christ- 

Van Bosnel, Peter 
Vanbumble, Stuffl 
Van Bumbler, Peter 
Van Bunchoten, Jacob 
Van Bunchoten, Tennis 
Van Bunchoten, Teu- 

nis, Jr. 
Vanclackren, Mari- 

nus T. 
Van Cleck, Boltis B. 
Van Cleef, Michael 
Van Cots, John 
Van Cott, Daniel 
Van Crob, Abraham 
Vancuran, Casparus 
Vandeburgh, Abram 
Van Der BUt, Aart 
Van Derbilt, P. 

Vandervoort, Jacobus 
Vandervoort, John 
Van Der Voort, Sam- 
Vander Water, John 
Vande Water, Adolph 
Vandewater, Harman 
Van Dewater, James 
Vandewort, Peter 
Van Duwnter, John 
Vand Water, James 
Vandworter, Jacobus 
Van Erway, Jacob 
Van Every, Edde 
Van Every, Jacob 
Van Flack, Henry 
Van Kerse, John 
Van Keuren, Matthew 
Van Kleack, Bar- 
rant B. 
Van Kleeck, Baltus 
Van Kleeck, Barent A. 
Van Kleeck, Barn- 
ard C. 
Van Kleeck, Bamet 
Van Kleeck, Michael 
Van Kuren, Caspowres 
Van Leyse, I. 
Van Norstrant, John 
Van Nortstrant, Cor- 

Van Siclen, John 
Van Steenberger, Cor- 
Van Steenbergh, Cor- 
Vantassel, Henry 
Vantassil Jacob 
Van Tassill, John 
Vantiers, William 
Vantine, Abraham 
Vantine, Cornelius 
Van Tine, William 
Van Valen, Daniel 
Van Valen, Jeremiah 
Van Valen, John 




Van Valer, Moses 
Van Velen, Ede 
Van Veler, Daniel 
Van Vlack, Baient 
Van Vlack, John H. 
Van Vlack, Merinus 
Van Vleck, John 
Van Vleck, Merine 
Van Vleckren, Abra- 
Van Vleckren, George 
Van Vleckren, Henry 
Vanvleckren, Marinus 
Van Vleckren, Marin- 
us T. 
Van Voorhees, Stephen 
Van Vooheis, Jero- 

Van Voorhis, Abraham 
Van Voorhis, Jacob 
Van Voorhis, Jero- 

Van Voorhis, John 
Van Voorhis, Zacha- 

Van Wey, Cornelius 
Van Wyck, Abraham 
Van Wyck, Cornelius 
Van Wyck, John 
Van Wyck, John B. 
Van Wyck, Theodorus 
Vandle, James 
Vermilier, Benjamin 

Vermilya, John 
Vermuly, David 
Vermuly, Geraduis 
Vervalin, Daniel 
Vervalin, Jermiah 
Vervalin, John 
Vervalin, Moses 
Vestervals, John 
Voorhis, Jerom 
Waldron, Benjamin 
Waldron, Daniel 
Waldron, David 
Waldron, John 
Waldron, John P. 
Waldron, Peter 
Ward, Daniel 
Ward, James 
Ward, William 
Washburn, Isaac 
Waters, John 
Watts, John 
Way, Frederick 
Way, George 
Way, Gideon 
Way James 
Way, John 
Way, Joost 
Webard, John 
Weed, John 
Wenn, William 
Westervalt, Albert 
Wesftervalt, John 
Westervelt, Elbert 
Westervelt, George 

Westervelt, Jacobus 
Westervelt, John 
Wibard, John 
Wille, James 
Wilsee, William 
Wiltse, Cornelius 
Wiltse, Joseph 
Watse, Peter 
Wiltsee, Hendrick 
Wiltsey, Geradus 
Wiltsie, WiUiam 
Wiltzee, Harmery 
Winn, Johnson 
Winn, Joseph 
Winslow, Samuel 
Wood, Isaac 
Wood, Jesse 
Wood, John 
Wood, Joseph 
Wood, Solomon 
Wood, Thomas 
Wool, Joseph 
Worshboum, Isaac 
Wright, Daniel 
Wright, Daniel, Jr. 
Wright John 
Wright, Thomas 
Wyckoff, John 
Yeomans, John 
Yerks, John 
Young, Abraham 
Young, John 
Zachrider, Moses 


Colonel John Field 
Colonel Andrew Morehouse 
Major Jonathan Paddock 
Major Isaac TaUman 

Adjutant Solomon Crane 
Quarter Master Reuben Crosby 
Surgeon Joseph Crane, Jr. 

Captains — Azor Barnum, William Calkin, William Chamberlain, Peter Coon, 
Joseph Dykeman, David Hecock, James Marten, William Pearce, William Pine, 
Ichabod Ward. 



Lieutenants — Joshua Crosby, Daniel Doane, Elijah Oakley, Uriah Parrish, Ed- 
ward Penny, Thomas Sears, Valentine Wheeler, Luke Woolcut 

Ensiox — Nathan Green. 

Additional names on state treasurer's pay hooks. 
Lieut. Joseph Chandler, Lieut. Asa Haines, Ensign Benjamin Slocum. 

Anow, WiUiam 
Ashhy, Anthony 
Baker, Elisha 
Bald-win, David 
Barleson, Joel 
Bamum, Eliakum 
Barnum, Jonah 
Bamum, Noah 
Barnum, Stephen 
Benedict, Ebenezer 
Benedict, Stephen 
Benit, Amasa 
Bennet, Amacy 
Benson, William 
Birdsall, Elemuel 
Birdsall, Thomas 
Birlisson, Joel 
Bishnite, Frances 
Bradshaw, John 
Brewster, Pdatiah 
Brewster, PeU 
Brown, Israel 
Brown, Moses 
Bruster, Samuel 
Bumpus, James 
Burch, George 
Burch, Josiah, Sr. 
Burch, Josiah, Jr. 
Burch, Silas 
BuTJes, Thomas 
Burkler, Jabez 
Burlasand, Joel 
Burleson, Joel 
Burling, Gilead 
Burtch, Benjamin 
Cable, Piatt 
Calkin* Elias 


Campbell, Robert 
Cannon, Abraham 
Carle, John 
Carter, Jabez 
Chamberlain, John 
Chapman, Enoch 
Chapman, Thomas 
Chase, Bary 
Chase, Seth 
Chase, Thomas 
Clark, John 
Clinton, WiUiam 
Closson, Wilber 
Closson, William 
Codsshuer, Jonas 
Cole, Benjamin 
Cole, Sylvenus 
Concklin, John 
Cook, Moses, Sr. 
Cook, Moses, Jr. 
Coon, Jacob 
Coon, John 
Cornwell, David 
Covey, Joseph 
Covey, Walter 
Crandle, Jeremiah 
Crane, Ira 
Crane, William 
Croker, Timothy 
Crosby, Abner 
Crosby, David, Jr. 
Crosby, Elemuel 
Crosby, Elezer 
Crosby, Eli 
Crosby, James 
Crosby, John 
Crosby, Joseph 

Crosby, Josah 
Crosby, Lemuel 
Crosby, Moses 
Crosby, Obadiah 
Crosby, Reuben 
Crosby, Samuel 
Davis, Paul 
Dean, Elijah 
Dehnarter, Marting 
Doane, Elnatban 
Dyckman, Benjamin 
Ellis, Elijah 
EUis, Thomas 
Ellwell, Ezra 
Elwell, Jabez 
Elwell, John 
Elwell, Tabis, Jr. 
Evans, Thomas, Sr. 
Evens, Thomas 
Evens, Thomas, Jr. 
Ferris, Justus 
Field, Jesse 
Foster, David 
Foster, James 
Foster, John 
Foster, Samuel 
Fister, Seth 
Fox, Oliver, Jr. 
Franklin, Nathaniel 
Fuller, Jesse 
Gage, Alden 
Gage, Anthony 
Gage, Justus 
Gage, Mark 
Gage, Moses 
Gage, Silvanus 
Gay, Jason 



Gilchrist, Samuel 
Gilchrist, Thomas 
Goodshed, Abner 
Grajr, Samuel 
Grean, John 
Green, Caleb 
Green, Isaac 
Green, Jeams 
Griffith, Done 
Hains, Asa 
HaU, Benaijah 
Hall, Benjamin 
Hall, Jesse 
HaU, John 
Hall, Martin 
Hall, Morten 
Hall, Samuel 
Hayden, Alpheus 
Hazard, Samuel 
Heaveland, John 
Hecock, Noah 
Hecocks, John 
Hempsted, Nathaniel 
Henman, Zachariah 
Heverland, John 
Higgins, Thomas, Jr. 
Hinckley, Elkanah 
Hinckley, Reuben 
Hinkley, Josiah 
Hoecee, Tademas 
Holladay, John 
HoUaway, Joseph 
Holley, Joseph 
Holliday, John 
Holliday, Simeon 
Holms, Joseph 
Honeyall, Mathias 
Hopkins, Berry 
Hopkins, John 
How, Garret 
Hunewill, Mathew 
Hunt, Thomas 
Johnston, Joseph 
Jones, Ebenezer 
Jones, Elias 
Jones, Ephraim 

Jones, Isaac 
Jones, Joseph 
Jones, Levi 
Jones, Nehemiah 
Jones, Samuel 
Jones, Thomas 
Kelley, David 
Kelley, Shoubel 
Kelly, Jonathan 
Kelly, Reuben 
Kelly, Sylvenus 
Kent, Moses 
Ketcham, Daniel 
Killey, Reuben 
Killey, Silvenas 
King, Caleb 
King, Myrick 
King, Nathaniel 
KUne, John 
Lincoln, Isaiah 
Lindsay, David 
Lockwood, Henry 
Lockwood, Solomon 
Marks, Holiab 
Marsee, Andrew 
Marsh, Elnathan 
Mash, Elnathan 
Mash, John 
Massy, Andrew 
Merick, Benjamin 
Merjerson, Thomas 
Mills, Benijah 
MiUs, WilUam C. 
Mirit, Gilburt 
Morehouse, Stephen 
Morrell, Abraham 
Mosh, John 
Mosiher, Johial 
Moshoell, Isaac 
Mott, Jacob 
Mott, Joseph 
Mott, Thomas 
Mott, William, Jr. 
Murch, George 
Murch, William 
Myrrick, Benjamin 

Nash, David 
Nicholsone, James 
Nickerson, James 
Nickerson, Thomas 
Nickerson, Thomas, Jr. 
Notter, William 
Nubery, Joseph 
Gates, James 
Olmstead, Ebenezer 
Osborn, Ezekiel 
Osterhout, Gideon 
Paddock, Nathan 
Palmer, Nickelous 
Palmer, William 
Penney, Ammiel 
Penney, John 
Penney, William 
Perkins, Elijah 
Perry, Samuel 
Perry, Simeon 
Petson, Andrew 
Philips, Joseph 
Philips, Joshua 
Pitcher, Benjamin 
Ragon, Thomas 
Raymond, Uriah 
Reed, Jacob 
Richardson, Isaac 
Rider, Christopher 
Rider, David 
Rider, John 
Rider, Simeon 
Rider, Simeon, Jr. 
Rinnalds, David 
Robert, Benjamin, Jr. 
Roberts, Benjamin 
Rockwell, Stephen 
Runnels, David 
Russel, Roland 
Ryder, Zenous 
Sabens, Billings 
Sackett, John 
St. John, Thomas 
Sampson, Abner 
Sealy, William 
Sears, Benjamin 



Sears, Enoch 
Sears, Peter 
Sears, Seth 
Sears, Seth, Jr. 
Sears, Stephen 
Shaw, Ichahod 
Sherman, Darius 
Slocum, Benjamin 
Slocmn, George 
Smith, Alpheus 
Smith, Jonathan 
Smith, Joseph 
Snider, Samuel 
Snow, William 
Spencer, Samuel 
Stark, Aamos 
Stark, Aaron 
Stark, John 

Starke, Henry 
Start, Aaron 
Stevens, Thomas 
Stone, David 
Stow, William 
Termillear, Phillip 
Thomas, Thomas 
Thompson, Daniel 
Thompson, Thomas 
Thornton, Thomas 
Townsend, Isaac 
Townsend, John 
Townsend, Solomon 
Tubbs, Benajah 
Twitchel, Benoni 
Utter, Aamos 
Utter, Ebenezer 
Vickrey, Thomas 
Wairing, John 

Webb, Noah 
Weed, John 
Wickson, Elijah 
Wickson, Elijah, Jr. 
WJkson* Ebenezer 
Willcocks, Rosel 
Willis, Charles 
Willis, Thomas 
Wilson, John 
Winger, Hendrick 
Winger, Samuel 
Wixon, Elijah 
Wixson, Isaac 
Wposter, William 
Wright, Edmund 
Young, Elkany 
Young, Shaw 
Youngs, Samuel 

Colonel John Frear 

Captaiits — Isaac Conklin. 

-Hageman, Elijah Herrick, 

Low, David Ostrand, Samuel Smith, Luke Stoutenburgh, 
nardus Swarthouse, Hugh Van Kleeck, John Van Kleeck 

LiEUTENAifTs — Abraham Fort, Jonas Weeks. 

EirsiGNS — Alexander Furman, (Reuben) Spencer. 

(No Enlisted Men Found.) 

— Kilsey, 

Straight, Ber- 


Colonel William Humfrey. Adjutant John Budd. 

Colonel James Vandeburgh. Adjutant Jeremiah Clerk 

Major Benjamin Birdsall. Quarter Master Henry Bailey. 

Major William Clerk. Quarter Master James Ellsworth. 

Captains — Caleb Bentley, John Boyd, Josiah Burton, Joshua Champlin, William 
Clark, John Clum, Jonathan Dennis, Abraham Hartwill, David Hecock, Job Mead, 
Joseph Rurnids, John Scut, Barardus Swartwout, Is Vail, Francis West, Valen- 
tine Wheeler. 

LnEUTENANTS— Stephen Akins, Silas Anson, Tabor Bentley, Tilling Bentley, 
Jacob Blatner, Joseph Chandler, Andrew Heermance, Jacob J. Heermance, AH 
Houghland, Daniel Hule, James Humfrey, McClees , Peter Magee, Roger 



Morey, Jr., Theoph Sweet, Brt. Van Kleeck, Moses Van Vranka, Solomon Wheeler, 
Gilbert Wording. 

Ensigns — David Tmsdal, Abraham Van Curah, Peter Van Valklnburgh. 

Abbet, David 
^Acker, Adam 
Adams, Ebenezer 
Allin, Thomas 
Alsworth, William 
Ames, I. 

Asseltine, Jacob 
Atwearter, Benjamin 
Andriance, J. 
Aulandorph, Christian 
Babcock, David 
Babcock, Enoch 
Babcock, John 
Babcock, John (1) 
Babcock, John (3) 
Backer, John 
Bailey, Elias 
Bailey, Elisha 
Baker, Elnathan 
Baker, J. 
Baker, Jonathan 
Baker, William 
Ballim, Matthew 
Bannam, James 

Barkman, George 
Bamnm, Bethuel 
Barnnm, William 
Barringar, Conradt 
Barringar, William 
Bartlee, Abraham 
Bartlee, Jacob 
Bartlett, Jacob 
Bayley, S. 
Beckett, Sylos 
Bell, Robert 
Benjamin, Cyres 
Bennet, Timothy 
Bentley, Joseph 


Bently, John 
Benton, Moses 
Berry, Nicholas 
Berry, P. 
Bigraft, George 
Bigraft, Jonathan 
BiUings, Increase 
Billings, John 
Birdsall, Daniel 
Birdsall, Jeremiah 
Bosehonce, Isaac 
Bouker, Thomas 
Brewer, D. 
Brewer, V. 
Brill, Solomon 
Brinkorff, I. 
Brown, Jonathan 
Brown, Peter 
Brows, Zepheniah 
Brnmfleld, J. 
Brnster, Peltias 
Buck, Zadock 
Budd, Undril 
Bugbee, George 
Bump, I. 
Bump, Joseph 
Bumbler, P'h 
Bunsehoten, Solomon 
Bunt, Leasero 
Burley, Elijah 
Cady, Elisha 
Cahoon, Ben 
Carle, Andrew 
Carley, John 
Carley, Peter 
Carman, Andrew 
Cary, Stephen 

Cash, Jonathan 
Celey, WiUiam 
Chadwick, WiUiam 
Chahart, Jacob 
Champlin, Thomas 
Champlin, William 
Chapman, Josiah 
Chase, Berry 
Chavilear, Peter 
Christian, Cornelius 
Clark, J. P. 
Coberstine, John 
Cole, Benjamin 
Cole, Jacob 
Cole Moses 
Colerell, Henry 
Coller, Norres 
Coltman, William 
Conroo, Darling 
Conroo, William 
Coock, I. 
Coock, W. 
Cook, Jere 
Cook, John 
Cook, Mathew 
Coon, Alexander 
Cooper, William 
Corkins, Joel 
Cornell, Benjamin 
Cornell, John 
Cornell, Lewis 
Cornell, Samuel 
Cornwill, Caleb 
Comwill, Sylvan's 
CorwiU, Benjam 
Cott, D. 
Cranfoot, James 
Crankite, Frederick 
Crankite, Herciilus 
Crankite, John 



Creed, Austin 
Crook, Waiiam 
Crosby, Eliezer 
Crosby, Obediah 
Cudbuth, William 
Cunningham, John 
Curry, Elisha 
Daggitt, Mayhue 
Dannels, J. 
Darling, Peter 
David, I. 
Davis, George 
Davis, Squire 
Davison, Alverson 
Davison, Daniel 
Debons, Math'w 
Delong, Richard 
Demsey, Thomas 
Denney, Charles 
Devow, John 
Dewkine, I. 
Dickson, I. Hanse 
Dimond, Math'w 

Dodg , I. 

Douty, Elias 
Dowing, I. 
Downing, Andrew 
Doxey, Thomas 
Draper, John 
Draper, Joseph 
Dumon, Cornelius 
Duteher, D. 
Dutcher, Simon 
Eda, Joshua 
Egail, Jo'n 
Eldred, William 
Ellott, Christian 
Elwell, Jabez 
Ennis, P. 
Estrus, Benjamin 
Evans, John 
Everit, Clear 
Evins, Amos 
Evins, Oliver 
FUlow, En 
Pillow, Fimus 

Finch, Comfort 
Fish, Joseph 
Flinn, David 
Fonda, Cornelius 
Forbus, John 
Forbush, William 
Force, Benjamin 
Forgerson, Gllb't 
Forgerson, Jeremiah 
Foster, Seth 
Fox, Jonathan 
Freeh, John 
Frier, Peter 
Frier, Simeon 
Gage, Elihu 
Gage, Moses 
Gale, Nob 
Gardner, Simeon 
Gewel, I. 
Gewel, T. 
Gibson, John 
Gideon, Joseph 
GUbert, Ep'm 
GUbert, Thad 
Gillitt, Barny 
Gones, Seth 
Gooden, Robert 
Goodfeller, W. 
Goodwin, I. 
Green, Caleb 
Green, E. 
Greves, Thomas 
Grey, John 
Griflfin, Barney 
GrifSth, Solomon 
Hale, John 
Hall, Benjamin 
Hall, Gideon 
Hamlin, Epraim 
Haner, John 
Hanes, I. 
Hangedoren, John 
Hannaburgh, Christ- 

Haping, David 
Harrick, Joseph 

Harrington, William 
Harris, Noah 
Hartwill, Ebenezer 
Hassiem, Jdhn 
Hatch, Cradius 
Heermance, Jacob 
Helmes, John 
Hendrickson, Jacob 
Henry, Elick 
Heracer, Emanuel 
Herrick, Isriel 
Hewit, Edmond 
Hewit, Gidion 
Hicks, Nathaniel 
Hicks, W. 
Hoard, Isaac 
Hodge, K. 
Hoffman, Patrus 
Hightailing, Abraham 
Holmes, Alkany 
Holmes, Ben 
Holmes, John 
Honssinger, Frank 
Horton, D. 
Hoisher, Thomas 
Houck, William 
Howard, Jonathan 
Howlin, Obediah 
Hudson, Asa 
Huff, I. 
Hulin, John 
Hull, Justus 
Humfrey, Thonias 
Hutchens, A. 
Hutchings, Jacob 
Irish, BenjamSn 
Irish, Isaac 
Jaycocks, Thomas 
Jinkins, Jerry 
Johnson, Alexander 
Johnson, Joseph 
Johnson, Nehemiah 
Johnstones, I. 
Jones, Isaac 
Jones, Nathan 
Jones, Robert 




Jones, Roger 
Jones, Rufus 
Jones, Seth 
Judard, H. 
Kelly, Jonathan 
Klme, Lourance 
King, Hezeklah 
King, Nathaniel 

Kipp, Prank 
Knognard, John 
Kool, Isaac 
Koons, Adam 
Koonts, Nicholas 
Lake, Henry 
Lake, Stephen 
Lamb, Daniel 
Lamb, David 
Lane, J. 
Lane, John 
Lanson, Garrlt 
Lant, Jurry 
Laroy, John 
Lawrence, Isaac 
Lawrence, Oliver 
Lawrence, Riichard 
Lawsin, Mathew 
Lawsin, Peter 
Lean, John 
Lerue, I. 
Levy, Jacob 
Lewis, Felix 
Lewis, Gil 
Linn, Aaron 
Loop, Peter, Jr. 
Losie, Francis 
Luis, Grawdus 
Luke, John 
Lus, Miehal 
Lus, William 
McCreedy, Charles 
McCreedy, James 
Mackeny, I. 
McKiney, Joseph 
McLees,< James 

McLees, Peter 
McNeel, Henry 
Marchant, Abel 
Marchel, Benjamin 
Marta, David 
Martin, Elemuel 
Mason, Francis 
Mathews, Justice 
Mayhue, Ebenezer 
Mayhue, Levi 
Mead, King 
Mead, Zebulin 
Miller, Jacob 
Moon, John 
Moor, Nicholas 
Moore, Poulis 
Moran, William 
Mordock, Zimri 
Mott, Jacob 
MuUer, Stephen 
Mumford, P. 
Myer, Benjamin 
Myer, Henrey 
Near, Charles 
Nelson, Frank 
Neutun, John 
NewlU, Joseph 
Newman, Joshua 
Nichols, Silas 
Norton, Richard 
Noxon, Benj amin 
O'Cane, Edward 
Odell, Crershom 
Odell, Jonas 
Odle, Abiather 
Okla, Thomas 
Olmsted, Elijah 
Orborn, John 
Orsborn, Com'l 
Ostrander, Henrey 
Ostrum, Gilbert 
Owen, Anenias 
Owens, Robert 
Pack, I. 
Paddock, Peter 

Padock, Henry 
Palmer, Sylvanus 
Patterson, Ab'm 
Pelts, Evert 
Perce, John 
Pettitt, Jacob 
Phillip, Adam 
Phillip, Christyan 
Plass, Hendrick 
Post, J. 

Potter, Rowland 
Prope, George 
Prust, Martin 
Randel, I. 
Reesoner, David 
Reise, Jonas 
Reynolds, Era 
Riccord, George 
Richardson, Isaac 
Richardson, William 
Rines, I. 

Robinson, Andrew 
Robinson, Stephen 
Rogers, Ezekiel 
Rolitts, John 
Romer, Aron 
Rosacrance, I, 
Row, D. 
Rowlee, Daniel 
Rowley, Nathan 
Rumm, George 
Runnels, I. 
Ryder^ John 
Ryley, Phillip 
Sabins, Joshua 
Sage, Selah 
Sarmerhorn, Cor- 
Saxton, Ebenezer 
Schouten, E. 
Schryver, Bartle 
Seberry, John 
Sharks, Thomas 
Sharts, David 



Shaw, Benjamin 
Shede, George 
Sheer, William 
Shephier, Isreal 
ShoS, Andrew 
Shuter, Samuel 
Shuts, Ab'm 
Shnttis, John 
Sickler, Coonrod 
Siekler, George 
Sickle^ Mathias 
Simmons, John 
Sitcher, Andrew 
'^laght, T. 
Slut, John 
Smith, Daniel 
Smith, Ephraim 
Smith, Ezekiel 
Smith, Henry 
Smith, John 
Smith, Phillip 
Smith, Thomas 
Soper, Bart'n 
Soper, Henry 
Soper, Timothy 
Server, Peter 
Sparker, Andrew 
Spencer, Abner 
Spencer, Jabus 
Spencer, James 
Spencer, Rufus 
Spencer, William 
Springer, John 
Stanton, Thomas 
Stark, Aaron 
Stark, Nathan 
Steed, Richard 
Stinebergh^ Grandus 
Stockhohn, D. 
Stone, David 
Stubbelbane, Michal 

Swartout, T. 
Sweet, Amos 
Swider, M. 
Swortout, C. 
Swortont, I. 
Talor, Gamal 
Talor, John 
Tamph, Frederick 

Taylor, Gamalial 
Taylor, Joseph 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, Thomas 
Thorington, Thomas 
Thorn, Benjamin 
Toboys, C. 
Tolks, John 
Tommes, Benjamin 
Torboss, L. 
Tott, James 
Townsend, Able 
Turhoon, I. 
Tyler, John 
Umphey, William 
Uree, John 
Valentine, Benjamin 
Van Cleak, John 
Van Cott, John 
Vanderhoof, Jacob 
Vanderhyder, Abraham 
Vandevort, John 
Vandevort,! S/ 
Van Dusan, John 
Van Dusan, London 
Van Loan, Peter 
Van Luvan, Zacharias 
Van Nette, Isaac 
Van Slyck, Tunas 
Van Tasel, J. 
Van Valkenburgh, 

Vanvlack, H. 
Van Voris, L 
Van Wicke 
Van Wogner, John 
Vel^, Peter 
Vermillia, S. 
Vessher, Christopher 
Vincent, Philip 
Vradenburgh, Abraham 
Vradenburgh,' Peter 
Walker, John 
Ward, David 
Ward, Eben 
Warner, Richard 
Warreuj Samuel 
Weeks, William 
Weiley, William 
Welch, Thomas 
WeUer, Amos 
WeUer, William 
Wells, Silas 
Wesee, Abraham 
Welsey, I. 
West, Daniel 
West, Elijah 
Whiper, I. 
Whipple, Nath 
Whitcomb, Simon 
White, John 
White, Solomon 
Whitmarch, Ezra 
Wickson, Elijah 
Wilcox, John 
Wilcox, Stephen 
Willey, Thomas 
Willkason, Jon 
Wistiveltt, James 
Wolven, William 
Wood, Silas 
Young, Benjamin 




Colonel Morris Graham. 
Colonel Roswell Hopkins. 
Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Griffin. 
Major Peter Fell 
Major Jonathan Landon. 
Major Brinton Paine. 
Adjutant John Graham. 
Adjutant David Hunt. 

Adjutant Daniel Shepherd. 
Quarter Master John Else. 
Quarter Master Nathan Fish. 
Quarter Master Ezra Payne. 
Quarter Master Abraham Van Wart. 
Pay Master Edmtmd Perlee. 
Surgeon William Adams. 
Surgeon Roswell Hopkins, Jr. 

Captaixs — Sybert Acker, John Barnes, Azor Barnum, John Bell, John Brad- 
rick, George Brinkerhoff, Charles Brodhead, Moses Cantine, Colbe Chamberlain, 
John Drake, Andries Heermans, Elijah Herrick, Henry Humfrey, John Klum, 
George Lane. Daniel Martin, William Pearce, William Radclift, John Rouse, Rich- 
ard Sackett, Frederick Strait, Smith Sutherland, James Tallmadge, Elijah Town- 
send, John Van Benschoten, David Van Ness, Samuel Waters, Noah Wheeler, 
Daniel Williams. 

LxEUTENAS-TS — Stephen Adsit, Frederick Benner, John Berry, Phillipp Bowne, 
Wright Carpenter, Samuel Crandle, Daniel Delavan, Christian Dubois, Abner Gil- 
lett, Abraham Smith Hadden, Stephen Haight, Philliph Harimanse, Andries Har- 
mans, Joel Haskins, John Heermanse, Adam Helmer, Abram Hogeland, Solomon 

Hopkins, Stephen Hunt, Elihu Ingalls, William Martine, William Mattemen, 

Mead, James Moore, Francis Nelson, Elijah Park, Jonas Parks, Bezaleel Rudd, 
Abraham Schultz, John Smith, Frederick Stevenson, William Swartwout, Teunis 
Talman, Isaac Townsend, Jacob Trimper, Resolvent Van Houton, Wright White, 
Zophar WiAes, Robert Wood. 

Eirsieirs — William Becker, John More. 

Abbett, David 
Abboth, Abiel 
Abler, James 
Acker, Abraham 
Ackerman, Arie 
Ackerman, John 
Adair, William 
Adams, John 
Adams, Major 
Adsit, George 
Adsit, Silas 
Aldridge, Jonathan 
Allen, Asa 
Allen, Caleb [ 
Allen, Jonathan 


Allendorph, Hendridk 
Allsworth, Thomas 
Ambler, Charles 
Ambler, James 
Andres, George 
Annes, Peter 
Anson, James 
Armstrong, Benjamin 
Armstrong, Gabril 
Armstrong, Robert 
Arnold, Peleg 
Asten, Robert 
Aston, Martin 
Aulomdorph, Hendrick 
AusoT, Nicholas 

Austin, Robert 
Babcock, James 
Backer, John 
Badeau, Jacob 
Bader, Michael 
Baker, Jesse 
Baker, Joshua 
Baker, Judah 
Baker, Richard 
Bailey, Elias 
Banker, Stephen 
Barber, Nathan 
Barber, Reuben 
Barber, Solomon 
Barber, Thomas 



Barker, James 
Barnhard, Henry 
Barns, Jacob 
Barniim, Noah 
Bariinger, Conradt 
Barringer, David 
Barringer, William 
Barton, Gilbert 
Bartow, John 
Bates, Daniel 
Bates, Hickey 
Bayley, Samuel 
Beaty, John 
Becker, John 
Beecher, Nathan 
Bell, Jacob 
BeU, WiUiam R. 
BeU, William W. 
Benner, Hendrick, Jr. 
Berger, John 
Beringer, ^acob, Jr. 
Berry, Jabez 
Berry, John 
Berry, Peter 
Berry, Samuel 
Betts, Gideon 
Bishop, John 
Blaau, Henry 
Blaurelt^ Ckimelius 
Blauvelt, Isaac 
Bodsee, Jacob 
Bogardus, Egbert 
Bogardus, Henry 
Bogardus, Peter 
Bogart, Hendrick 
Bogart, Jacob 
Bonasteal, Nicholas 
Bonker, Stephen 
Bonnell, Jonathan 
Booth, Isaiah 
Bouton, Moses 
Boyce, John 
Boyd Robert 
Boyd, Samuel 
Bradshaw, William 

Brewer, William 
Brewster, John 
Brickell, George 
Briggs, Casparus 
Briggs, Lawrence 
Brinckerhoff, Daniel 
Brinckerhoff, Isaac 
Brinckerhoff, John S. 
Brink, Cornelius C. 
Brinkerhoff, John 
Broadwell, Moses 
Brodhead, Samuel 
Brooks, John 
Brower,^ Samuel 
Brower, William 
Brown, Cornelius 
Brown, Deliverance 
Brown, James 
Brown, James H. 
Brown, John 
Brown, Noah 
Brown, Noah, Jr. 
Brown, Peter 
Brown, Stephen 
Brown, Tower 
Bruce, Robert 
Bruster, David 
Buck, Israel 
Buck, Israel, Jr. 
Buckhout, John 
Buel, Samuel 
Bugbe, Samuel 
Bugbee, John 
Buill, John 
Bullis, Peter 
Bun, John 
Bunschoten, John 
Burel, Jesse 
Burgh, Jonathan 
Burley, Ebenezer 

Burlinsonj Fearnot 
Burlinson, Joel 
Burlsona, Grover 
Burns, Edward 

Burtis, James 
Bush, Peter 
Bush, Tryertar 
Butler, Stephen 
Byce, Abraham 
Byce, John 
Byington, Nathaniel 
Cable, Piatt 
Cakbel, Plat 
Calkins, Eli 
Calkins, John 
Calkins, Moses 
Camberlin, Thomas 
Gamble, Charles 
Campbell, James 
Campbell, Robert 
Canfield, Aaron 
Canfidd, Amos 
Canfield, Titus 
Canniff, Levi 
Carle, John 
Carlee, Jonathan 
Carpenter, Clark 
Carson, Samuel 
Carter, John 
Carver, Barnabes 
Cash, David 
Casher, William 
Castle, Daniel 
Castle, Lemuel 
Chambers, Thomas 
Champanois, Harman 
Chandler, Jonathan 
Chapman, Samuel 
Chapman, Stephen 
Chapman, Thomas 
Charpanard, Simon 
Chase, Elijah 
Chase, Gedaliah 
Chase, Richard 
Chase, Robert 
Christman, John 
Church, Medad 
Churchill,j Edward 
Clapp, Joseph 



Clark, John 
Clark, Othaniel 
Clason, Wilber 
Clawater, Jacob 
Clement, Charles 
Clement, James 
Close, Caesar 
Closson, Wilber 
Cocktel, Timothy 
Coe, Samuel 
Coenhoven, WiUiam 
Cohler, Leonard 
Cokler, Leonard 
Colbreath, Thomas 
Cole, Abraham 
Cole Joseph 
Collard, Abraham 
Collins, Solomon 
CoUins, William 
Colly, Matthew 
Colwell, James 
Cone, Ben j amis (col- 

Conklin, Abraham 
Conklin, John 
Conklin, Matthew 
Conklin, Nathan 
Conkling, Jacob 
Conly, Charles 
Conner, Patrick 
Conory, John 
Conroy, John 
Converse, James 
Cook, Darius 
Cook, James 
Cook, Job 
Cook, John 
Cook, Simeon 
Cooke, Benjamin 
Cooke, Samuel 
Cooper, Cornelius 
Cooper, Garret 
Cooper, Jacob 
Cooper, Nicholas 

Cornell, James 
Cornwell, Clement 
Cott, John 
Cowen, Isaac 
Craft, Caleb 
Craig, Francis 
Craw, John 
Crawford, Nathan 
Crompton, John 
Cronk, Abraham 
Crosby, Lemuel 
Crosby, Samuel 
Crouch, David 
Cuch, Phillip 
Cudbeth, Benjamin 
Cuff, William 
Cumfort, Josiah 
Cunnin, John 
Cunningham, James 
Cunningham, John 
Curry, Charles 
Cushman, William 
Dagaettjun, Mayhugh 
Dagget, Mahu 
Dannells, Thomas 
Daten, Cornelius 
Daton, Cornbary 
Daton, Jonah 
Daton, Joseph 
Davids, William 
Davies, Nathan 
Deal, George 
Dean, John 
Deboise, Peter 
Debuy, Peter 
Decker, Reuben 
Declark, James 
Decoine, Edward 
De Graff, Moses 
Degrove, William 
Delamatter, Jacob 
Demmon, Samuel 
Denemark, Stoffel 
Denham, Samuel 
Deniston, John 

Denney, Charls 
Denney, Richard 
Denton, Isaac 
Depue, Abraham 
De Pue, Peter 
Derue, William 
Deuce, William 
Devoe, William 
Dewit, John 
Dicker, Ephraim 
Diel, Samuel 
Dill, John 
Dimmick, Samuel 
Dimmick, Shubell 
Disbey, Andrew 
Disbrow, Andrew 
Dixson, Thaddeus 
Dodge, Stephen 
Dolf, John 
DoUoway, Jeremiah 
Douey, Samuel 
Dowling, Andrew 
Drake, William 
Dubois, Cornelius 
Dubois, Jacob 
Dubois, Jacob J. 
Duel, Wilber 
Dun, Coenradt 
Duncan, John 
Dunham, Joseph 
Dusenbery, Charles 
Dutcher, Abraham 
Dutcher, Jacob 
Dutcher, John . 
Edinger, Christopher 
Elmendorph, Samuel 
Elseworth, Philip 
Esters, Benjamin 
Fairchild, Amos 
FairchUd, Oliver 
Fanbramer, Peter 
Farnell, Danel 
Ferguson, John 
Feriss, John 
Feriss, Silvanus 



Ferrell, Daniel 
Ferris, Seth 
FerriSj William 
Field, Jesse 
Field, Nathan 
Fields,. Thomas 
Finch, Amos 
Pinch, Comfort 
Finch, Elithan 
Finch, Gilbert 
Finch, John 
Finch, Jonathan 
Finch, Philip 
Finch, SUvanus 
Finch, Sj-c 
Finchout, Aurent 
Finchout, Cornelius 
Finton, Amos 
Fish, Joseph 
Fish, Levi 
Fish, Moses 
Fish, Pardon 
Fish, Seaburjr 
Fisher, Daniel 
Fisher, Daniel, Jr. 
Fisher, Jacob 
Flagler, David 
Flagler, John 
Flanders, James 
Foot, John 
Foot, Samuel 
Forbosh, Abraham 
Forbus, Samuel 
Ford, James 
Forgeson, John 
Forster, Joseph 
Foster, Thomas 
Fowler, Caleb 
Fowler, Caleb, Jr. 
Fox, Xenophon 
FrankUn, Benjamin 
Frantz, Jacob 
Frederick, Charles 
Fuller, David 
Furma^, Cato 

Furman, Samuel 
Fjler, Seasor 
Gage, Mark 
Gale, Samuel 
Gambell, Allexander 
Ganong, Marcus 
Gardner, David 
Garret, Benjamin 
Garrett, Isaack 
Gatty, John 
Gaul, Stephen 
Gay, Daniel 
Geaty, Robert 
Gedawale, Elisha 
Gegory, Rusel 
Geray, Allexander 
Germain, David 
German, James 
Germond, Peter 
Gero, Daniel 
Gifford, Elisha 
GifPord, Samuel 
Gilcrease, Thomas 
Gildersleeve, Joseph 
Gillaspy, Greorge 
GiUaspy, James 
Gillaspy, William 
Gillet, Charles 
Gillit, Barnabes 
Goetchins, John 
Gold, Elijah 
Golnack, Michal 
Goodrich, Elisha 
Gordon, Cornelius 
Gorum, Jeams 
Gould, Elijah 
Graham, James 
Graham, Jonathan 
Gray, Jeduthun 
Greek James 
Green, Caleb 
Green, Ezekiel 
Green, Henry 
Green, Joseph 
Green, Samuel 

Green, Tobias 
Grefes, Thomas 
Gregory, Joshua 
Gregory, Roswell 
Griffen, Joseph 
Griffen, Peter 
GrifiSn, John 
Griffin, Michael 
Grigeory, R. 
Guin, Michel 
Gulneck, Michael 
Haborn, John 
Hadley, Greorge 
Hadley, WiUiam 
Haff, Jacob 
Haff, John 
Haight, Samuel 
Haight^ Samuel, Jr. 
Haines, Samuel 
Hall, John 
Hallister, Elisha 
Hanna, William 
Hansen, Jacob 
Hardenburgh, Derick 
Harper, Godfrey 
Harris, Joseph 
Harris, Squire 
Harris, William 
Hase, John 
Havenner, John 
Hawkins, James 
Hawkins, Samuel 
Hawley, Henry 
Hebard, Reuben 
Heermana, Andries 
Heermana, John 
Heermance, Andrew C. 
Heermance, Evans 
Heermance, Evert 
Heermance, John 
Helmer, John 
Helmer, Peter 
Heltz, Lawrence 
Henry, Robert 
Hermans, Simen 



Herrick, Jonathan 
Herrington, James 
Herrington, John 
Hess, Christian 
Hess, Christopher 
Hibbard, Reuben 
Hicks, Benjamin 
Higgins, Ebenezer 
Higgines, Joseph 
Hill, Isaac 
Hill, John 
Hill, William 
Hiltz, Laurence 
Hinkley, Elkanah 
Hinman, Zachariiah 
Hiser, Martinus 
Hitchis, Benjamin 
Hoffman, Daniel 
Hoffman, Jacobus 
Hoffman, Nicholas 
Hogaboom, Barthol- 

Hogan, Edward 
Hogan, Path 
Hogins, Edward 
Holems, John 
Holkins, Samuel 
Holley, Henry- 
Holmes, Elkanah 
Holmes, James 
Holmes, Joseph 
Holmes, Nathan 
Hopkins, Benjamin 
Hopkins, Frederick 
Horton, David 
Horton, George 
Horton, Joseph 
Horton, Peleg 
Horton, Samuel 
House, John 
How, John 
How, Thomas 
Howard, Joseph 
Howard, Richard 
Howel, Frederick 

Howel, WiUiam 
Howes, John 
Howes, Thomas 
Hoy, William 
Hoyt, Abijah 
Hoyt, Enoch 
Hubbard, Ezekiel 
Huffman, Daniel 
Hume, William 
Humfrey, William 
Humphreys, James 
Hunsdon, John 
Husted, Peter 
Hutchens, Benjamin 
Hutchons, Absalom 
Hutton, John 
Hyatt, Eben 
Hyatt, Elias 
Idare, William 
Ittig, Coenradt 
Ittig, George 
Jackson, George 
Jacobs, Abraham 
Jacobs, Cornelius 
Jakways, Daniel 
Jansen, Benjamin 
Jero, Daniel 
Jewel, Ezekiel 
Jewell, George 
Jewell, Herman 
Jewitt, John 
Johnson, James 
Johnson, John 
Johnson, Josiah 
Johnson, Paul 
Johnson, Robert 
Johnson, Samuel 
Johnson, Thomas 
Johnson, Timothy 
Johnston, Robert 
Jones, Isaac 
Jones, Levi 
Jones, Ransom 
Joslin, Anthony 
Julaf, Zachariah 

Keator, Benjamin F. 
Keator, John 
Keator, William 
Keeler, Ezra 
Kellee, Jeremiah 
Kelley, Jonathan 
Keltz, Coenradt 
Kenney, Henery 
Kern, John 
Kershaw, John 
Kesler, Nicholas 
Kickam, Solomon 
Kill, Christopher 
Killey, Jaramiah 
Kilpatrick, Samuel 
(Kimmans, John 
Kip, Abraham 
Kip, Abraham R. 
Kip, Aurent 
Kip, Igness 
Kip, John 
Kip, Petrus 
Kip, Racliph 
Kirkun, Solomon 
Klyne, Jacob 
Knapp, Jeremiah 
Knapp, Joel 
Knapp, Nathaniel 
Knickerbacker, John 
Knickerbacker, Law- 
Kniffen, John 
Koch, Andrew 
Kohler, Leonard 
Kolb, John 
Kole, Jacob P. 
Kole, Simon P. 
Kool, Abraham 
Kool, Elias 
Kool, Jacob 
Kool, Simon 
Kremer, John 
Krum, Peter 
Ladue, WUliam 
Lamb, David 



Laml^ Jehial 
Lamberts, Cornelius 
Lane, Joseph 
Lane, Thomas 
Lane, William 
Langin, Benjam 
Lanphier, John 
Laquire, Abraham 
Larcy, John 
Larrejr, J. 
Lason, Joseph 
Lasure, Samuel 
Lawrence, Samuel 
Learry, John 
Lee, Jonathan 
Legget, WUliam 
Leonard, Robert 
Lepper, Frederick 
Lesher, Conradt 
Levy, Henderick 
Lewis, Hendrick 
Lewis, James 
Lewis, Lewis 
Linderman, Cornelius 
Linningt»n, Timothy 
Litfle, James 
Lockard, David 
Locknnt, John 
Lockwood, Daniel 
Lockwood, David 
Lockwood^ Ebenezer 
Losee, John 
Losee, John A. 
Loux, William 
Loveless, Elisha 
Loveless, Joshua 
Lucas, Israel 
Luddington, Elisha 
Ludenton, Elisha, Jr. 
Luquer, Abraham 
Luther, Eseek 
Lyttle, William , 
MeCabe, Benjamin 
McCoy, Daniel 
McCreary, Robert 

McCutchen, Robert 
McDonald, Cornelius 
McDonald, John 
McDonnals, Thomas 
McGuire, Hugh 
Machan, Robert 
Machoney, James 
McKiel, John 
McKlennen, Andrew 
McKlue, James 
McNight, Robert 
McNitt, Alexander 
McPherson, Daniel 
MafFet, John 
Maffite, John 
Maher, Levy 
Marchant, Abel 
Markell, Henry 
Marshall, William 
Marshill, Josiah 
Marta, David 
Martin, John 
Martin, Robert 
Martin, Roledt 
Masten, Ezekiel 
Mayer, Henry 
Mayer, John 
Mayer, Joseph 
Maxsam, Benjamin 
Mead, Ezekiel 
Mead, Isaiah 
Mead, Marshal 
Meashurcall, Cornelius 
Melangdon, Benjamin 
Menoma, John 
Merrick, Ben j amin 
Merrinan, Titus 
Merrit, Ebnezer 
Merritt, Luke 
Mestan, Ezekiel 
Meyer, Benjamin 
Middagh, Art 
Middledough, Aert 
Miels, Noah 
Mildun, Daniel 

Miller, Christyann 
Miller, David 
Miller, Henderick 
Miller, John 
Miller, William 
MUIs, James 
MiUs, John 
Mingo, WiUiam 
Minner, James 
Moe, Abraham 
Money, Absolum 
Monfoort, Peter 
Monfoort, Peter, Jr. 
Mongomire, Elijah 
Mooney, Absalom 
Moor, Jacob 
Moor, PhUlip 
Moore, John 
Moore, Martin 
Mopes, Frederick 
More, Abraham 
Morehouse, Isaac 
Morehouse, Stephen 
Morris, Elijah 
Morris, John 
Morris, Peter 
Mosier, WUliam 
Mott, William 
Mouer, Henderick 
Moul, Jacob, Jr. 
Mount, Andrew 
Mountain, Andrew 
Mumford, James 
Munrow, Justice 
Murphy, Thomas 
Myer, Abraham 
Myer, Benjamin 
Myles, Benajah 
Myles, John 
Nairn, James 
Neer, Charles 
Neer, Jost 
Neer, Zacharies 
Nelson, Absolum 
Nelson, M. 




Nelson, Paul 
Newcomb, Daniel 
Newcorab, James 
Newcomb, Thomas 
Newel, Joseph 
Newnon, Zebulun 
Nickerson, Isachar 
Nickerson, Joshua 
Nickerson, Justia 
Nogard, John 
Nooney, Zebulun 
Nootnagle, Frederick 
Northrop, Stephen 
Norton, Peter 
Nostragel, Frederick 
Oakley, Cornelius 
Odle, Aaron 
Ogden, Richard 
Olmsted, Ebenezer 
Onderdonk, Garret 
Onderdonk, Thomas 
Orchard, John 
Orim, Robert 
Orsor, Nicholas 
Osborn, Peter 
Ostrander, Jacobus 
Ostrom, Gilbert 
Otterson, Andrew 
Paine, Ichabod, Jr. 
Paine, Samuel 
Palmer, Benjamin 
Palmer, James 
Palmer, Jesse 
Palmer, John 
Palmer, Nicholas 
Pangnut, John 
Pardee, Thomas 
Pardy, Samuel 
Parish, Daniel 
Park, Joseph 
Parker, Joseph 
Parker, Nathaniel 
Parks, Nathaniel 
Parks, Samuel 
Parrish, Azariah 

Parrish, Cypria 
Parrish, Daniel 
Pattison, Michael 
Paul, James 
Paulding, John 
Pawling, Henry 
Peck, Joseph 
Pelham, Elisha 
Pellam, Frances 
Pellum, Abijah 
Penfold, William 
Penny, John 
Penoyer, Amos 
Perry, James 
Perry, John 
Perry, Abadiah 
Perry, Samuel 
Petcher, Peter 
Peters, John 
Pettit, David 
Phelps, Abner 
Phelps, David 
Phenton, Amos 
Phillips, David 
PhuUick, David 
Pifer, Adam 
Pike, Ezra 
Pike, Jarvis 
Pike, Jesse 
Pine, Thomas 
Pink, Jacob 
Piatt, Caleb 
Piatt, Eliphalet 
Plymit, Benoni 
Polhemus, Theodorus 
Pollock, William 
Post, Wilhalmis 
Powell, Abraham 
Price, Ebenezer 
Pullock, William 
Punderson, John 
Purdy, James 
Purdy, Jonathan 
Purdy, Josiah 
Purdy, Samuel 

Purdy, Stephen 
Quackinbush, Abraham 
Randals, Hugh 
Ray, Isaac 
Ray, Zachariah 
Read, David 
Reanolds, Jacob 
Reed, James 
Reed, Samuel 
Reed, Simon 
Reguaw, Abraham 
Rema, Jacob 
Reynolds, Abijah 
Reynolds, Benoni 
Reynolds, Caleb 
Reynolds, David 
Reynolds, Elias 
Reynolds, Ezra 
Reynolds, Joel 
Reynolds, Shubel 
Rhaad, Richard 
Rhodes, Richard 
Rhyne, Timothy 
RiaU, Peter 
Richard, Moses 
Richards, Jacob 
Richards, Moses, Jr. 
Richter, Hendrick 
Rider, Christopher 
Rip, Rulef 
Robins, Ebenezer 
Robinson, Ebenezer 
Robison, Ebenezer 
Rockwil, Enos 
Roe, Benjamin 
Roe, William 
Rogers, Piatt 
Rogers, Reuben 
Romer, Henry 
Romer, James 
Roola, Jacob, Jr. 
Roosa, Aldert 
Roosa, John 
Rose, James 
Rosekrans, Thomas 



Rosekrans, John 
Rowley, Weeks 
Rundel, Abraham 
Riumels, Ezra 
Runnels, Joseph 
Rusel, James 
Rycel, Peter 
Rysedorph, George 
Salkeld, Isaac 
Sammon, Cornelius 
Sauffield, John 
Sayers, Benjamin 
Schermerhorn Cornelius 
Schofield, Henry 
Schofield, Smith 
Schoonmaker, John 
Schouten, Cornelius 
Schouten, John 
Schouten, Simon 
Schultz, Abraham 
Schutt, Joseph 
Schutt, Stephen 
Scott, John 
Scott, Thomas 
Scott, WilUam 
Sciyver, Albartus 
Scutt, Abraham 
Scutt, Joseph 
Scutt, Stephen 
Seacord, Andrew 
Seacraft, William 
Seaman, Jacob 
Seaman, John 
Seaman, Willett 
Sears, Stephen 
Sedore, Isaac 
See, David 
Seelee, Lodwick 
Seely, James 
Seely, Sylvanus 
Selvester, John 
Servine, James 
Servis, John 
Shampinway, Honnay 
Sharwood, Abraham 

Shavellar, William 
Shaw, James 
Shaw, John 
Shaw, Joshua 
Shay, V. 
Shea, Lodowick 
Shear, Lodewick 
Shearman, William 
Sherman, William 
Sherwood, Isaac 
Sherwood, Lucam 
Sherwood, Samuel 
Sherwood, Thomas 
Shidler, John 
Shoemaker, Christopher 
Shomper, Horrima 
Shorter, John 
Shults, Jacob 
Simma, Willet 
Simmons, Aaron 
Simons, Insolo 
Simons, Willet 
Simpkins, Reuben 
Simpson, Andrew 
Simpson, John 
Sinkin, Reuben 
SitutseU, Michel 
Slason, Amos 
Slason, Ebenezer 
Sleight, Abraham 
^^Ught, Abraham, Jr. 
Small, Isaac 
Small, James 
Smith, Abraham 
Smith, Alpheous 
Smith, Asa 
Smith, Daniel 
Smith, Garret 
Smith, Isaac 
Smith, Israel 
Smith, James 
Smith, John 
Smith, Joseph 
Smith, Joshua 
Smith, Martin 

Smith, Michael 
Smith, Philip 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, Zackerias 
Sniffen, Shubel 
Sniffen, James 
Sniffin, John 
Snyder, John 
Sodon, John 
Somerndike, Jacob 
Sonamet, Isaac 
Soper, Burtis 
Southard, John 
Southard, Richard 
Spalding, Olirer 
Sparks, Robert 
Spencer, John 
Spicer, Jeremiah 
Springsteen, James 
Springsteen, amuel 
Stagg, John 
Stanton, William 
Start, Nathan 
Stauts, Peter 
Stauts, Philip 
Stebbins, Lewis 
Steenberg, Cornelius 
Stephend, Timothy 
Stevens, Edward 
Stevens, John 
Stevens, Peter 
Steverson, Frederick 
Stewart, Thomas 
Stockam, Reuben 
Stokum, Jonathan 
Stokum, William 
Storm, Abraham 
Storms, Closs 
Stuart, John 
Sturdefant, Jonathan 
Sturdivent, David 
Surine, James 
Suthard, John 



Suthard, Jonas 
Suthard, Richard 
Sutherland, Joseph 
Sutherland, Solomon 
Swart, Isaac 
Swinnerton, James 
Talman, Abraham 
Talman, Douwe 
Tarbill, Salvanus 
Tater, John 
Tayler, John 
Taylor, Oliver 
Teller, Oliver 
Terpanning, John 
Terwilleger, Abr'm 
Terwilleger, James Phenix 
TerwUleger, Matthew 
Teunis, John 
Tharston, Josiah 
Thomas, Beriah 
Thomas, John 
Thomas, Thomas 
Thompson, Caleb 
Thompson, Joel 
Thompson, Joseph 
Thomson, James, Sr. 
Thomson, James, Jr. 
Thomson, Richard 
Thomson, Samuel 
Tobias, John 
Townsend, Charles 
Townsend, James 
Townsend, Zephaniah 
Trapp, James 
Travis, William 
Trim, Ezra 
Tul, Hendrick 
Tunis, Peter 
Turner, Alexander 
Turner, Stephen 
Twitchell, Benoni 
Yail, John 

Van Benthuysin, Abraham 
Van Bomel, Peter 
Van Camp, Isaac 

Van Cleef, Garret 
Van Cock, Boltis R. 
Vandeburgh, John 
Vandemark, Solomon 
Vanderbilt, Derrick 
Vanderdunch, Garret 
Vanderdunch, Thomas 
Vander Vort, Garret 
Vandewater, Adolph 
Van Dewater, Herman 
Vandewater, Jaeobus 
Van Dewater, Joseph 
Van Etten, Jacobus 
Vanflacken, Alexander 
Van Houten, Abraham 
Van Houten, John 
Van Houten, John R. 
Van Keuren, Matthew 
Van Kleek, Baltus 
Van North, John 
Vanocker, Peter 
Van Orden, Andrew 
Van Orden, Henry 
Vatiosdol, James 
Vanscoy, Abel 
Van Scoy, Henry 
Vansickle, Peter 
Van Steenbergh Cornelius 
Van Steenbergh Gradus 
Vantasel, Benjamin 
Van Tassel, Cornelius 
Van Tassel, Isaac 
Van Tassel, John 
Van assel, Stephen 
Van Vleckren, Abraham 
Van Voorhis, Abraham 
Van Voorhis, Daniel 
Vanvoorhis, Henry 
Van Voorhis, Jeromus 
Van Vradenburgh, Petrus 
Van Wagenen, Barrant 
Van Wagenen, Garret 
Van Wart, Garret 
Var Wart, William 
Vanwort, Benjamin 

Van Wyck, John 
Van Wyck, John B. 
Van Wyck, Theodorus 
Varnel, Daniel 
Veal, George 
Veal, John 
Verber, John 
Vermillier, David 
Vermillier, Isaac 
Vermilya, David 
Vickrey, Ichibod 
Vom Brocklin, James 
Voorhis, Jeromus 
Vorchase, Abraham 
Vradenburgh, Abraham 
Vradenburgh, Jacob 
Vradenburgh, William 
Wade, Morris 
Waggoner, George 
Waisemillar, Hendrick 
Walalter, Benjamin 
Walbridge, Elijah 
Waldorph, Hendrick 
Waldradt, Adolph 
Walron, Simeon 
Walsh, Samuel 
Ward, Israel 
Ward, Joshua 
Waren, Theodorus 
Waring, Michael 
Warman, Phinas 
Warters, Benjamin 
Wasfalle, Gilbart 
Waters, Cornelius 
Waters, Isaac 
Way, Frederick 
Way, John 
Weaver, Adam 
Weaver, George 
Weaver, George M. 
Weaver, Jacob 
Webb, David 
Webber, Oliver 
Webber, William 
Webbers, Isaac 



Weed, Gideon 
Weed, Jonathan 
Weeks, Nathaniel 
Welch, David 
Westervalt, George 
Westfall, Abraham 
Westfall, Benjamin 
WestfaU, GiUbet 
WestfaU, Levi 
Wheaton, Benjamin 
Wheaton, Isaac 
Wheeler, Ezra 
Whily, Matthew 
Whjtaker, Abraham 
Whitcom, Simon 
White, John 
White, Nathaniel 
Whitney, Ezekel 
Wickes, Silas 
Wickham, Benjamin 
Wickham, Benjamin, Jr. 
Wickham, Daniel 
Wickson, Ebenezer 
Wilbert, John 
Wilcox, Isaac 

Wilde, Bartholomew 
Wile, Nathan 
Wilkinson, John 
Wilkinson, Thomas 
Willcox, Aaron 
Williams, David 
Williams, Stephen 
Williams, Thomas 
Williams, Warren 
Williamson, Nicholas 
WUlson, Amos 
Wilson, Andrew 
Wilson, John 
Wiltse, Cornelius 
Wiltse, WilUam 
Wiltsee, Matthew 
Winans, Silas 
Winegar, Henry 
Winslow, Samuel 
Winston, Joseph 
Winter, Moses 
Withbeck, Harmon 
Wolson, Simeon 
Wood, Henry 
Wood, Jesse 

Wood, John 
Wood, Samuel 
Wood, Solomon 
Wood, Thomas 
Woods, EU 
Woods, Jotham 
Woolsey, Nathan 
Word, Israel 
Workman, Phineas 
Worth, Richard 
Wright, Joseph 
Yarns, Nathan 
Yoemans, Jonas 
Yerkes, Aaron 
Young, Abraham 
Young, Benjamin 
Yoimg, Elkanah 
Young, Garret 
Young, John 
Young, John Christian 
Young, Jonas 
Young, Robert 
Young, Thomas 
Youngs, John 


Colonel Henry Ludenton 
Lieutenant Colonel Reuben Ferris 
Major Ebenezer Robinson 

Major Wyckoff 

Adjutant Elijah Townsend 
Quarter Master Elezer Baker 

Captains — Edmund Baker, Noah Bouton, Calken, John Crane, Du- 

senbury, Haight, Alexander Kidd, Israel Knapp, George Lane, David 

Marick, Hezekiah Mead, Joel Mead, 
Richard Sackett, Nathaniel Scribner, 

Morton, Joshua Myrick, 
Ward, David Waterbury, 


LiBtJTEifANTS — Jonas Auser, John Berry, Charles CuUin, Timothy Delevan, 

Elliott, Ellijah Fuller, Josiah Gregory, Solomon Hopkins, David Porter, John 
Robinson, Thomas Russell, Elliah Sears, David Smith, Isaac Townsend, Israel 
Vail, Abram Van Wert, Danil Willee. 

EnsiGirs— Josiah Baker, William Calkin, James Egelston, Joseph Gregory, Caleb 
Hazen,*Jacob Mead. 




^cker, Abram 
Adams, Gilbert 
Adams, John 
Adams, William 
Addems, John 
Addems, Major 
Addems, Thomas 
Adriance, George 
Aliet, Elijah J. 
Angevine, Joseph 
Anim, Azra 
Armstrong, Gabriel 
Armstrong, Jacob 
Armstrong, Jacob, Jr. 
Armstrong, John 
Arnold, Peleg 
Arnold, Seymour 
Astin, Joab 
Astin, John 
Astin, Smith 
Astin, Robert 
Auser, Abram 
Austin, Job 
Austin, Robert 
Austin, Smith 
Auston, John 
Baker, Joshua 
Baker, Stephen 
Baldwin, Elisha 
Baldwin, Henry- 
Baldwin, James 
Baley, Elias 
Ballard, Caleb 
Ballard, Peleg 
Ballard, Tracy 
Baly, Joseph 
Banker, Nicholas 
Barber, Samuel 
Barber, Stephen 
Barger, Peter 
Barit, John 
Barret, Isaac, Jr. 
Barret, Samuel 
Barret, William 


Barrett, Isaac 
Barrett, Justus 
Barton, Aijdrew 
Barton, Elisha 
Barton, Gilbert 
Bartow, Andrus 
Basby, Olirer 
Baset, Edmund 
Bashford, James 
Bayley, Peleg 
Begal, Stephen 
Bemy, Samuel 
Benjamin, Darius 
Benjamin, Elijah 
Bennet, Isiah 
Berry, Jabez 
Berry, Jabez, Jr. 
Berry, Samuel 
Beyea, Isaac 
Bice, John 
Binton, Samuel 
Birdsall, John 
Bisbey, Oliver 
Blackman, Ephraim 
Bolding, Elisha 
Bolding, Henry 
Bolding^ James 
Bonker, Jacob 
Bostwick, John 
Boughten, Samuel 
Boyd, Isaac 
Brewer, Hendrick 
Brooks, William 
Brown, Cornelius 
Brown, Deliverance 
Brown, Ebenezer 
Brown, Josiah 
Bruce, Robert 
Brundage, Jeremiah 
Brundage, John 
Bruster, John 
Bruster, Samuel 
Buckbee, Sylvester 
Buckout, John 

Buckley, Jabez 

Bugbee, Ezekiel 

Bugbee, Silvester 

Bulkley, Jabez 

Burdick, Amos 

Burdick, Caleb 

Byington, Samuel 

Byington, Solomon 

Calwell, James 

Calwell, William 

Cambell, James 

Carey, John 

Carle, Jonas 

Carley, John 

Carly, Abert 

Carver, Barnabas 

Carver, Timothy 

Caton, Isaac 

Cayton, Isaac 

Certain, James 

Chadwick, Comfort 

Charlick, Henry 

Chase, Jabez 

Chase, John 

Chase, Judah 

Chase, Obadiah 

Chase, Robert 

Christian, Charles 

Christian, George 

Christian, John 

Christian, Richard, Jr. 

Christian, Ritchard 

Christian, William 

Clason, William 

Closson, William 

Colberth, Thomas 

Colberth, Thomas G. 

Cole, Daniel 

Cole, Ebenezer 

Cole, Elisha 
jCole, Elisha, Jr. 
''I Cole, Joseph 
"Cole, Reuben 
^ Colly, John 



Colwell, Joseph 
Conklin, Nathan 
Conklin, Samuel 
Cornelius, Ever 
Cornwell, Daniel 
Covart, Silvenus 
Covey, Walter 
Cowen, Isaac 
Cowin, David 
Crab, John 
Praft, Caleb 
Craft, Charles 
Crane, Samuel 
Crosby, Enoch 
Crosby, Solomon 
Crosby, Thody 
Culbreth, Thomas 
Cushman, Consider 
Daily, Lawrence 
DaJdn, Elisha 
Dakln, Johnson 
Dan, Thadus 
Daniels, James 
Dann, William 
Davis, Albert 
Davis, John 
Davis, Samuel 
Davis, William 
Dean, Benjamin 
Dean, Caleb 
Dean, Ezekiel 
Dean, John 
Dean, Joseph 
Delanay, Abram 
Delevan, Timothy, Jr. 
Delivan, Abraham 
Demerce, David 
Deusenberry, Moses 
Deusenbery, WiUiam 
Deyenbeg, Jarvis 
Dian, Joseph 
Dickson, James 
Dickson, Theodorus 
Dimmic^, Shubel 
Din jab, Elijah 

Disbrow, Andrew 
Disbrow, David 
Disbrow, Nathan 
Disbrow, Nathan, Jr. 
Dixson, James 
Donmee, David 
Doten, William 
Downer, Israel 
Drake, John 
Drew, Gilbert 
Drew, Isaac 
Drew, Samuel 
Drew, William 
Dusenbnry, Charles 
Dusenbury, Jarvis 
Dutcher, Abram 
Dutcher, Jacob 
Dykeman, Hezekiah 
Eakly, Benjamin 
Edy, Joshua 
Egelston, James 
EUwell, Jabez 
Elsworth, John 
Evans, Samuel 
Evens, Thomas 
Everitt, George 
Everitt, Isaac 
Ferguson, John 
Ferguson, Thomas 
Ferris, Ezra 
Ferris, Jonathan 
Finch, Jonathan 
Finch, Nathaniel 
Finch, Reuben 
Finch, Silvanus 
Piniche, Reuben 
Fish, Nathan 
Fisher, Nathaniel 
Porgason, John 
Porgason, Thomis, Jr. 
Forman, Joseph 
Fostor, David 
Frost, David 
Fuller, David 
Fuller, Isaac 

Fuller, Robert 
Furman, Joseph 
Furman, Samuel 
Gage, Ebenezer 
Gage, Moses 
Gage, Nathaniel 
Ganog, Markus 
Ganong, Isaac 
Ganong, John 
Ganoung, Jacob 
Ganung, Reuben 
Gaul, Stephen 
GifFord, Elisha 
GifFord, Samuel 
Golding, Amoss 
Goodfellow, William 
Gomey, John 
Green, Thomas 
Gregory, Daniel 
Gregory, Ezra 
Gregory, Joshua 
Gregory, Rusel 
Gregory, Samuel 
Gregory, Thomas 
Gregory, Timothy 
Griffet, Lazarus 
Griffeth, Wiliam 
GrifSth, Joshua 
Hadley, Moses 
Hadley, William 
Hadley, William, Jr. 
Hager, Robert 
Hager, Thomas 
Haight, Samuel 

Hall, Elisha 
Hall, John 
HaU, Thomas 
Hambler, Benjamin 
Hankkey, Richard 
Harris, William 
Hasen, Aron 
Haul, Elisha 
Hawkins, James 
Hawkins, Joseph 



Hawkins, Samuel 
Hays, William 
Hazelton, David 
Hazen, Caleb 
Hazen, Eleazer 
Hazen, Hoses 
Heazeltine, David 
Heazelton, Daniel 
Hedger, Joseph 
Heger, Robert 
Higgins, Ebenezer 
Hill, Thomas 
Hill, William 
Holley, Daniel 
Holmes, David 
Holmes, Joseph 
Hopkins, Ely 
Hopkins, Isaiah 
Hopkins, Jeremiah 
Hopkins, Jonathan 
Hopkins, Jonathan, Jr. 
Hopkins, Joseph 
Hopkins, Thatcher 
Hopkins, Thomas 
Horten, Thomas 
Horton, Thomas, Jr. 
How, Jesse 
How, John 
Howes, Daniel 
Howes, Job 
Howes, Moodey, Jr. 
Hughson, Jeremiah 
Hunt, Jesse 
Huson, Aron 
Huson, Robert 
Hyatt, Alvan 
Hyatt, Elias 
Hyatt, Minan 
Hyatt, Sminah 
Hyattjj Stephen 
Jean, John 
Jedd, Jonathan 
Jenkins, Nathaniel 
Jenkins, Samuel 
Jenkins, Solomon 

Johnston, Thomas 
Jones, Amos 
Jones, Ananias 
Jones, Nehemiah 
Jones, William 
June, Ezra 
Kane, John 
Keifl, Andrew 
Keley, Jonathan A. 
Kelley, John 
KeUey, Judah 
Kelley, Silvanus 
Kerley, Albert 
Kickem, Solomon 
Killey, John 
Killey, Judah 
Killey, Silvenus 
Killey, Zebedee 
King, Barzilla 
KingJ Bazley 
King, David 
King, Heman 
King, Heman, Jr. 
King, Obadiah 
King, Stephen 
Kircum, Solomon 
Knap, Gabriel 
Knapp, Benjamin 
Knapp, Danniel 
Kniffen, Amos 
Kniffen, Samuel 
Knott, Nathaniel 
Lake, Stephen 
Lambert, Connelius 
Lane, Nathan 
Langdon, Benjamin 
Lasher, Samuel 
Lawdue, Ambres 
Leddoo, Ambros 
Leonard, Robert 
Light, Henry 
Lockwood, Ebenezer 
Lockwood, Peter 
Lorens, Isaac 
Loveless, William 

Ludinton, Comfort 
Lupuye, John 
McCabe, Benjamin 
McCale, Benjamin 
McCormick, Haxel 
McFadden, James 
Mclntyre, Jaims 
McLean, John 
McShosen, Peter 
McTassel, Peter 
Maybee, Peter 
Maconth, Arlen 
Mahoon, James 
Maibe, Tobias 
Maker, Solomon 
- Mane, Sebeus 
Maner, Salvus 
Marchous, Elijah 
Marick, Isaac 
Martine, James 
Martine, Samuel 
Mason, Jerred 
Mazer, Abraham 
Mead, Abner 
Mead, Bille 
Mead, Eli 
Mead, Isaac 
Mead, James 
Mead, Moses 
Merick, John 
Merrick, Isaac 
Merrick, Seth 
Miller, Ebenetus 
Millerd, Solomon 
Mills, Titus 
Moes, William 
More, William 
Moris, Eliga 
Morse, William 
Morten, Samuel 
Myrick, John 
Myrick, Seth 
Nelson, Absalom 
Nelson, Elijah 
Newman, Jeremiah 



Newman, Joseph 
Nickerson, Aron 
Nickerson, Isaachar 
Nickerson, Thomas 
Nickerson, Uriah 
Noriis, Ezra 
Nott, Nathaniel 
Oakley, Robert 
Oakley, Timothy 
Odal, John 
Odall, Amors 
Odel, Amos 
Odell, Isaac 
OdeU, John 
Odle, Isaac 
Ogden, Benjamin 
Osborn, Denvis 
Owens, Jesse 
Paddock, David 
Paddock, Judah 
Paddock, Peter 
Paddock, Seth 
Paddock, Stephen 
Parce, Daniel 
Park, John 
Parrish, Daniel 
Parrish, Silas 
Parse, Daniel 
Paulding, John 
Peace, Isaac 
Pearce, Isaac 
Pell, Philip 
Pelton, PhiUip 
Perse, Isaac 
Petton, Philip 
Pinfold, Waiiam 
Pinkney, Frederick 
Pinkney, Isariel 
Pinkney, Jonathan 
Pinkney, Luis 
Piper, Isaac 
Piatt, John 
Piatt, Richard 
Porter, David 
Post, llennery 

Price, Ebenezer 
Price, James 
Purdy, James 
Ransier, Gieorge 
Raymond, Eben 
Raymond, Ebenezar 
Raymond, Thadeus 
Raynolds, Moses 
Read, Jacob 
Reed, Frederick 
Reed, John 
Reed, Samuel 
Requa, James 
Requa, James, Jr. 
Requa, Joseph 
Rewel, James 
Rhead, Jacob 
Rhoad, Richard 
Rhoades, Isaac 
Rhoads, Isaac, Jr. 
Rhodes, John 
Rhodes, Richard 
Rice, Edward 
Rice, Samuel 
Richards, David 
Richards, Ezra 
Richards, Moses 
Richards, Thomas 
Rider, John 
Rill, Samuel 
Robenson, Asakar 
Roberts, Peter 
Robinson, Issachar 
Robinson, Peter 
Rods, John 
Roe, William 
Romer, Henry 
Rorcom, Solomon 
Runald, Moses 
Russel James 
Russel, Robert 
Russel, John 
Rush, John 
Sackett, John 
Sackett, Solomon 

Sampson, George 
Same, Jolel 
Scofield, Ezra 
Scribner, Nathaniel 
Scutt, Peter 
Sears, Willard 
Shaddick, Comfor 
Shadrick, Comfort 
Sharpenard, Simon 

Shaw, Joshua 
Sherwood, William 
Simkins, John 
Simkins, John, Jr. 
Simkins, Robard 
Simkins, Robert 
Simmons, Jonathan 
Simons, Aron 
Simpkins, John 
Slrrine, Isaac 
Sloot, Isaac 
Sloot, John 
Slut, Isaac 
Slut, John 
Small, James 
Small, James, Jr. 
Smally, James 
Smally, Zachariah 
Smith, Abraham 
Smith, Asa 
Smith, Bennajah 
Smith, David 
Smith, Edward 
Smith, Elisha 
Smith, Gideon 
Smith, Gilbert 
Smith, James 
Smith, Jeremiah 
Smith, Jesse 
Smith, John 
Smith, Nehemiah 
Smith, Phaiip 
Smith, Richard 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Seth 



Smith, Solomon 
Smith, Thomas 
Sniffen, Sam., Jr. 
Sniflen, Amos 
Soddore, Frederick 
Soddore, Isaac 
Sorine, Charles 
Sorine, Israel 
Sprage, Elijah 
Sprage, Jaben 
Sprage, John 
Sprague, Jeremiah 
Spreg, Jeremiah 
Stats, John 
Steward, George 
Stirdevent, Richard 
Storm, James 
Swift, Isaiah 
Tannors, John 
Taylor, Daniel 
Terry, Samuel 
Tiler, Ezekial 
Tomkins, Cornelius 
Tomkins, Cornelius, Jr. 
Tomkins, James 
Tomkins, Jeremiah 
Tomkins, Stephen 

Tounesend, Levi 
Townsend, Amos 
Townsend, Charles 
Townsend, Charles, Jr. 
Townsend, Daniel 
Townsend, Daniel, 3d 
Townsend, Eber 
Townsend, Isaac 
Townsend, James 
Townsend, John 
Townsend, Zephaniah 
Travis, George 
Travis, James 
Travis, Titus 
Travis, William 
Tucker, Samuel 
Turner, Elisha 
Turner, John 
Turner, Nathan 
Turner, Stephen 
Utter, William 
Vail, John 
Vanpett, Henry 
Vanpett, John 
Van Scoy, Abel 
Van Scoy, Jacob 
Van Wert, William 
Veal, John 

Vermilya, William 
Vermilyea, John 
Walter, Daniel 
Ward, Finnes 
Waring, Thaddeus 
Waterbury, David 
Waterbury, Enos 
Weeks, Jonathan 
Weeks, Stephen 
Whaley, James 
White, Stephen 
Willcox, Stephen 
Williams, Ichabod 
Williams, Thomas 
Wilsie, Daniel 
Wilson, Daniel 
Wilson, Thomas 
Wiman, Jeduthan 
Wixsom, Daniel 
Wixsom, John 
Wood, Israel 
Wood, John 
Wooden, John 
Wright, William 
Wright, Zebulon 
Yarnes, Nathan 
Young, John 

Capt. Ezekiel Cooper, Lieut. Jasper Fulmore, Lieut. Martin Ray. 

Ammerman Dirick 
Baily, John 
Bakehorn, Jacob 
Bogg, John 
Boyce, Hendrick 
Boyce, James 
Bunt, Lodewick 
Clink, Frederick 
Cooper, James 
Curry, Samuel 
Darling, John 


Davison, John 
Delong, Jonas 
Depew, Abraham 
Depew, Peter 
Doty, Jacob 
Ferguson, James 
Ferguson, Jeremiah 
Frayer, Thomas 
Hart, James 
Hicks, Jacob 
Hinckom, Eliga 

Honse, Tunis 
Horton, Matthias 
Hurly, James 
Jackson, Hyland 
Jackson, James 
Jackson, Robert 
Kinscom, Elisha 
Knifer, Jacob 
Lemon, John 
Lent, Hercules 
Lent, Moses 



Love joy, Andrew 
Love joy, Nathan 
Mandigo, Jeremiah 
Medlar, Aure 
Messenger, Andrew 
Nichols, Isaac 
Norris, Henry 
Norton, Ahel 
Norton, Sebe 
Scott, James 

Simpson, Garret 
Smith, Deliverance 
Smith, Israel 
Smith, Philip 
Spencer, Amos 
Stark, James 
Steenbark, Peter 
Stork, James 
Straghan, John 
Taylor, Gamaliel 
Van Hoosen, Francis 

Van Kleek, Jeremiah 
Van Steenbergh, Peter 
Van Valkenburgh, Levi 
Vermillia, Benjamin 
Vorce, David 
Welding, Jeremiah 
Wheeler, William 
Williams, Richard 
Willis, Henry 
Wilsey, WUliam 
Wood, Isaac 



Local Events. 

THE second and third Provincial Congresses convened in the 
city of New York, the former November 14, 1775, and the 
latter May 14, 1776. The fourth Provincial Congress met 
at White Plains, July 9, 1776, in consequence of the British having 
possession of New York, and in the forenoon of that day a letter 
enclosing the Declaration of Independence which had been adopted 
by the Continental Congress on the fourth, was received from New 
York's delegates in that body, and unanimously approved. On the 
day following, July 10th, it was "resolved and ordered that the style 
and title of this house be changed from that of the 'Provincial Con- 
gress of the Colony of New York' to that of 'The Convention of the 
Representatives of the State of New York.'" 

But the situation of affairs had become too alarming for a lengthy 
deliberation. The seat of war had been transferred to New York, 
and the "Convention" — afterwards so called — was occupied in raising 
troops and supplies and providing for the immediate public wel- 
fare. British ships of war were anchored off Tarrytown, within 
six miles of where they were then sitting. July 27th they found it 
necessary to move to Harlem, thence to King's Bridge, and August 
29, 1776, the Convention removed to Fishkill, where it held sessions at 
different times, first in the Episcopal church and later in the Dutch 
church until February 11, 1777, when it adjourned to Kingston. 
During the recesses of the Convention the government powers were 
exercised by the Committee of Safety, which held its sessions at Fish- 
kill, at intervals, from September 2, 1776, to February 14, 1777. 
Nathaniel Sackett, a resident of Fishkill, and secretary of the Com- 
mittee, was authorized by that body, January 3, 1777, "to employ 
such detachments of the militia of Dutchess County as are not in 


actual services, as he may deem expedient, for inquiring into, detect- 
ing and defeating all conspiracies which may be found against the 
Liberties of America." 

Although Dutchess County was not invaded by the British, it never- 
theless became of paramount importance during the Revolution. In 
population and taxable wealth it exceeded the other counties of the 
State. In addition to the large numbers of troops as evidenced by 
the lengthy muster roUs of Dutchess regiments, it furnished a very 
large proportion of army provisions. 

Early in the spring of 1776 materials arrived at Poughkeepsie for 
the construction of the frigates Congress and Montgomery for the 
Continental navy. They were staunch vessels of good model, the for- 
mer of twenty-eight and the latter of twenty-four guns. The fate of 
these frigates is contained in a letter dated October 9th, 1777, from 
Gov. CUnton to Gen. Washington which reads: 

"I have to add that by some fataUty the two Continental frigates 
were lost, they having been ordered down by General Putnam to the 
defence of the chain; but being badly manned, they could not be got 
ofF in time, though I ordered the ship Congress to proceed to Fort 
Constitution (opposite West Point) the day before the attack, lest 
she should meet with a disaster; and the ship Montgomery, which lay 
near the chain, having neither anchor nor cables to secure her, it 
being the ebb of tide and the wind failing, fell down so near the chain, 
that Captain Hodge was constrained to set her on fire to prevent her 
from falling into the hands of the enemy. The Congress, unfor- 
tunately getting aground on the flat near Fort Constitution, shared 
the same fate." 

Fire rafts were also built at Poughkeepsie, fourteen of which were 
launched in July, 1776. 

Immediately following the adoption of the State Constitution at 
Kingston April 20, 1777, one of the secretaries was directed to pro- 
ceed to Fishkill and have printed 500 copies of the Constitution with 
the preamble, and 2,500 copies without. The document was printed 
by Samuel Loudon, a whig printer of New York, who set up his press 
in Fishkill, when Washington's army evacuated the city. 

Fishkill, from its secure position at the head of the Highlands, was se- 
lected at an early period of the war, as the natural depot of supplies for 
this section, being on a direct route of communication with the New 


England States. Large quantities of stores from Dutchess and adjacent 
counties, as well as from the eastern States, were there accumulated 
for the use of the Continental army. A sergeant and fourteen men 
from each regiment within the county were detailed to erect barracks 
there. They were located on the level plateau southeast of Fishkill 
village. Frequently large bodies of troops were stationed there. The 
officers' quarters were at the "Wharton House," made memorable by 
its association with the hero of Cooper's story of "The Spy." These 
barracks became the retreat for wounded and naked soldiers. After 
the battle of White Plains, the wounded were conveyed to Fishkill 
where, in addition to the barracks hospitals, the churches were used 
for that purpose. Of the many who died, it is asserted, their bodies 
were piled up as high as cord wood in places between the Dutch and 
Episcopal churches. Near the base of the mouiftain a short distance 
south of the village is the soldiers' burial ground, where moulder the 
remains of hundreds of patriots, whose devotion and blood helped to se- 
cure for us the inestimable boon of liberty. Small-pox which broke out in 
the camp added the bodies of many more. The sufferings and priva- 
tions of those heroic men, who, wrote Washington, ate at one time 
every kind of horse food but hay, and whose clothing was patched 
until nearly every substance of originality was lost, is further em- 
phasized by the Marquis de Chastellux, who remarks that they "were 
not even covered with rags." Gen. Washington made his head- 
quarters in Fishkill village for brief periods, stopping at the house of 
Col. John Brinckerhoff. /'' 

The town of Pawling is also made memorable by its revolutionary 
associations. In the fall of 1778 a portion of the Continental army 
was cantoned within its borders on the slopes of Purgatory Hill. 
Washington spent several weeks with these troops. On his arrival 
September 19th, he was entertained for six days at the house of Reed 
Ferris, about two miles southeast of the present village of Pawling. 
He then moved a few miles southwest to the place designated as his 
Headquarters on his maps by Erskine. His letters written during his 
residence here are all dated from "Fredericksburgh," the name at 
that time of the western and older part of the town of Patterson. 
Washington's general officers were quartered in the homes of various 
residents of the neighborhood. The Oblong Meeting House the larg- 
est available building was appropriated by the army officers for a hos- 


pital, and so utilized for about four months. The only oflScial record, 
says Mr. Lewis S. Patrick in "Washington Headquarters at Fred- 
ricksburgh," is that of Washington's order of October 20th, "No more 
sick to be sent to the Hospital at Quaker Hill, without first inquiring 
of the Chief Surgeon there whether they can be received, as it is already 
full." The Quakers were not in sympathy with their Meeting House 
being used for a hospital and literally "froze out" the doctors and 
soldiers by leaving them alone in the bitter winter and let- 
ting them starve. Dr. James Fallon, physician-in-chief of the 
sick who were left on Quaker Hill after the departure of the 
Continental army, wrote Gov. Clinton that he could hire no one to 
draw wood to the hospital; that he could buy no milk without paying 
in Continental money, six for one, and denounced most of the residents 
as Tories. Many of the soldiers who lay sick are said to have died, 
but Dr. Fallon's letter to Gov. Clinton furnishes the only account 
known to' exist: "Out of the 100 sick, Providence took but three of my 
people off since my arrival." 

The Ferris House in PawUng is further made notable by the trial 
there October 1, 1778, of Gen. Philip Schuyler, by courtmartial, on 
the general charge of neglect of duty while in command of the North- 
ern Department in 1777, especially for his absence at the capture of 
Ticonderoga July 6th of that year. Gen. Schuyler was honorably 
acquitted and pending the action of Congress on the verdict of the 
court, he was appointed to that body by the Legislature of New York, 
then in session at the court house in Poughkeepsie. 

October 4, 1777, Sir Henry Clinton, then in command of the 
British troops in New York started a force, estimated to number 4000, 
up the Hudson, presumably to co-operate with Burgoyne, who was 
■struggling with Generals Schuyler and Gates for the supremacy of 
the upper Hudson. Arriving at the Highlands the superior numbers and 
generalship of the British quickly captured Forts Montgomery and 
Clinton in the afternoon of October 6th. These forts were more strictly 
batteries for the defence of the famous chain which had been stretched 
across the Hudson from Fort Montgomery. The batteries taken the 
chain amounted to nothing. The second obstruction to navigation, the 
chevq,ux-de-frise from Nicoll's Point proved more formidable and the 
English fleet was detained here several days. They passed up the 











river on the 15th, firing several shots at Fishkill and Poughkeepsie, 
and on the 16th, destroyed Kingston. 

The defence of the Hudson on the east shore was entrusted to the 
ineflScient General Israel Putnam. Encamped at Peekskill with 600 
regulars and several companies of militia, he retreated to the stronger 
Highlands before an insignificant force sent by Sir Henry CHnton to 
conceal the advance of his forces on the west side of the river. Oc- 
tober 7th he wrote to Gates who was opposing Burgoyne in the north: 
"I cannot prevent the enemy's advancing; prepare for the worst." 
Following the English fleet he led his army northward as far as Red 
Hook, arriving too late to prevent the burning of many buildings at 
this place, as well as at Rhinebeck, by a detachment of British soldiers. 
The presence of his army, on the eastern shore, however, prevented 
the further destruction of villages and property* along the river in 
Dutchess County, by the English as they sailed down on the 24th. 

Shortly after the burning of Kingston, the newly formed State 
government was removed to Poughkeepsie. December 15th^^JJ.77, 
Gov. George Clinton issued his proclamation summoning the Senate 
and Assembly to meet at Poughkeepsie, Monday the 5th day of Jan- 
uary 1778. Three sessions were held here that year and the winter 
session of 1779. After that it met at irregular intervals at Kingston, 
Albany and Poughkeepsie; the subsequent Poughkeepsie sessions con- 
vening September 7th to October 10th, 1780 ; June 15th to July 1st, 
and October 10th to November 3rd, 1781; February 23rd to April 
14th, and July 8th to 25th, 1782; January 11th to March 22nd, 
1788; December 11th, 1788 to March 3, 1789; and January 6th to 
IMh, 1795. 

Hundreds of Gov. Clinton's letters were written in Poughkeepsie 
indicating that he made his home here for several years, but there is 
;no positive evidence what house was the gubernatorial Mansion. The 
«tone house built by Clear Everitt, who was sheriff of the county from 
1754 to 1761, was used for important purposes during the Revolu- 
tion, and it is quite probable that Clinton occupied it for a time as his 
residence. Through the efforts of members of Mawenawasigh Chap- 
ter, Daughters of the American Revolutibn, the State in 1900 appro- 
priated $5,000 for the purchase of this building, and it is now in the 
custody of this society and known as the Gov. Clinton House, where is 
maintained a Museum. 


In December 1778, General McDougall in command of the High- 
lands was greatly in need of shelter for his troops of the Continental 
army. Two regiments were in tents at Fishkill, and some four hun- 
dred men occupied the hospitals. He accordingly ordered a regi- 
ment of two hundred men to Poughkeepsie where they could be pro- 
tected from the storms of rain and snow. Gov. Clinton at first was 
opposed to the Continentals being stationed here, fearing they might 
interfere with the Legislature, whose members were afforded but in- 
different accommodation. However, in February of '79, when the 
regiment was about to be withdrawn, he wrote that the troops had be- 
haved in a most orderly manner ; had repaired their barracks, and laid 
in ample firewood to make their quarters very comfortable. 

When the struggle for American independence was virtually termi- 
nated by the surrender of Comwallis at Yorktown, October 19, 1781, 
the Legislature was in session at Pougkeepsie and, according to local 
historians, on receipt of this joyful news, both houses, with the Gov- 
ernor, proceeded to the Dutch Church and there offered thanksgiving 
to God for the great deliverance. 

The crowning event of historical interest to the citizens of Dutchess 
was the ratification, in their court house, of the Constitution of the 
United States, by the State of New York. The State Convention as- 
sembled at Poughkeepsie, June 17th, 1788, to consider and act on the 
proposed Constitution recommended by the General Convention at 
Philadelphia, September 17th, 1787. The State delegates elected to 
attend, numbered sixty-five, of whom sixty are recorded as present 
and voting.^ Governor Clinton, who was one of the delegates from 
Ulster County, was unanimously elected president, and it soon de- 
veloped that he was opposed to ratification, and that a large majority 
of the delegates shared his opinion. In fact Clinton is said to have 
been "the bitterest hater of the Constitution that could be found any- 
Iwhere in the thirteen States." Other conspicuous leaders in opposi- 
tion were Melancton Smith of Dutchess, and Robert Yates and John 

Robert R. Livingston, then chancellor of the State of New York, 
and afterwards Minister to France, led the majority in favor of ratifi- 
cation. Warmly supporting him were John Jay, who became the first 

1. For delegates from DntchesB and their vote, see Civil List, Chapter VII. 


Chief Justice of the United States, and "foremost of all, Alexander 
Hamilton, whose name alone is his best eulogy." 

Among the arguments advanced by Melancton Smith was, that no 
power worth speaking of, would remain to the Legislatures of the 
States, and that it was impracticable to govern a country so widely 
extended as this, by the plan proposed. To these and all other ob- 
jections, Hamilton and his coadjutors replied with sohd reasoning and 
consummate tact. For many days the discussion continued, the spec- 
tators enjoying a mental feast, and it is safe to say, that in no State 
was the Constitution more powerfully opposed, and more ably defended. 

Of local interest is the following letter written in Poughkeepsie, un- 
der date of July 1st, 1788, by Hon. Isaac Roosevelt, a member of the 
Convention, to Hon. Richard Varick of New York: 

"I wish it was in my Power to inform you that our Convention had 
agreed to adopt the Constitution or Even what the Propable Event 
will be 

Our oponents keep themselves much at a distance from us and we 
Cant Collect any of their Sentiments Either out or in Doors by any 
means whatever 

In our discussions on the Constitution we have got only to the 8th 
Section of the first Article. 

The time is mostly taken up in reasoning on the impropriety of 
their Proposed amendments. 

I now only Can sugest that the Event of Verginia may influence their 
determination, should they reject I think it Propable our Convention 
•will, but should they adopt, I am not Clear ours will, they may then 
Propose an Adjournment to Collect the Scence of their respective 
Constituents, Tho all will depend on their Leaders, Hope shall be able 
to Write you more by Saturday next." 

"While the logic of discussion was thus going on," says the Rev. A. P. 
Van Gieson, D. D., in an address delivered January 30th, 1895, in Vassar 
Brothers' Institute, "there intruded into it the logic of events. The 
plan was, that when the Constitution should have been ratified by nine 
States, it should go into effect. When the Convention of the State 
of New York met, eight of the States had already ratified and the Con- 
ventions of New Hampshire and Virginia were in session. On Thurs- 
day the 24th of June a courier arrived at Poughkeepsie from the Cap- 


itol of New Hampshire, bringing to Mr. Hamilton the welcome news 
that the Convention of that State had ratified. This made the re- 
quisite nine States, and seriously changed the face of affairs. The 
question for the remaining States was not whether they would con- 
tribute to the forming of it, but whether they would enter into or stay 
out of a Union already formed. But by the opposition in the New 
York Convention, the accession of New Hampshire was not deemed 
decisive. It was a border State, and consisted mostly of a wilderness 
with no population except that of bears and panthers. Virginia, the 
foremost of all the States still held out, and without her and New York 
the new Union could not be a success. Mr. Smith spoke not only for 
himself but for his party when he said, on the day after the news came 
from New Hampshire, that the change in circumstances made no 
change in his views." 

July 2nd a courier arrived at Poughkeepsie with a package con- 
taining a despatch from the president of the Virginia Convention at 
Richmond, and a letter from Madison to Hamilton, announcing that 
Virginia had, on the 26th day of June, unconditionally ratified the 
constitution. The accession of Virginia caused great enthusiasm 
among the Federalists in the Convention, and proved a severe blowl to 
the opponents of ratification, who, however, continued to stubbornly 
contest their ground, insisting that the Constitution was radically de- 
fective. After many days of lengthy debate and eloquent speeches, 
which won over several of the Anti-Federalists, Saturday July 26th, 
was appointed for the final vote, which stood SO to 2T for uncon- 
ditional ratification. By the small majority of three. New York de- 
cided to become a member of the American Union. The final ratifi- 
cation might have been unanimous had Governor Clinton consented to 
vote for the Constitution. 

It seems to the Editor that the great credit rightly given Hamilton 
for his brilliant and persistent fight in the Constitutional Convention 
in favor of its adoption has partially eclipsed the credit that should 
be given to Clinton and his followers, and that history has made scant 
acknowledgement of the true patriotism and far-seeing statemanship 
that actuated Clinton in his opposition. 

Besides the criticism justly made that in certain regards the consti- 
tution did not give proper recognition to the great State of New York 
as compared with smaller and less important states, was the objection 



based upon the fact that in other respects the constitution was crude, 
and failed to guarantee proper protection to both personal rights and 
to State rights. This latter fact was recognized even by those who 
favored the adoption of the constitution as proposed. The oppon- 
ents finally insisted that the constitution should be adopted only upon 
the expressed condition of the immediate adoption of necessary amend- 
ments. This course was seen to be impracticable, and finally the op- 
ponents patriotically agreed to the adoption with only an implied 
promise, or a tacit understanding, that these amendments should be 
adopted as soon as possible. 

The sequel of events justified their action, for at the first Congress 
held at the City of New York on the 4th of March, 1789, there were 
proposed ten articles of amendments, and thejj were subsequently 
adopted by the requisite number of States. 

These articles were called the American "Bill of Rights" and prop- 
erly so, for they safe-guard the most valuable rights of person and of 
property : 

Such as freedom of religion; freedom of speech and of press; the 
right of assembly and petition; the right of the people to keep and 
bear arms; the prohibition of quartering troops on house-holders in 
time of peace, or in time of war, "but in a manner to be prescribed by 
law" ; the right of the people to be secure in their persons and property 
against unreasonable searches and seizures and from arrest without 
warrant supported by oath; the right not to be held for trial for a 
felony unless on indictment of a grand jury, and not to be put in jeop- 
ardy of life or limb twice for the same offense ; not to be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against oneself, nor to be de- 
prived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor to 
have one's property taken for public use without just compensation; 
the right of the accused in all criminal prosecutions to a speedy and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of his locality, and to be informed 
of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him, and to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his de- 

It was prescribed that excessive bail should not be required nor ex- 
cessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article nine of the amendments provided: 


"The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 

The right of trial by jury was preserved in suits at conunon law, 
where the value in controversy should exceed $20. 

Finally, regarding States' rights, as distinguished from personal 
rights, article ten of the amendments provided that: 

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec- 
tively or to the people." 

In the working out of our history as a Nation under the Constitution 
it has been found that the provisions of this Bill of Rights have been 
the bulwarks of the liberties of the people. They were worth con- 
tending for and insisting upon, and the men who contended for and in- 
sisted upon them are worthy of all honor and of all praise by the suc- 
ceeding generations of a free people living under the constitution, as 
amended; for we would in no sense have been a free people without 
these amendments, and the sufferings and struggles of the Revolu- 
tionary patriots in behalf of liberty might have been in vain. 

By their success in the aAitrament of arms, the American patriots 
had sustained their contention that "taxation without representation" 
was oppression; and they had justified their Declaration that "these 
united colonies are, and of right ought to be jree and independent 
states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, 
and that all political connection between them and the State of Great 
Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 

They were, moreover, heritors of all the rights of the people of 
Great Britain — all that had been won through battle and bloodshed, 
wrested from King John and guaranteed by Magna Charta ; all that 
had been claimed in the original Enghsh "BiU of Rights" and secured 
through the "glorious Revolution" in England, the infringement of 
which had cost Charles I his head, and James H his crown; and the 
wise men of this new nation, who had vivid memories of the struggles 
of the past and clear foresight for the dangers of the future, and who 
insisted that these hard won rights should be guaranteed to the people 
by the government about to be formed, should have all honor and glory. 





IN the year 1786 there was published at Paris in two volumes the 
"Voyage De M. Le Marquis De Chastellux, Dans L'Amerique 
Septentrionale, Dans les annes 1780, 1781 and 1782," the 
"Travels of the Marquis of Chastellux in North America in the years 
1780, 1781 and 1782." * 

By the kind permission of Mr. Reginald W. Rives, the editor of this 
work has been allowed to examine and have translations made from 
the rare original books in French, owned by him. 

The Marquis was a French general officer under Rochambeau and 
one of that group of French noblemen, sympathizers with the Ameri- 
can cause, who took such an active interest and gave such valuable 
assistance in our struggle for liberty during the Revolutionary period. 

Having landed at Newport, R. I., in July 1780, he was detained 
there some time by reason of the presence of the English fleet before 
that place. Admiral Rodney, however, having undertaken nothing 
up to the beginning of October, and the season being far advanced, 
after the Marquis had seen the troops properly installed in winter 
quarters, on the 11th of November, he started upon a "long tour upon 
the Continent." He was accompanied by two Aides de Camp, M. 
Linch and M. de Montesquieu, each of whom had a servant. The 
Marquis had three, one of whom looked after a led horse and another 
drove a little cart upon which was carried his baggage. 

It was very cold and snow covered the land. 

Proceeding across Connecticut and stopping at various places, on 
the 19th of November he left Litchfield and pursued his journey, trav- 
elling through the mountains; passing Washington, whose name "de- 
clars its recent origin," and New Milford, he found himself "upon 
the bank of the Housatonic, otherwise called the river of Stratford. It 
is not necessary to remark that the first name is the true one, that 


is to say, the one given to it by the Savages, the ancient inhabitants 
of the country." 

We shall proceed to quote the Marquis's own words of the narrative 
of his further journey, as he enters and proceeds through Dutchess 
Comity, translating them literally: 

"That river (the Housatonic) is not navigable, and you cross it easily at a ford 
near the forges of Mr. BuU (Bvdl's Iron Works). You turn next toward the left, 
and follow its banks; but if you are sensible to beautiful nature, if you have 
learned in looking at the pictures of Vernet and of Robert, to admire examples 
of it, you will pause, you will forget yourself in looking at the charming country 
which forms the surroundings of the forges, the water fall which serves to work 
them and the accessories of trees and of rocks with which that picturesque scene 
is embellished. 

Scarcely have you gone a mile, when you cross again the same river, but upon 
a wooden bridge; you find another soon, which etapties itself into it, called Ten 
Miles River. You follow that for the space of two or three miles and see next 
many pleasant houses which form part of the district called the Oblong. It is 
a long and straight tract of land ceded by Connecticut to the State of New York 
in consequence of an exchange made between those two States. The Inn where I 
was going is in the Oblong, but two miles further along. It is kept by Colonel 
Moorhouse; for in America nothing is more common than to see a Colonel an 
Inn keeper. They are for the most part Colonels of Militia, chosen by the Militia 
itself, which rarely fails to intrust the command to the most honest and best 
accredited citizens. I urged my horses and hastened to arrive to get ahead of a 
traveller on horse-back, who had joined me on the road, and who would have 
had the same right as myself for lodging, if we had arrived there together. I had 
the satisfaction to see him continue on his way; but soon afterwards I had the 
misfortune to learn that the fair sized Inn, where I had counted upon passing the 
night, was occupied by thirteen farmers and two hundred and iif ty cattle, which 
had come from New Hampshire. The cattle were the least troublesome of the 
whole company. They had driven them some distance from there into a meadow, 
where they left them free at their own will, without leaving any guard with them, not 
even that of a dog; but the farmers, their horses and their dogs were the possessors of 
the Inn. I informed myself of the reason which caused them to journey thus, and 
I learned that they were conducting to the Army a part of the contingent of 
subsistance which New Hampshire furnished it. That contingent is a kind of tax 
which is divided among all the inhabitants, who are taxed, some at the rate of 
150, others at 100 or 80 pounds of meat according to their means, so that they 
agree among themselves to furnish a steer, more or less heavy, it makes no differ- 
ence, because each animal is weighed. The driving of the herd is then intrusted 
to several farmers and servants. The farmers have a little more than a dollar a 
day; tmd their expenses as well as that of the herd are repaid them upon their 
return according to the receipts which they have taken care to get from all the 















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Inns where they stop. They pay ordinarily from 6 to 10 French sols for each of 
the cattle for one night; the supper is in proportion. I informed myself of these 
details while my men sought lodging for me, hut all the rooms, all the beds were 
occupied by the drovers of the cattle, and I found myself in the greatest distress, 
when a large and fat man, the leader among them, having learned who I was, came 
to me and told me that neither he nor his companions would ever suffer that a 
French General Officer should want a bed, and rather than consent to that they 
would all sleep upon the floor, which they were accustomed to, and that that would 
not cause them the least discomfort. I answered them that I was a soldier and 
was just as accustomed as they to have the ground for my bed. A grand debate 
of politeness upon that point; on their part rough but cordial and more touching 
than the best turned compliments. The result was that I had a room and two 
beds for myself and for my Aides de Camp. But our acquaintance did not rest 
there. After we had separated each for his own affairs, I to fix myself up and to 
rest, they to continue to drink of grog and of cider, I saw them re-enter my room. 
I was then occupied in verifying my route upon a map* of the country. That 
map excited their curiosity. They saw there with surprise and satisfaction the 
routes by which they had come. They asked me if they knew them in Europe, 
and if it was not in that part of the world that I had bought my maps. They 
appeared very much pleased when I assured them that we knew America as well 
as the countries that were nearest neighbors to us; but their joy had no bounds 
when they saw on my map New Hampshire, their country. 

They immediately called those of their companions who had remained in the 
other room and mine found itself full of huge men, the most strong and most 
robust which I have yet seen in America. I expressed surprise at their height and 
their stature. They told me that the inhabitants of New Hampshire were strong 
and vigorous; that that came from several reasons, because the air there was 
excellent and because agriculture was their sole occupation, and especially because 
their blood was not mixed, that country being inhabited by the families of the 
original emigrants who came from England. We separated very good friends, 
touching, or rather shaking, hands in the English manner, and they told me that 
they were happy to have had occasion 'to shake hands with a French Greneral.' 
The horse that carried my baggage having failed to travel as quickly as myself, 
did not join me until the next morning. Therefore on that day, which was the 
20th of November, I was not able to start until ten o'clock. Three miles from 
Moorhouse Tavern you find a very high mountain, you next descend, but a little 
less than you ascend; then you follow the road upon an elevated plain, leaving 
the high mountains upon the left. The cotmtry is well cultivated, and you see 
there some beautiful farms and some mills and notwithstanding the war they are 
building there again, especially at 'HopeV township, principally settled by the 
Hollanders, as for the most part the State of New York is, that State having be- 
longed to the Republic of Holland, which exchanged it afterwards for Surinam. 
My intention was to sleep five miles this side of FishkiU at a tavern of Colonel 
Griffin. I found him cutting and shaping wood to make fences. He assured me 
that his house was full which I did not hesitate to believe because it was very 
small. I continued then my journey and arrived at FishkiU toward four o'clock 


in the afternoon. That village where you count scarcely more than fifty houses 
in the space of two miles, has for a long time been the principal depot of the 
American Army. It is there that they have placed the magazines, the hospitals, 
the work-shops, &c., but all these establishments form a village by itself, composed 
of fine and large barracks which they have constructed in the woods at the foot 
of the mountains; because the Americans, like the Romans in many regards, have 
for their winter quarters only these villages of wood or barrack camps, which one 
can compare to those which the Romans called Hiemalia. 

As to the position of Fishkill, the results of the campaign of 1777 have proved 
how important it was to occupy it. It was dear that the plan of the English had 
been, and could again be, to get possession of the whole course of the North River, 
and to separate thus tne States of the east from those of the west and the south. 
It was necessary to make sure of a post on this river. They chose West Point as 
the most important to fortify, and Fishkill as the most convenient place to es- 
tablish the principle depot of provisions, ammunition, etc.; these two positions are 
connected. I will speak presently of that of West Point; but I will observe here 
that Fishkill has all the necessary conditions for a place for a depot, because that 
village is situated on the main road from Connecticut, and near the North River, 
and because at the same time it is protected by a chain of inaccessible mountains, 
which occupy a space of more than twenty miles between the Croton river and 
that of Fishkill. 

The approach of Winter quarters and the movements of the troops that this 
circumstances occasioned rendered lodgings hard to find; I had trouble enough to 
find any; but finally I established myself in a mediocre Inn, kept by an old Madam 
Egremont. The house had not the cleanliness that one commonly finds in America; 
but the greatest inconvenience was that several panes of glass were lacking. In- 
deed, of all repairs, those to the windows are the most difficult, in a country where, 
the houses being so scattered and separated from one another, it is necessary some- 
times to send twenty miles to get a glasier. We used everything which came to 
hand to fill up to the best of our ability the cracks, and we made a good fire. A 
moment afterward, the doctor of the hospital, who had seen me pass, and who had 
recognized me as a French General Officer, came with much politeness to find out 
if I had need of anything, and to offer me everything which he could supply. I 
am using the English word "Doctor" because the distinction between Surgeon and 
Doctor of medicine is no more known in the army of Washington than in that of 
Agamemnon. One reads in Homer, that the Doctor Macon himself dressed all 
the wounds; but our Doctors, who are not Greeks, are not willing to follow this 
example. The Americans conform to the ancient usage, and are well pleased with 
it; they are well satisfied with their Doctors, for whom they show the greatest 
consideration. Doctor Graig, whom I knew at Newport, is the intimate friend of 
General Washington; and lately M. Lafayette had for Aide de Camp Colonel 
MacHenry, who, the past year, acted as Doctor in the same army. 

The 21st, at 9 o'clock in the morning, the Quarter-master of Fishkill, who had 
come in the evening watch with all possible politeness, to offer me his services 
and fo place two sentinels at my door, an honor that I refused in spite of all his 
insistence, came to my house; and after having partaken of tea, according to cus- 


torn, he conducted me to the barracks where I saw the quarters, the magazines and 
the work-shops of the different workmen attached to the service of the army. 
These barracks are in fact houses of wood, well constructed, well covered, and 
having garre^^to store grain and even cellars; of such a kind that one gets a 
very false idea, if one judges of them by those which one sees in our army, when 
we put our troops in barracks. The Americans make them sometimes more like 
ours, but only to put the soldiers under cover, when they are more in reach of 
the enemy. They give to these latter the name of huts, and they are very clever 
in constructing both kinds. It takes only three days to construct the firsi^ count- 
ing from the moment when they commence to cut down the trees; the others are 
finished in twenty-four hours. They consist of low walls, made of piled up stones, 
the chinks of which are filled with earth mixed with water, or simply with mud; some 
planks form the roof; but that which makes them very warm, is that the chimney is 
on the outside and one enters only by a little side door, practically at the side 
of that chimney. The army has passed whole winters under such huts without 
suffering and without sickness. As to the barracks, or ^rather as to the little 
military village of Fishkill, they have so well provided for all which the service and 
discipline of the army can need, that they have constructed there a Provost house 
and a prison which are surrounded with palisades. There is only one door by 
which to enter into the enclosure of the Provost and before that door they have 
placed a body-guard. Through the bars with which the windows of the prison 
are guarded, I distinguished several prisoners wearing the English uniform; these 
were a band of thirty soldiers or enlisted Tories. These wretched men had fol- 
lowed the Savages in an invasion that they had just made by Lake Ontario and 
the Mohavdi River. They had burned more than 300 houses, killed the horses and 
cows, and destroyed more than 10,000 bushels of wheat. The gallows ought to be 
the price of such exploits; but the enemy having also made several prisoners, they 
feared retaliation and contented themselves vrith guarding these robbers in a close 
and narrow prison. 

After having passed some time in visiting these different establishments, I 
mounted my horse, and conducted by a guide of the State that the Quarter-master 
had given me, I pushed on into the wood and followed the road to West Point, 
where I wished to arrive in time for dinner. Pour or five miles from Fishkill, I 
saw several trees cut down and a clearing in the wood; having approached nearer, 
I perceived it was a camp, or rather Isome huts inhabited by several hundred 
invalid soldiers. These invalids were all in very good health; but one must know 
that in the American Army one calls all those soldiers invalids who are not in a 
condition to do service, or those who have been sent to the rear, because their 
uniforms are in truth 'invalid.' These honest people, for I will not say these un- 
happy ones (they know too well how to suffer abd suffer for a cause too noble) 
have not in fact coverings, not even rags; but their assured mien, their arms in 
good condition, seem to cover their nakedness, and allow one to see only their 
courage and their patience. It was near this camp that I met Major Liman, Aide 
de Camp of General Heath, whom I had known very well at Newport, and M. de 
ViUefranche, a French ofScer, serving at West Point, in the rank of an engineer. 
General Heath had been informed of my arrival by a dispatch that the Quarter- 


master of Fishkill had sent him on my arrival, and he had sent these two ofBcers 
to meet me. I continued my way through the wood and on a road shut in on two 
sides by some very steep mountains, which seemed made expressly for bears to live 
in and where in truth they make frequent excursions during the Winter. One 
profits by a pass where the mountains are a little lower to turn toward the west 
and approach the river; but one does not see it yet. I descended these mountains 
slowly, when all at once at a turn of the road, my eyes were struck with the most 
magnificent view that I have seen in all my life; it was that which the North River 
presents, flovidng in a deep gap formed by the mountains through which it had 
long ages ago forced a passage. 

The fort of West Point and the formidable batteries with which it is defended 
fixed the attention on the west side of the river; but if one raises one's eyes, one 
sees on all sides lofty summits bristling with redoubts and batteries. I leap down from my 
horse and remain a long time looking through my spy-glass, the only means which 
one can use to comprehend the whole of the fortifications with which this important 
post is surrounded. Two high summits, on each of which they have cons,tructed 
a great redoubt, protect the river on the east. These two works have not received 
any names except those of the 'North Redoubt' and 'South Redoubt'; but from the 
fort of West Point properly speaking, which is on the bank of the river, up to the 
top of the mountain, at the foot of which it has been built, one counts six different 
forts all in an amphitheatre and protected by one another. They induced me to 
leave that place, where I would willingly have passed the entire day; and I had 
not gone a mile before I saw why they had urged me to come. In fact I per- 
ceived a body of infantry, more than two thousand five hundred men, very near, 
which was in battle array on the bank of the river. They had just crossed it to 
march at once toward Kings Bridge, and to cover a grand foraging raid that they 
were proposing to make toward the White Plains and up to the very gates of 
New York. General Starke, he who whipped the English at Bennington, com- 
manded these troops, and General Heath was at their head; he wished to have 
me see the troops before they set out on the march. I passed before their ranks, 
saluted by all the ofScers with their swords, and the drums beating 'to the field,' 
an honor that they show in America to Major Generals, whose rank is the highest 
in the Army, although it corresponds only to that of Marshal of the camp. The 
troops were badly dressed, but they made a good appearance; as for the officers, 
they left nothing to desire, either in respect to their appearance or their manner 
pi marching and commanding. After I had passed down the front of the line it 
broke, and marched before me and continued on its way. 

General Heath conducted me to the river bank, where his barge awaited him to 
carry me to the other side. It was then that a new scene opened to my view, not 
less sublime than the first. We descended, our faces turned toward the north; in 
that side one saw an island covered with rocks which seemed to close the channel 
of the river; but soon across the kind of opening that its bed had formed in 
separating the immense mountains, one perceived that it flowed obliquely from the 
west »nd made a sudden turn around West Point, to open a passage and hasten to 
rejoin the sea, without making from there on the slightest detour. One's glance 
turning towards the north above Constitution Island (this is the island of which 


I have just been speaking) sees again the river, distinguishing New Windsor on 
its left bank, then resting on different amphitheatres formed by the Appalachians, 
the furthest summits of which close the scene and are more than ten leagues away. 
We embark in the barge and cross the river which is nearly a mile wide. As we 
approach the opposite bank, the fort of West Point which, seen from the east 
bank appeared situated low down at the foot of the mountain, lifted itself up 
before our eyes and seemed to be the summit of a steep rock; this rock was how- 
ever on the bank of the river. When I had not remarked that the openings which 
pierced it in different places were not else than embrasures for cannon and for 
formidable batteries, I had my attention drawn to them by thirteen shots of 241- 
pound cannon, fired one after the other. This was a military salute, with which 
General Heath wished to honor me, in the name of the thirteen states. Never had 
honor been more imposing or more majestic; each shot of the cannon, after a long 
interval, was reechoed from the opposite bank with a noise almost equal to that 
of the discharge itself. If one remembers that two years ago. West Point was a 
wilderness almost inaccessible, that this wilderness has been covered with fort- 
resses and artillery, by a people who, six years before, had never seen a cannon; 
if one reflects that the fate of the thirteen states has depended on this important 
post, and that a horse trader changed into a general, or rather become a hero, 
always intrepid, always victorious, but buying victory always at the price of his 
blood; that this extraordinary man, at the same time the honor and disgrace of his 
country, had sold and thought to deliver to the English this Palladium of American 
liberty; if finally one groups together so many wonders, both of the physical and 
of the moral world, one would easily believe that my thoughts were indeed fully 
occupied and that 1 was not bored by my journey. On landing, or rather on 
climbing up the rocks which rose on the border of the river, and the feet of. which 
the river wa«hed, we were received by Colonel Lamb and Major Bowman, both 
artillery ofBcers, by Major Fish, a young man of fine figure, refined and in- 
teUeetual, and by Major Frank, formerly Aide de Camp to General Arnold." 

After a visit to Philadelphia, the Marquis returned in December, 
1780, and stopping at Newburg, was entertained over night by Gen- 
eral Washington at his headquarters at that place. 

After an interesting account of this visit the Marquis proceeds: 

"I greatly wished that it were possible for me to yield to the importunities 
which he (General Washington) made me to agree to pass some days with him. 
I had made at Philadelphia a solemn engagement with the Vicomte de Noailles 
and his travelling companions to arrive twenty-four hours after them at the head- 
quarters, if they should stop there or at Albany, if they should go straight on. 
We wished to see StiU-water and Saratoga. It would have been difficult for us to 
make a proper observation of that country if we should not be together, because 
we counted upon General Schuyler, who should not have to make two trips to 
satisfy our curiosity. I had been faithful to my promise, because I had arrived at 
New Windsor the same day that they had left West Point. I hoped that I should 
accompany them to Albany and General Washington seeing that he could not 


detain me, wished to conduct me himself in his barge to the other side of the 
river. We landed at 'Fishkill Landing Place,' to take the road on the east which 
travellers prefer to that on thBJ west. Arriving at the river bank, I parted from 
the Greneral, but he insisted that" Colonel Smith should accompany me as far as 
'Pokepsie.' The road which leads to that village passes sufficiently near to Fish- 
kill, which you leave upon your right. From there you travel upon the high 
land, where the view is beautiful and extended; and traversing the township which 
they call 'Middlebrook,' you arrive at the Creek and the 'Fall' of 'Wapping.' There 
I stopped some moments to take in, under different points of view, the charming 
landscape which that stream forms, as much by its cascade, which Is rushing and 
picturesque, as by the groups of trees and of rocks, which united with the saw 
mills and other mills made a picture most pleasing and agreeable. 

It was not yet half past three o'clock when I arrived at Pokepsie. Although 
I had the intention to sleep there, yet having found that the Court of Sessions 
was assembled there and that all the taverns were full, I took advantage of the 
little of the day that remained for me to reach an Inn, which someone told me of, 
three miles further on. 

Colonel Smith who had business at Pokepsie stayed there and I thought 
myself very happy to find myself again that night with my two Aides de Camp. 
In truth it was always a new pleasure for me, when free by ourselves, and in per- 
fect liberty, we could render to ourselves a mutual account of the impressions 
which so many different objects had left upon us. 

I regretted only not to have seen Governor Clinton, for whom I had some let- 
ters of introduction. He is a man who governs with all the vigor and firmness 
possible, inexorable toward the Tories, whom he makes tremble although they are 
in great number. He has been able to maintain in loyalty that vast province of 
which one end borders on Canada and the other the City of New York. He was 
then at Pokepsie, but occupied by the Court of Sessions. Besides, Saratoga and 
the different fields of battle of Burgoyne were henceforth the sole object of my 
trip. I tried always to advance in the hope that the snows would not prevent 
me and render the roads impracticable. Arriving at 'Pride's Tavern, I put some 
questions to my host upon the probable signs which he found for the continuation 
of good weather, and perceiving that he was a good farmer I asked him about 
agricvflture and I learned the following details. The land is very fertile in the 
County of the Duchesse ('Dutchess County'), of which Pokepsie is the capital, 
as much so as in the State of New York; but they let it remain fallow one out 
of two or three years, less from necessity than because they have always more 
land than they can cultivate. They sow upon an acre of land only a bushel of 
wheat, at the most, and the sowing yields 20 and 25 for one. Certain farmers 
sow oats, on the land which has borne corn the year before, but more often that 
kind of grain is reserved for land newly cleared. 

Flax is also a quite considerable object of culture. They plough with horses, 
and they harness three or four to one plough, sometimes even a greater number, 
when it is necessary to break up new ground, or that which has for a long time 
lain fallow. 

Mr. Pride informed me of these details, and made me hope for good weather 


for the next day. I went to bed perfectly satisfied with him, and his prognosti- 
cations. Nevertheless in the morning when I awoke I saw the land already all 
white with snow, which continued to fall in abundance, mixed with hail. What 
should 1 do under such circumstances? That for which I decided without hesita- 
tion. It was to continue my journey, as if it were pleasant, and only to breakfast 
little more heartily than I would have done otherwise. That which caused the 
most annoyance was the £^ow, or rather the hail, which struck me in the eyes, and 
prevented me from seeing the country. As far as I was able to judge, I found it 
beautiful and well cultivated. After I had gone nearly ten miles, I crossed the 
township of 'Straabourg,' which the inhabitants of the country called '8trattt- 
borough.' That township is five or six miles long, yet the houses are not at a 
distance from each other. When I saw one sufficiently fair looking and attractive, 
the proprietor came out, without doubt from curiosity, and asked me in French, 
if I would dismount from my horse, enter his house and dine with him. Nothing 
was more tempting, because of the bad weather, than such a proposition, but also 
nothing is more cruel when one has taken shelter than tojeave a second time the 
corner of the fire, to expose oneself anew to the cold and to the snow. I there- 
fore refused the dinner which the polite man offered me, but I did not refuse to 
answer the questions which he put to me. On my side 1 asked him if he had seen 
some French officers pass. I would speak of the Yicomte de Noailles, Comte de 
Damas and Chevalier de Mauduit, who having with them three or four servants 
and six or seven horses would have been remarked upon the road. My Hollander, 
for 1 have since learned that he was called Mr. LeRoy and that he was a Hol- 
lander, born in Europe and knew France, where he had lived some time^— My 
Hollander answered then as a man who knew France and who spoke French: 
'Monsieur, it is very true that M. le Prince de Conty has passed here this after- 
noon with two other officers going to Albany.' I did not know whether it should 
be to the Vicomte de Noailles or to the Comte de Dames that I should pay my 
respects for his Princeship, but as they are both my cousins, I answered very 
truly that my cousin having wished to take the advance, I was glad to know at 
what hour he had passed and when I should be able to join him; so that, if Mr. 
LeRoy consulted his Almanach, as I have no doubt he did, he will conclude that 
I was the Duke of Orleans or the Duke of Chartres, that which would seem all 
the more probable, as I had nine horses with me, while the Prince de Conty, a 
little further removed from the Crown, had only seven. As soon as you leave 
Strasbourg, you enter the township of 'Rhynbeck.' It is useless to remark that all 
these names disclose the German origin. At Rhynbeck, no one leaves his house to 
ask me to dinner, but the snow mixed with hail was so cold, and I was so fatigued 
keeping up my horse upon the ice, that I should have stopped at that place even 
if I had not been invited by the good appearance of the Inn, called 'Thomas' 
fnn.' Although it was only half past two o'clock, seeing that I had so far made 
twenty-three miles, that the house was good, the fire well lighted and the pro- 
prietor a big man of good mien, a hunter, a horse merchant and disposed to talk, 
I decided, according to the English expression, to 'dispense with' the rest of my 


Here is all that I learned from the most interesting part of my conversation 
with Mr. Thomas: 

In time of peace he carried on a large trade in horses, which he bought in Canada 
and which he sent to New York to transport them to the West Indies. It is nearly 
nnbelievable with what ease one carries on that trade in Winter. He assured me 
that at one time he had taken only fifteen days to go to Montreal and in driving 
back seventy-five horses which he had bought. The reason is that one travels 
straight across Lake Greorge upon the ice, and the wilderness which is between that 
lake and Montreal upon the snow. The horses of Canada travel usually eighteen 
or twenty hours a day, and two or three moimted men are enough to drive a 
hundred before them. 'I am the man,' added Mr. Thomas, 'who made, or rather 
who reestablished the fortunes of that scoundrel Arnold. He had badly conducted 
his affairs in the small business that he had carried on in New Haven. I per- 
suaded him to buy some horses in Canada and to go and sell them himself in 
Jamaica. That one speculation sufficed to pay his debts and to put him afloat.' 

After we had talked commerce, we talked agriculture. He told me that all the 
land about Rhynbeck was of extreme fertility, and that for one bushel of wheat 
that is sown, they gather thirty and forty bushels. The wheat is so abundant that 
they did not take the trouble to reap it, but they mowed it like hay. Certain 
dogs of a beautiful breed, which were running about revived my passion for the 
chase. I asked Mr. Thomas what use he made of them. He told me that they 
were used only to chase the fox. That roebucks, deer and bears were sufficiently 
common in the country, but that they killed them only in Winter, either by follow- 
ing their tracks in the snow or by drawing the woods. Every American conver- 
sation is apt to finish with politics. The politics of Mr. Thomas were a little bit 
doubtfuL He was very rich and he complained too much about the supplies of 
flour he had to furnish for the Army, for him to appear to me to be a good 
Whig. Nevertheless he held himself out as such; but I observed that he was very 
much attached to an opinion which I have found spread throughout the State of 
New York. It is that there is no expedition more useful and more easy than the 
conquest of Canada. The reason of it is that their country is so fertile and so 
happily placed for commerce that they are sure to become rich, provided they 
have nothing to fear from the savages, but the savages are only redoubtable be- 
cause they are backed up and inspired by the English. 

The 23rd (December, 1780,) I left the Thomas Inn at eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing and travelled for three hours, always in the district of Livingston (Livingston 
Manor). The road is beautiful and the country rich and well cultivated. You go 
through many quite considerable hamlets. The houses are fine and commodious, 
and everything there announces prosperity. In leaving that district you enter 
into that of Claverack, where you descend the mountains and approach the Hud- 
son River." 

Two years afterwards, in 1782, the Marquis, on his way from 
Mas^chusetts to Pennsylvania, again passed through the lower part 
of the County of Dutchess. He says : 


"The 4ith (December) I departed (from Litchfield, Connecticut,) at half past 
eight in the morning. I stopped at Washington, after I had admired once again 
the picturesque tableau which the two falls and the two mills presented, which you 
find half way on the road between Litchfield and Washington. It was not with- 
out much pleasure that I observed the great change which two years had pro- 
duced in a country that before was wild and savage. 

When I passed that way two years ago there was only a bad public-house. At 
the present time one can choose between four or five Inns, all fit and habitable. 
That of 'Morgan' passed for the present for the better, but a mistake caused me 
to alight at another, which I think was not less good. This is so because the war, 
by stopping the growth of commerce, has been advantageous to the interior of the 
country. It has not only forced many traders to leave the coasts and to seek 
peaceful habitations among the mountains, but it has forced commerce to resort 
to land transportation, and to frequent the roads, which before people made only 
a little use of. 

I arrived at 'Moor House'i Tavern' about five o'clocl^ in the afternoon. This 
time, as I crossed the river at 'Bull's Works' stopping again to behold that beau- 
tiful scene, I was convinced that I had not made too great an eulogy upon it in 
my first journal. 

The river, which was swollen from the thaw, was itself more imposing in its 
cataract, but they had let a charcoal pit tumble down, and that made the view of 
the mills less pleasing. On this occasion, I had no reason to praise the Inn of 
Moor House. The Colonel, who had given it his name, kept it no longer, but had 
conveyed it to his son, who was absent, so that there were only some women in the 
house. M. DiUon, who had gone a little in advance, had all the trouble in the 
world to make them kill some chickens. Our supper was poor, and after it weu 
finished and we had withdrawn to the chimney corner, we saw the women, to the 
nimiber of four, seat themselves at the table in our places, and eat the rest of our 
supper, with an American dragoon, who was stationed there. This caused us 
some anxiety on account of our men. We learned afterwards that the women had 
left them only a very little portion of the supper." 

Two of the women in the house were young girls, refugees from the 
Wyoming massacre, and they gave to the Marquis of Chastellux a 
very interesting account of their escape, all of which he sets forth in his 

"On the Sth, I leave at 9 o'clock, and go straight to Fishkill, where I arrive at 
half past two, after I had made twenty-four miles over very bad roads. 

I alighted at the Tavern of Mr. 'Boerbm,' which I recognized was the same where 
I had lodged two years before, and which was kept then by Madam Egremont. 
I found the house changed to its advantage, and had a, very good dinner. I crossed 
the North River at night-fall and arrived at six o'clock in 'Newborough' where I 
found Madame Washington, Colonel Tighman, Colonel Humphreys and Major 


The headquarters at Newborough consist of a single house, and that house is 
constructed in the Holland style. It is neither large nor commodious. The larg- 
est room which it contains is that where the family of the proprietor lives and 
which General Washington made his dining room. It is, to be sure, sufficiently 
Spacious, but it has seven doors and only one window. The chimney, or to speak 
more correctly, the back of the chimney, is against the wall, so that there is in 
fact only a flue of a cMmney, and the fire is in the room itself. On arriving 1 
found the company assembled in a rather small room which served for a parlor." 

The Marquis goes on to recount a very pleasant visit with Wash- 
ington and the officers whom he met at the Colonel Jonathan Has- 
brouck house, Washington Headquarters at Newburgh. 

On the 7th of December, 1782, he took his leave of Washington and 
proceeded on his journey to Philadelphia. 

SAMi!ff/i>,!u. nihUiAe 



IN the Civil war of 1861-'65 the people of this county proved them- 
selves worthy representatives of a heroic ancestry. In all the 
larger towns meetings were held immediately upon the fall of 
Fort Sumter. Men and money were freely tendered for the defense 
of the Union. Enlistments commenced forthwith, and the action of 
the citizens was everywhere prompt and enthusiastic. At a later 
period when it became necessary to raise large sums to fill the several 
quotas, these were voted without hesitation. 

On the 16th of April, 1861, meetings of the officers of the 21st 
Regiment and the American Citizens' Corps were held to put those 
organizations on a war footing and prepare them for any emergency. 
Within a few days from the issuance of the Governor's call on the 
18th of April, companies were raised and organized in many of the 
towns of the county, and united with various regimental organizations. 
Many joined the 20th Regiment, which was raised at Kingston. Com- 
pany A of this Regiment, commanded by Captain James Smith, was 
raised in Poughkeepsie. Theodore Van Kleeck was sergeant-major 
of this Regiment, and Dr. Robert K. Tuthill went as assistant sur- 
geon. Others imited with the SOth Regiment, forming Company E, 
commanded by Captain Harrison Holliday. Eleven battlefields wit- 
nessed the devotion to the Union of the SOth Regiment. In the battle 
at Gainesville and second Bull Run, the Poughkeepsie company lost its 
captain, and the Regiment its colonel. 

Company I of the 74th Regiment was raised in Poughkeepsie in 
the summer of 1861, by Captain Arthur Wilkinson; and in Septem- 
ber of the same year 135 men were enlisted in the county by Lieut. 
Broom for Col. Ramsey's Regiment, then stationed at Dobb's Ferry. 
About the same time,^ Edward Titus, of Little Rest, in the town of 
Washington, was authorized by Col. De Forest to recruit a company 
of cavalry; fifty-five men, mostly from the interior and eastern part 


of the town, were accepted, and joined the Ira Harris Guard then 
rendezvoused in New York. August 19, 1861, Pawling sent six young 
men to the "People's Elsworth Regiment" at Albany. In the same 
month a company was raised at Fishkill Landing to join the 19th 
Regiment, whose headquarters were then at Newburgh. Nearly an 
entire company of the Washington Greys, recruited from the towns 
of Stanford, Pine Plains and Chnton, under command of Col. Henry 
Moore, joined the 47th Regiment in New York the latter part of 
August. In September, 1861, a recruiting office was opened at the 
comer of Main and Bridge Streets, Poughkeepsie, by Captain Charles 
Bohrer, who recruited twenty-eight men for the Morgan Rifles, com- 
posed entirely of Germans, and commanded by Col. Andrew Leutz. 
Thirty men were enlisted by William H. Wheeler for Captain Crom- 
well's company of the First New York State Cavalry. They left 
Poughkeepsie for the encampment at Troy on the 24th of September. 

Thus the bone and sinew of the yeomanry of Dutchess County were 
represented in detached fragments in these and various other military 
organizations, exceeding in the aggregate a thousand men, who re- 
sponded to the President's first call for troops. 

The prospects of an early peace in the spring of 1862 induced the 
government to suspend the organization of new regiments; but on 
the 2d of July of that year, the President realizing the severe losses 
sustained by the federal armies in recent campaigns, issued a call for 
an additional 300,000 men, to serve for three years or during the war. 
New York's quota was 59,705 men, and to facilitate the labor of rais- 
ing them the State was divided into military districts corresponding 
with the senatorial districts. Dutchess and Columbia counties formed 
the 11th district, in which the raising of a regiment was authorized, 
and TivoH was designated as the regimental camp. Hon. William 
Kelly of Rhinebeck was appointed chairman of a joint committee 
from the two counties, which met at Poughkeepsie July 17, 1862, when 
it was resolved to request the Governor to change the camp for this 
district from Tivoli to Hudson. The change was authorized July 25, 
1862. Early in August more than a thousand men were rendesvoused 
in Camp Kelly at Hudson, and the organization of the district regi- 
ment, designated the 128th, was soon completed, with the following 
officwrs from Dutchess: Lt. Col. James Smith, Poughkeepsie; Quar- 
termaster, Alexander Annan, Fishkill; First Asst. Surgeon, C. H. 


Andrus, Poughkeepsie ; Commissary Sergeant, E. Augustus Brett, 
Fishkill; Quartermaster Sergeant, George S. Drake, Amenia; Ordi- 
nance Sergeant, John Matthews, Jr., Matteawan; Color Sergeant, 
James M. Braley, Rhinebeck. Companies B, C, D, F, H, and I were 
raised in this county. September 4, 1862, the regiment was mus- 
tered for three years. 

The 128th bore a conspicuous part in the movements in Louisiana, 
comprising a part of the second brigade of Sherman's division. In 
the assault on the rebel works at Port Hudson, near Baton Rouge, 
May 27, 1863, this regiment lost twenty in killed, and seventy-nine 
in wounded. In 1864 the regiment was sent to the Shenandoah Val- 
ley, participating in the brilliant engagements which distinguished 
their intrepid commander, Sheridan. ^ 

The 128th was mustered out in Savannah, July 12, 1865, and sent 
to Albany to be paid off. The regiment went out with 993 men and 
returned with only five hundred. Their return was appropriately 
welcomed by the towns from which the several companies went. 


In response to a resolution passed by the district war committee, 
the Board of Supervisors met August 22nd, 1862, and adopted meas- 
ures for the raising of a Dutchess County Regiment, so that the 
county's full quota of troops could be raised without a draft. After 
obtaining the required permission from the Governor, the war com- 
mittee on the 26th of August, selected Hon. John H. Ketcham for 
Colonel of this regiment, Alfred B. Smith for Major, George R. Gay- 
lord for Quartermaster and William Thompson for Adjutant. The 
regiment was designated the 150th, and recruiting offices were opened 
by Joseph H. Cogswell, Robert McConnell, Henry A. Gildersleeve, 
William R. Woodin, Andrus Brant, John Green, Edward Wickes, 
Edward Crummey, Benjamin S. Broas and John S. Schofield. As 
soon as eighty men were enrolled by any one of these gentlemen, he 
went to Albany and received his commission as Captain ; the com- 
panies receiving their alphabetical designation, commencing with A 
in the order in which their respective Captains were commissioned. 

1. A history of the Dutchess County Regiment, edited by S. G. Cook, M. D., an4 Charles 
E. Benton, published In 1907, contains a detailed and interesting account ot the organiza- 
tion of the 150th, and Its participation in the various campaigns ; also a complete roster 
of the regiment. 


Platte M. Thorne of Company H filled the place of Edward Crummey, 
who had recruited the company for him. The regimental camp was 
located at Poughkeepsie, just north of the old Alms House farm, and 
was named "Camp Dutchess." At this camp on Saturday, October 
11th, 1862, the 150th was mustered into the service of the United 
States for three years, and that night left for Baltimore, where the 
regiment was stationed until June 25th, 1863. 

The part borne by the 150th in the battle of Gettysburg may be 
briefly told. It arrived on the field of Gettysburg between 4 and 5 
o'clock on the morning of July 2d, 1863, and was assigned to the 
2d brigade, first division, of the 12th corps. It was held in reserve 
until the afternoon of that day, when, with the first division of its 
corps, it was marched to the support of Gen. Sickles, who had in- 
judiciously posted his forces in an untenable position and was forced 
back with the loss of half his troops to the position originally de- 
signed for him by Gen. Meade. The 150th returned during the night 
to the position of the 12th corps, on the extreme right of the National 
line, at the barb of the hook formed by Cemetery Ridge, on the crest 
of which from Gulp's Hill to Round Top, Meade's army was posted. 
While the contest for the possession of Little Round Top was in 
progress, Ewell, who had discovered that Gulp's HiU was weakly 
defended, from the withdrawal of troops from Slocum's command to 
the left of the line, made a vigorous attack late in the afternoon and 
succeeded in getting a foothold within the exterior entrenchment, but 
was dislodged at the point of the bayonet early the next morning. 
This was the first actual fighting in which the 150th regiment en- 
gaged. Its casualties were 8 killed and 23 wounded. Some 200 of 
the rebels surrendered to it. 

The regiment then joined in Meade's pursuit of Lee's army, march- 
ing and countermarching until August 1st, when it crossed the 
Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, and supported as skirmishers the 
cavalry, who drove the enemy. During the month of August the 
regiment lay in camp and many of the men were sick with acchmating 
fever. There were 250 cases in the hospital with typhoid and malarial 

Late in September the 150th was transferred to the army of the 
Cumberland. In April of '64 it participated in the battle of Resaca, 
where one ofllcer and eight men were wounded. During the Atlanta 


campaign, in which it was next engaged, the casualties of the 150th 
where 1 officer and 18 men killed; 4 officers and 83 men wounded. In 
Sherman's memorable march from Atlanta to the sea, the Dutchess 
County Regiment was a part of the first division of the 20th Army- 
Corps. They left Atlanta November 15th, 1864, and arrived at 
Savannah just one month later. In a skirmish on Argyle Island, 
near Savannah, December 20th, 1864, Col. Ketcham was seriously 
wounded, and was unable to join his command again in active cam- 
paign service. While at Atlanta, he had been promoted to be 
Brigadier-General by Brevet, and subsequently for conspicuous 
bravery, to the rank of Brevet Major-General. 

The 150th was discharged from the United States service, June 
8, 1865, near Washington, D. C, and June 12tji was formally wel- 
comed home by a public celebration in Poughkeepsie. 

The following is a list of the forty-seven members of the Dutchess 
County Regiment who were killed in battle, or died from wounds re- 
ceived in battle, arranged by companies and in order of occurrence. 
In addition to this list of fatal casualties, sixty-one deaths occurred 
from disease. 

Company A — John Van Alstyne, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. Charles 
Howgate, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. Levi Rust, killed at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 3, 1863. John P. Wing, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. Henry 
L. Stone, killed near Marietta, Ga., June 11, 1864. Henry C. Winans, wounded 
near Pine Hills, Ga., June 11, 1864, and died in Nashville Hospital July 12, 1864. 
First Lieutenant Henry Gridley, kiUed in action at Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 32, 
1864. John Hart, killed on picket near Marietta, Ga., June 24, 1864. WiUis D. 
Chamberlain, kiUed in front of Atlanta, Ga., August 23, 1864. John Cass, killed 
at Averasboro, N. C, March 17, 1865. 

CoMPAiTT B — Stephen Simmons, killed at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. 
Folsom Richardson, died of wounds, Cumberland Hospital, Nashville, Tenn., Au- 
gust 8, 1864. Wounded at Resaca, Ga., June IS, 1864. James M. Chambers, wound- 
ed before Atlanta, Ga., August 2, 1864. Died in hospital, Jeffersonville, Ind., 
December 28, 1864. William J. Wallin, killed on skirmish line near Averasboro, 
N. C, March 17, 1865. 

CoMPANT C — TaUmage Wood, woimded at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. Died of 
wotmds, July 14, 1863, at Baltimore, Md. George Lovelace, killed by Guerillas 
between Mulberry and TuUahoma, Tenn., February 11, 1864. Henry W. Story, 
killed in action at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. William A. Palmatier, killed in 
action at Savannah, Ga., December 20, 1864. 


Company D — Daniel Glancey, wounded in action, June 16, 1864. Died at Pine 
Knob, Ga., June 17, 1864. James Todd, wounded in action, June 22, 1864, at 
Gulp's Farm, Ga. Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 26, 1864. 

CoMPAiTT E— Judd Murphy, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. James 
Elliott, killed in action at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. Samuel Myers, killed in 
action at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. Isaac I. Blauvelt, wounded in action May 
25, 1864. Died May 27, 1864, at Dallas Ga. John Sweetman, wounded in action 
at Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864. Died at Ghattapooga, Tenn., July 3, 1864. 
James E. Davidson, wounded in action at Gulp's Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864. Died 
at Ghattanooga, Tenn., July 10, 1864. Bernard Gonnolly, killed in action at 
Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20, 1864. 

CoMPAirr F — John E. Odell, kiUed by guerillas between Mvilberry and TuUa- 
homa, Tenn., February 11, 1864. Isaac Smith, wounded at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 
1864. Died at Peach Tree Greek, Ga., June 4, 1864. Henry Sigler, killed on 
picket near Marietta, Ga., June 16, 1864. Cornelius G. Sparks, killed in action 
at Golgotha, Ga., Jime 16, 1864. Nathan C. Hedden, wounded in action before 
Atlanta, Ga., July 20, 1864. Died at Cumberland Hospital, Tenn., September 2, 
1864. John E. Pultz, wounded in action at Peach Tree Greek, Ga,, July 20, 1864. 
Died September 20, 1864. John Simon, wounded in action at Gulp's Farm, Ga., 
June 22, 1864. Died at Ghattanooga Hospital, July 9, 1864. 

GoMPAUT G — Barnard G. Burnett, killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. 
Thomas Burnett, wounded in action, July 20, 1864, at Peach Tree Greek and died 
July 30, 1864, near Atlanta. James Horton, wounded in action at Peach Tree 
Greek, Ga., July 20, 1864. Died August 9, 1864. Thomas W. Wright, wounded in 
action in Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864. Died at Atlanta Hospital, October 22, 1864. 
Benj. A. Harp, wounded in action at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864. Died Septem- 
ber 7, 1864. 

Company H — John Grad, killed in action at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. Noah 
Wixon, killed in action near Savannah, Ga., December 20, 1864. 

Company I — Henry Barnes, wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863. Died 
July 4, 1863. Charles LeClaire, killed at Dallas, Ga., May 25, 1864. William R. 
Phelps, killed in action at Golgotha, Ga., June 16, 1864. Henry Dykeman, wounded 
at Peach Tree Greek, Ga., July 20, 1864. Died at Ghattanooga Hospital, Septem- 
ber . 13, 1864. First Lieutenant David B. Sleight, killed in action at Averasboro, 
N. G., March 16, 1865. 

Company K — Richard Hyde, wounded in action in front of Atlanta, Ga., July 
23, 1864. Died July 25, 1864. 



By Edmund Platt. 

A few words in regard to the arrangement of tl^s chapter on Pough- 
keepsie are perhaps necessary. The chief events which go to make 
up the history of the town, village and city of Poughkeepsie are car- 
ried down chronologically from the earliest settlements to very nearly 
the present time. Following this comes the history of the churches, 
of the schools, of the manufacturing and other industries, of the banks 
and financial institutions, of the "newspapers, politics and public men," 
each under its own heading, with something about the development of 
each institution from its beginnings to the present. The institutions 
which are thus treated under separate headings are not referred to in 
the main story, except where something in their development was of 
great importance in the history of the town or city. The military 
history of the County of Dutchess is to be found in chapters by itself, 
elsewhere in this book, and therefore I have made but brief references 
to the enlistments of men or to the regiments that served either in the 
Revolution or in the Civil War. As the bench and bar are also given 
a separate chapter, I have said no more than is necessary about the 
lawyers. In the history of the churches only brief reference is made 
to the Catholics because a separate chapter is also devoted to them. 
The short history of Poughkeepsie contained in this volume is not a 
mere synopsis of my History of Poughkeepsie. Certain problems 
which could not be solved at the time that book was written have been 
re-examined from the records, some of them have been solved and con- 
siderable new matter has been obtained. 

Edmund Platt. 

March, 1909. 



THE towns of Poughkeepsie, Fishkill and Rhinebeck are the 
three oldest political divisions of the County of Dutchess, 
dating back at least to 1717, as the first book of the Super- 
visors and Assessors shows, though the division does not seem to 
have been definitely authorized by colonial law until June 24<, 1719. 
That act refers in its first clause to a previous act of the "Twelfth 
year of the reign of the late Queen Anne," evidently the act of October 
23, 1713, directing "the freeholders and inhabitants in the respective 
precincts thereof to assemble and meet at the most convenient place" 
to elect a supervisor, treasurer, two assessors and two collectors. 
Probably when these officers had been elected they made the first 
division of the county themselves for convenience, calling the sections 
wards. The record shows that the middle ward was called "Pockep- 
sing" as early as 1718 and the lower ward Fishkill, while the northern 
a little later came to be called Kipsburg. In the act of 1719 the word 
"ward" is not used, but they are called merely divisions, and the mid- 
dle division was given practically the same boundaries along the river 
as the present town of Poughkeepsie, namely, from Wappingers Creek 
to Esopus Island. The next division into a greater number of towns 
or precincts was made in 1737, when the Poughkeepsie precinct had 
a small slice taken off its northern end and was given a definite east- 
ern boundary. It included "All the lands to the northwest of Wap- 
pingers Kill, or Creek, from the mouth thereof and up along the said 
kill or creek and Hudson's River until it meets the patent granted to 
Heathcote and Company, called the Lower Nine Partners." The 
creation of the towns of Clinton and of Hyde Park made only a slight 
change in this northern boundary, for the Lower Nine Partners Pat- 
ent extended to the Wareskeechen, the stream which crosses the Post 
Road this side of Teller Hill, and the present boundary is only a mile 
or so further south. 

The name Poughkeepsie dates far back of definite political divisions. 
It is first found in an Indian deed, dated May 5, 1683, still on file in 
the Fort Orange records at Albany, granting to Pieter Lansingh and 
Jan Smeedes each a farm and to the latter "also a waterfall near the 
bank of the river to build a mill thereon. The waterfall is called 
PooghJcepesingh and the land Mmnismgh, situate on the east side of 


the river." This word "Pooghkepesingh," according to authorities 
on Indian nomenclature, means "where the water breaks through or 
falls over." In this deed it plainly refers to the fall at the mouth of 
the Fall Kill. The first grant of land in the town of Poughkeepsie 
is dated October 24, 1686, and refers to an Indian deed dated one 
year earlier. This was made to Robert Sanders and Myndert Har- 
mans. It contains no mention of Poughkeepsie, though the land is 
called Minnisink, but in 1697 Sanders and Harmans conveyed to Bal- 
tus VanKleeck a tract of land called by the Indians "Mennisink and 
Poghkepesing." This appears to be the last use of the word "Minni- 
sink" in local records, but Poughkeepsie, with a great variety of spell- 
ings, soon came into general use to describe the neighborhood. 

Just who the very first white settler in the limits of the town of 
Poughkeepsie was remains unknown, but the first deed dated June 15, 
1680, was of land between the mouth of Wappingers Creek and the 
Caspar Kill, granted by five Indians to Arnout Cornelissen Viele, a 
well-known interpreter of Indian languages. As a general thing some 
one was usually already living, camping or squatting in a neighbor- 
hood for which the warrant of a title to land was sought, and prob- 
ably Viele or someone else was living near the Caspar Kill at that 
time. Two years later, in 1682, there is record of a "bond and mort- 
gage given by a Highland Indian, Tapias, to Laurence van Ale and 
Gerrit Lansing, secured by his land, situate upon Hudsftn's River on 
the east side, nearly opposite Danskammer, * * * where Arnout 
Cornelissen's land ends." This gives strong ground for the suppo- 
sition that several families had been living near the mouth of the Wap- 
pingers for some time. The land granted to Viele soon afterwards 
came into the possession of Pieter Lansing, or Lassing, and some of 
his descendants lived there for many years. In fact, we may say that 
some of them are still living there, for the Lawsons, of New Ham- 
burg, are undoubtedly the same family, as Lauson was one of the 
early variations of the spelling of the name. 

With the granting of the Sanders-Harmans patent the site of the 
City of Poughkeepsie began to acquire settlers enough to determine 
the location of a center or hamlet. By 1697 there were at least six 
families here. The first settler, who is merely referred to in a deed 
as "Sovryn the Baker," was on the ground as early as 1686, and the 
others were Myndert Harmans, the patentee, Balthazer Barnse, Hen- 


drick Ostrom, Simon Scoute and Baltus VanKleeck. These with oth- 
ers who came soon afterwards formed a small Dutch village com- 
munity. Their deeds from the patentees included the right to cut 
wood in 'the forests and the right to pasturage in common lands. A 
saw mill may have. been built by Jan Smeedes at the Pooghkepesingh 
waterfall as early as 1683, when he obtained his deed from the Indians, 
though no further record of Smeedes has been found. A miU, at any 
rate, had been built there by 1699, for it is mentioned in a deed from 
Col. Peter Schuyler, the ^second patentee, to Sanders and Harman^. 
This deed conveyed land between the Rust Plaest, the stream that flows 
through the Poughkeepsie Bural Cemetery, and the Fall Kill, and was 
probably given to straighten titles and make more definite boundaries 
between the two patents. Schuyler's patent, granted in 1688, con- 
veyed land "Bounded on the north by the lands of Robert Sanders and 
Myndert Harmense," and "on the south by a certain creek that runs 
into Hudson's River on the north side of a certain house now in the 
possession and occupation of one Pieter the Brewer." The "certain 
creek" was the Caispar Kill and Peter the Brewer was undoubtedly the 
Peter Lansing above referred to. Schuyler's land included, therefore, 
almost the whole town of Poughkeepsie south of the city limits. 

The settlement of the town proceeded slowly. There was good 
lands along the streams and a comparatively level tableland stretching 
north and south for some distance in the neighborhood of the present 
city limits. Probably some of the land along the Fall Kill as well as 
along the Wappingers and the Caspar Kill was natural meadow land, 
free from trees, only occasionally flooded and very fertile. By 1703, 
when the first Post Road act was passed, settlements in the County of 
Dutchess had not yet warranted the Legislature^ in requiring the in- 
habitants to "clear or maintain any other path or highway than for 
horse and man only," but by 1712 there was reference in a deed to 
"the waggon path leading to Pokepsink," and the highway law of 
1713 provided that "If the commissioners for the County of Orange 
and Dutchess County see cause to have any roads laid out for a 
waggon road, the inhabitants of said counties shall be hereby obliged 
to clear the same." This act named Barent VanKleeck, Jacob Vos- 
burg and Johannes Busch commissioners for Dutchess. 

1. "Tlie Sanders-Harmans and the Schuyler grants covered nearly all of the town of 
Poughkeepsie, except a strip included In the Rombout patent along the Wappingers 
Kill. Later grants were made but declared fraudulent. 








It is impossible to tell where the original line of the Post Road, or 
King's Road, was, but in Poughkeepsie it must have been about where 
it is now by 1716, when the first church, the Dutch Church, was or- 
ganized, for the land then conveyed by Jacobus Van den Bogert to 
the trustees of the church is still owned by the church and was de- 
scribed by the deed, December 26, 1716, as "butted and boundett, 
Vz., on the Nort side to the Rood that runs to the Eastward to the 
fore said Captain Barent VanKleeck's and on the west along the Rood 
that runs to the Sout." That was clearly the southeast corner of 
Main and Market streets, and on the opposite side of the road that 
runs to the south the first court house was built by 1720. The 
Legislature first made provision for the building of a county house 
and prison in Dutchess County by an act, July 21, 1715, but did not 
indicate where the building was to be located. A second act, passed 
May 27, 1717, provided for its location "at or near the most con- 
venient place at Poghkepse." 

As a county seat, therefore, Poughkeepsie dates from May 27, 
1717, and there is evidence that general county meetings previous to 
that time had usually been held here. A court house and a church 
and a blacksmith shop make a good nucleus for a village any- 
where, but Poughkeepsie grew with rather more than true Dutch de- 
liberation and it was not until about eighty years after the building 
of the first court house that the place had become large enough to 
necessitate incorporation as a village. It should be noted that, like 
Fishkill and Rhinebeck, Poughkeepsie made its early growth, not on 
the river bank, but on the King's Road, or Post Road. The river, of 
course, must have been the great highway to the outer world during 
most of the year, but the road was undoubtedly the chief avenue of 
intercourse between scattered settlements and was doubtless available 
also for longer horseback journeys. As early as June 30, 1717, a 
payment of six shillings is recorded "for carrying an express to Fish- 
kill for his Magesty's sarvis," and "To James Hussey for ye same 
Express as fare as Croten River." Evidently the road was in use 
all the way to New York, despite the statement in some histories that 
Lord Loudon opened it through the Highlands when he marched his 
troops northward during the French and Indian War. 

There must have been some kind of a road to a landing place at the 
river and also a road leading to the eastward before 1716, but there 


is no indication in the early records as to how far it extended and no 
evidence of the appointment of an overseer or pathmaster for it for 
a considerable number of years. The first Book of the Supervisors 
and Assessors, bringing the records down to 1722, mentions only 
overseers of the King's Road, but in 1730 the Second Book of the 
Supervisors contains an account of an election for the middle ward of 
an assessor and a collector, Arrye Rosa and Richard Sackett, Jr., 
for Dover and pochquayeck, and also the election of Hendrick Neess 
"surveyor of ye road from Dover, and Arrye CooU surveyor of ye 
road from Pochquayeck." It seems that these roads both ran to 
Poughkeepsie. The first mention I have found in the records of a 
road leading to the river is the 'following: 

And Whereas we the hereafter Named Commissioners of pooghkeepsing and the 
Neighborhood of Wassayck Called Dover at the Request of Many persons free- 
holders and Inhabitants of said County & Two Neighborhoods have on the fourth 
day of November 1736 

Concluded & agreed that the Bridge where it Now Stands Erected over the 
Wappingers Creek is the most Convenient place for the passing and Repassing 
for Travelers; and the Road is to Contineu from Said Bridge as it Now Goes to 
a Swinging Gate of Mr. Franc Filkins Land Now in the Tenure of Mr. Johannes 
Lewis from thence Straight over the land of Mr. Moses De Graeff till it meets 
with the Road that Leads through the Land of Mr. Johannes Van Cleeck and so 
through the same Land as it Now Goes quite Down to the Landing at Pooghkeep- 
sinck as the said Road Now Leeds. 

A considerable number of new roads were laid out after the pas- 
sage of an act in 1732 "for the better clearing and further laying out 
public high roads in Dutchess County," and in 1738 it is stated that 
the commissioners "have viewed a road that leads from Pokeepsinck 
Church to Mr. Johannes Van Kleeck's," etc., and found the same very 
inconvenient and proceeded to alter said road as follows: "From Po- 
keepsinck Church eastward along the fence now in the possession of 
Mr. Francis Filkins until the end of the Lane and so along to the street 
line of the west end of the Lane of Col. Barent Van Kleeck's land, and 
so along the line as the same now is to the end thereof by Hendrick 
Ostrom's, then along the road as is there used to the end of the fence of 
Myndert Van Den Bogart. * * « And we said commissioners 
hope this may be conformable and agreeable to law and that this road 
be tfce King's High way or road from said Church at Pokeepsinck 
until the Wappingers Creek by the bridge aforesaid and no other, and 


also that there be a publick high way from the said Church as the 
road now goes until Hudson's River at a place called the Call Rugh 
Landing." This mention in 1738 is the first mention I have seen of 
the Kaal Rock landing, which appears many times, however, in the 
later records of the precinct or town of Poughkeepsie. It is almost 
impossible to tell from the early surveys just where the old roads ran, 
but the road above mentioned was apparently the main road to the 
eastward from the Kaal Rock landing, passing by the Poughkeepsie 
Church (that is the Dutch Church) and so out across Wappingers 
Creek. The records of elections for the precinct of Poughkeepsie 
begin in 1742 and the first page mentions four roads, as follows: 

Barent Lewis, overseer of ye road to ye northward. 

Benjamin Van Keuren, do to ye southward. 

John Tappen, do to ye eastward. 

John Maxfield, do to ye northeast. 

The next year the roads to the eastward and to the northeast come 
out and in their places are the "road to DuBois's," and "road to ye 
Nine Partners." In 1744 the last mentioned road becomes the "road 
to Filkintown," while the road to the eastward, or to DuBois's, becomes 
"from Lewis DuBois's to Callrugh," and a new road is mentioned 
"from Lassing's to Du Bois's mill." In 1745 the roads are simply, 
"Post Road North," "Post Road South," "Filkintown," "Simeon 
LeRoy," "Lewis Du Bois." Now where did Simeon LeRoy and Lewis 
DuBois live? In 1751 these roads are designated as "DuBois's 
Bridge," and "LeRoy's Bridge," while another is mentioned "from 
Perdon's to P. Lansing's." LeRoy's Bridge, sometimes called Simeon 
LeRoy's Bridge, comes aU the way down the records to 1755, when a 
pathmaster is appointed for a road "from Callrugh to Simeon Le- 
Roy's Bridge," and in 1754 we find the following in the record: "It 
was voted that the men from Boudewyn Lacount's, himself included, 
to Johannes VanKleeck's, himself included, shall work upon the road 
leading from the Callrugh landing to Simeon LeRoy's Bridge, and 
likewise those living at Crary Fly." This road running from the 
river to Wappingers Creek is evidently the same one mentioned in the 
earlier 1738 record. ^Simeon LeRoy had purchased land on the east 

1. Simeon LeBoy was a son of Frans, or Francois LeRoy, who came to Poughkeepsie 
as early as 1719. He was the ancestor of the LeRoy family in Dutchess County and Is 
the only French Huguenot, so far as I know, who came to this neighborhood hy way 
of Canada. He hought land In the neighborhood of Smith Street on the Fallkill. 


side of Wappingers Creek, about in the neighborhood later known 
as Titusville, not far from the time these road records began. The 
puzzling thing about the town of Poughkeepsie records is that they 
seem to indicate that Lewis DuBois lived in the same neighborhood 
and, in fact, we have maps showing that at a later period he did live 
on this side of the Creek opposite the site of Titusville. It is not 
easy to conclude, however, that DuBois's Bridge and LeRoy's Bridge 
were the same, because they occur together in the same records in 
1751. Matthew, Mathys or Matthias DuBois bought a tract of some 
1,S00 acres of land on this side of the Wappingers, opposite Titus- 
ville, in 1730, and his descendants lived there for a long time. The 
county records show that a road was laid out "from Lassen's to 
Mathys Du Boys mill" in 174(3, and this record also mentioned Lewis 
DuBois, which proves that he was living somewhere in the same neigh- 
borhood along the Wappingers. Li 1771 the Matthew DuBois estate 
was settled by Peter DuBois, Edward Schoonmaker and Zephaniah 
Piatt, who made a map of the property. This shows a bridge across 
the stream, just back of the house now owned by Hon. A. B. Gray, 
and it appears from this and subsequent maps that Mr. Gray's house 
was built certainly as far back as 1771 and was the mansion of the 
various owners of the property for many years. The ^place was 
called "Anne's Field" in the early days, but by 1791 had become 
"Greenvale," the name it still bears. The neighborhood was evidently 
a center of some importance, the main road to the eastward crossing 
the stream there, and another road passing on to the southeast, marked 
on the maps of 1791 as "the road to Fishkill." It is possible that 
there were as early as 1750 two bridges across Wappingers Creek in 
that neighborhood, one near Mr. Gray's house and the old Titusville 
mill and the other near or at the site of the present Red Oak Mills. 
If so, one of them was doubtless LeRoy's Bridge and the other Du- 
Bois's Bridge. The road laid out in 1743 and mentioned in the 
Poughkeepsie town records in 1744 as "from Lassing's to DuBois's 
mill" probably indicates the present Spackenkill Road, for it comes 
down in the records finally as "the road to Van Keuren's" and some- 
times as "the road to Anthony's," evidently referring to the neighbor- 

1. *hiB house and property belonged to several well known-men. Including James Des 
Brosses In 1771, Francis Ingram, Abraham Adrlance (1813) and John E. Varick (1833). 


hood of the old ^Milton Ferry, where Captain Van Keuren and 
Theopilus Anthony lived before the Revolution. The ferry crossing 
the river there may have been established as early as 17.50. 

It should be stated that the road from Kaal Rock Landing past the 
Dutch Reformed Church and so on to Wappingers Creek and to the 
eastward did not follow the present Main street from the Post Road 
westward. Main street was not put through to the river until 1800. 
The road wound up the hill, crossing the lines of the present North 
Clover and Mill streets, reaching the Post Road to the north west- 
ward of the Dutch Church, then following Main street out to the 
neighborhood of Arlington, where it turned to the southward, following 
nearly the lines of the present Raymond avenue and winding around 
over the limestone ridge, called the Hornberg, and so on to Dubois's 
place and the bridge over the Wappingers. Additional evidence that 
this was the case is found in a statement in one of the surveys of this 
road where the "Fountaine KilHtie" is mentioned. This was ap- 
parently the "spring brook" that flows through Vassar College 
Lake. The earliest road to the northeast apparently branched off 
from this road at Arlington and was probably the same as that now 
called the Back Road to Pleasant Valley. A little later, certainly 
before 1771, another road branched where the Manchester Road now 
leads off and went around into the Wappingers valley, crossing the 
stream at the Zephaniah Piatt (now Frank DeGarmo) place. The 
bridge at this location may possibly have been one of the very early 
ones. It seems as if it should have been the LeRoy's bridge referred 
to above, but all the evidence I have found is to the contrary. The 
existence of several old stone houses on the road east of the Wapping- 
ers suggests that the bridge may possibly have been built before the 
present line of the turnpike across the flats on the west side of the 
stream. The short cut over the swamp and the brickyard hill was 
laid out by the Turnpike Company at the time of its organization 
in 1802, when the road to Pleasant Valley was taken over and much 
improved. This short cut is not shown in the town map made in 1798, 
nor is the Manchester road. The latter appears to have been put 
through about 1811. 

1. The ferry at Milton was not only a very old one, but it was the last on the river 
to run a horseboat, the old boat remaining in service till about the time of the Civil War. 
See Appendix for history of this ferry by C. M. Woolsey, of Marlborough. 


Neither the county, nor the town of Poughkeepsie, grew very much 
until about 1740, when there was a continuous immigration from the 
south, much of it from Long Island. In 1745 a new and more commo- 
dious court house was built and in 1756 the English population had 
so much increased as to call for the occasional services of a missionary 
of the Church of England. The river trade gradually increased in 
importance as the farms were cleared and settled and a storehouse 
was built about 1761 at the foot of Pine street, and a few years later 
at the foot of Union street. The last named street or road was laid 
out by the town authorities in 1767 on petition of John DeGraff and 
his son-in-law, James Winans. It was in part an old road then, how- 
ever, but is not mentioned as requiring the services of a pathmaster 
before the Revolution. There was doubtless also a very early road to 
the mill at the mouth of the Fall Kill. Pine street was for a long time 
known as Richard Davis's Road, or the road to Richard Davis's land- 
ing, and was apparently a private road until nearly the close of the 
century. The "Caulrugh" road was still the only one in the limits 
of the City of Poughkeepsie mentioned in the records and even that is 
not distinctly shown on the map made in 1770 by WiU Cockburn. In 
that year there were some fifty or sixty houses in Poughkeepsie within 
the pi'esent city limits, twenty-five or thirty of which were on the main 
roads, iiot far from the center. A good deal of the land adjacent to 
these roads had already been divided into lots so small as to suggest 
that their occupants could not have been depending wholly upon farm- 
ing for their living. Though scarcely deserving the name of village 
in 1756, by 1776 the town had become one of some importance. 

In colonial times the houses of this neighborhood belonging to peo- 
ple of wealth were many of them stone houses, not handsome but of 
great durability. Few of them, however, remain, only two in the City 
of Poughkeepsie — ^the house on Main street now known as the Grov. 
George Clinton House and probably one of the residences of Clinton 
while in Poughkeepsie, and the old Noxon House on the east side of 
Market street. The last mentioned has been remodeled at the present 
time with a brick front and does not look like an old house, but it 
probably dates fnfem the neighborhood of 1741. Of the houses along 
the Post Road the only ones remaining in good preservation in the 
town of Poughkeepsie are the Davies House, opposite the Spackenkill 
Road, and the Abraham Fort House, about five miles below the city, 



near the Caspar Kill. This house has been much altered and en- 
larged by the present owner. The old Judge Piatt place, now occu- 
pied by Frank DeGarmo, near the Wappingers Creek above Man- 
chester, is perhaps more nearly than any of the other stone houses in 
the town in its original condition. Another house, probably older, is 
that occupied by A. B. Gray and referred to in the discussion of the 
roads leading to LeRoy's Bridge and DuBois's Bridge. The Theoph- 
ilus Anthony House, later the Gill House, on the river front at the 
mouth of the Spackenkill, is another notable house of colonial days. 


The leading people of the town of Poughkeepsie were conservative 
and not inclined at first to take much part in the agitation over the 
stamp act and tea taxes that so greatly aroused the dwellers in some 
of the seaport cities. The agitators worked very systematically to 
stir up the country, sending letters far and wide, asking the people 
everywhere to call meetings, pass resolutions, appoint committees, etc. 
In response to a letter from Isaac Low, chairman of the committee 
of correspondence in New York City, a meeting was held in Pough- 
keepsie, August 10, 1774, a report of which has been handed down. 
The people decided not to comply with the request of Mr. Low to 
appoint a committee, but adopted resolutions stating that they "agree 
fully in opinion with the many respectable bodies who have already 
published their sentiments in declaring that the unlimited right claimed 
by the British Parliament, in which we neither are or can be repre- 
sented, of making laws of every kind to be binding on the colonies, 
particularly of imposing taxes, whatever may be the name or form 
under which they are attempted to be introduced, is contrary to the 
spirit of the British Constitution and consequently inconsistent with 
the liberty which we as British subjects have a right to claim." The 
only action this meeting would take in the matter, however, was to 
instruct its members of the General Assembly to urge the Legislature 
"to lay before his Majesty an humble Petition and Remonstrance, 
setting forth the state of our several grievances and praying his royal 
interposition for a repeal of the said Acts." The resolutions also cited 
that "In the opinion of this meeting they ought and are willing to 
bear and pay such part and proportion of the national expenses as 
their circumstances will admit of, in such manner and form as the 
General Assembly of this Province shall think proper." 


This was the legal, orderly way to go to work to have grievances 
redressed, but the General Assembly of the Province of New York was 
not in sympathy with the revolutionary spirit of the times and noth- 
ing could be immediately expected from an appeal to it. Other meet- 
ings, perhaps held elsewhere in the county, did appoint correspon- 
dence committees and chose delegates to the Continental Congress at 
about this time. Certain leading Poughkeepsians, most of them mem- 
bers of the English Church (now Christ Church) refused to consider 
the acts of the First Continetal Congress binding and called them- 
selves "Friends of Constitutional Liberty." As the spirit of resent- 
ment against the mother country grew and as the revolutionary or- 
ganizations became more aggressive, these Friends of Constitutional 
Liberty were considerably harassed and a few were finally driven out 
of the county. They were strong enough in March, 1775, neverthe- 
less, with the aid of the Tory sheriff, "a judge of the inferior court, 
two of His Majesty's justices of the peace and a constable" to cut 
down a liberty pole erected near the house of John Bailey, two or three 
miles from Poughkeepsie. The Poughkeepsie precinct early in April 
refused to elect delegates to the Second Continental Congress, but only 
a few weeks later, when the news of the battles of Lexington and Con- 
cord reached here, the people became thoroughly aroused and the rep- 
resentatives sent to the Provincial Congress to meet in New York May 
22, included Gilbert Livingston and Zephaniah Piatt, of the Pough- 
keepsie precinct. This Provincial Congress promulgated the "Pledge 
of Association," which aU citizens were asked to sign In support of 
the measures of the Continental Congress. There were 207 signers 
and eighty who refused to sign in this town or precinct. The latter 
included some of the most substantial people. Some forty or fifty 
of these adhered so strongly to the king that their personal property 
was confiscated and sold, probably after they had fled from their 
homes, and Bartholomew Crannell's farm, wholly within what is now 
a closely built up part of the City of Poughkeepsie, was also con- 
fiscated and sold. Crannell street perpetuates his name and is a little 
west of the center of his farm of 102% acres. He entered the Brit- 
ish army and afterwards settled in Canada. Two of his daughters, 
however, married leaders of the Revolutionary party, Gilbert Liv- 
ingsfbn and Peter Tappen, and broke with their father. The Eng- 
lish Church suspended services when the Declaration of Independence 


was promulgated and the rector, Rev. John Beardsley, entered the 
British service as chaplain of Beverly Robinson's regiment of Loyal 
Americans, the same regiment that Crannell had entered. 

When the war was fairly under way Poughkeepsie became a center 
:^r the meeting of committees arranging for the defense of the Hud- 
son River, for furnishing provisions for the army and for recruiting 
service. Here were built the two frigates assigned to the State of 
New York for the American navy, and here was forged much of the 
great iron chain stretched across the River from Fort Montgomery, 
at the lower entrance of the Highlands. The frigates were launched 
in the autumn of 17T6, but never got to sea, for both had been sent 
to the defense of Fort Montgomery and they were destroyed during 
the raid of Vaughn and Wallace, in October, 177J. It may be well 
to repeat here that the chain stretched across the river at West Point 
at a later period was not made at Poughkeepsie but in Orange County. 

Poughkeepsie had its only actual taste of war at the time of 
Vaughn's raid. The British sent about thirty ships up the river, 
most of them gunboats, but some transports filled with troops. As 
they passed the town they fired a few shots, one of which went through 
the house of Henry Livingston, a house still standing, and another of 
which buried itself in the neighborhood between North Bridge stteet 
and Vassar street. The British are said also to have fired at the 
storehouse of James Winans, near the foot of Pine street. Nd con- 
temporary account of these incidents has been found, excepting as 
they are referred to in the letters of Gov. George Clinton and of General 
Israel Putnam. There were apparently but two companies or 
bodies of mihtia here at the time, one commanded by Col. Jacobus 
Freer of 171 men and the other by Col. Zephaniah Piatt of 120 men. 
It is said that they fired at the ships and had a cannon which was used 
from what we now call Reynolds HiU. This is probably true, but 
there is no evidence to show whether the firing was during the ad- 
vance or retreat of Vaughn or at both times. There was great alarm 
throughout the whole neighborhood at this time and Gov. Clinton 
sent his wife out to the neighborhood of Pleasant Valley for safe keep- 
ing. Gen. Israel Putnam followed the ships with a considerable body 
of Continentals by the Post Road, and it was probably knowledge of 
the fact that kept the British from attempting any serious depreda- 
tions on this side of the river. 


After the destruction of the forts that guarded the Highlands and 
the wanton destruction of Kingston (Oct. 16, 1777), Poughkeepsie 
became much more than ever before the center of revolutionary 
activity. The newly formed state government had scarcely organized 
in Kingston when the enemy arrived. After the retreat of the British, 
Gov. CHnton came to Poughkeepsie and the Council of Safety soon 
followed. Accommodations in the little town were scanty, but were 
the best to be had in any reasonably safe neighborhood and a number 
of pretty good houses belonging to ^Tories, who had been driven 
away, were available as residences, while the court house and perhaps 
the two churches could be used for legislative sittings. By proclama- 
tion dated December 15, 1777, Gov. Clinton called the Legislature to 
meet in Poughkeepsie on January 5, 1778. The first laws of the State 
of New York were passed here, and though the Legislature held two 
sessions in Kingston a few years later and two in Albany, most of its 
sessions were held here until after the evacuation of New York. A 
very large number of Gov. Clinton's letters are dated Poughkeepsie 
and show that the state offices were fixed here and that his residence 
remained here even when the Legislature met elsewhere. John Holt's 
paper, which had been removed from New York to Kingston and from 
Kingston to Poughkeepsie, contained the following notice. May S, 
1778 : ' "The Court of Probate of the State of New York is now open 
at Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County, and the office kept at the house 
of Captain Ezekiel Cooper, of that place." This is signed, "Thomas 
Treadwell, Judge of the said Court." In the winter of 1778-1779 
a regiment of Continentals was quartered in Poughkeepsie and bar- 
racks were erected on the south side of the village. 

An interesting matter concerning Poughkeepsie's connection with 
the Revolution was the fact that the first American flag used in battle 
after the adoption of the stars and stripes, at the defense of Fort 
Stanwix or Schuyler in the summer of 1777, was made in part from 
a blue coat belonging to Captain Abraham Swartwout, of Pough- 
keepsie, the rest of the flag having been made also from such similar 
materials as could be obtained from the soldiers. This statement is 
substantiated by the following letter: 

1. Becord bas recently been found in Holt's Journal for June 19tb, 1780. of tbe In- 
dictment of Richard Everltt along with Bartholemew Crannell, Key. John Beardsley, 
Bamuft Finknej, Isaac T. Lasslng and others for "adhering to tbe enemies of this State," 
■0 It Is certain that Everltt's bouse as well as Crannell's was available for Governor Clin- 
ton's use. 


Poughkeepsie, 39 Aug. 1777. 
Colonel Peter Gansevort, Fort Schuyler. 

Dear Sir; — The great distance which your duty calls us apart obliges me at this 
time to give you this trouble which otherwise I would not — ^You may remember, 
agreeable to your promise, I was to have an order for eight yards of broadcloth 
on the commissary for clothing of this state in lieu of my blue cloak which was 
used for colors at Fort Schuyler. An opportunity now presenting itself, I beg 
you to send me an order enclosed to Mr. Jeremiah Renseler, pay master at Albany, 
to Mr. Henry Van Vaughter, Albany, where I will receive it, and you will oblige 
me, who will always acknowledge the same with true gratitude. Please make my 
compts to the other officers of the regiment. 
I am, dear sir. 

Your Hble. servt., 

Ab&aham Swabtwotjt, 


Until the capture of Stony Point by General Wayne, in July, 1779, 
and the transfer of the seat of war to the south there were frequent 
rumors that the British were planning another raid up the Hudson 
and the authorities at Poughkeepsie were constantly on the alert, with 
an eye upon the Fishkill beacons, where it was expected that a big 
fire would notify them of impending invasion. At the commissary 
headquarters in Poughkeepsie there was great activity in collecting 
and forwarding stores and ammunition to the army and there was 
also a storehouse at Wappingers Falls. During the severe winter of 
1779-1780, when New York harbor became frozen over and all the mill 
streams of Dutchess froze solid, it was only with the greatest difficulty 
that enough provisions could be gathered to keep the garrison at 
West Point from starving. In September, 1780, the treason of Ar- 
nold created another scare along the Hudson and at the same time the 
constant depreciation of the Continental currency made the purchase 
of supplies and, indeed, the carrying on of any business more difficult 
than ever. The newspapers of the day, including both John Holt's 
Journal, published in Poughkeepsie from May, 1778, to November, 
1783, and Loudon's New York PacTcet, published in Fishkill, were 
filled with reports of meetings and discussions over the best means of 
regulating prices and preventing further depreciation of the currency. 

The Legislature was in session at Poughkeepsie when the news of 
the surrender of Cornwallis was received, in October, 1781, and both 
Houses immediately adjourned and went over to the Dutch Church, 
where a service of thanksgiving was conducted by Rev. John H. Liv- 


ingston. The following account of this celebration is given in John 
Holt's Journal for November S, 1781: 

"On Monday, the 39 ultimo, when the first certain intelligence of the above 
glorious event (capture of the British army) arrived here, his Excellency, the 
Governor, the members of the Senate and Assembly, and many other persons, at- 
tended divine service in the Dutch Church, where the Revd. Dr. Livingston officiated 
in a solemn manner, to express their joy and gratitude to the Almighty for this 
signal interposition in our favor. The members of the Legislature then waited on 
his Excellency the Governor at his house with their congratulations and the voice 
of the cannon 13 times proclaimed the general joy, spreading the happy tidings; 
at night all the houses in and near the town were beautifully illuminated, a large 
bonfire was lighted, 13 skyrockets and other fireworks were played off and the 
evening concluded with social mirth and every decent demonstration of joy." 

Poughkeepsie received considerable renown and some growth from 
the Revolution and became a rendezvous and place of residence for 
a good many famous men. It attracted particularly young men who 
wished to study law, and among the first of these was James Kent, 
afterwards the famous chancellor and the author of Kent's Commen- 
taries. He entered the law office of Egbert Benson, the first State 
Attorney General, in November, 1781, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1785. He married a Poughkeepsie girl, Elizabeth Bailey, and lived 
here, practicing law and studying, until 1793. He hved in "a snug 
and endearing little cottage and cultivated an excellent garden," as 
he tells us in his Memoirs, located about where the Morgan House 
now stands. He was a law partner of Gilbert Livingston, who Hved 
in the next house to the east, while across the street, on the comer 
of what is now Academy street, lived Andrew Billings, the well-known 
silversmith of the day, who did work for Washington, Lord Sterling 
and other famous men. Kent was a strong Federalist and supporter 
of Hamilton and Jay, and though once elected to the Legislature, he 
was defeated for Congress in 1793 by his brother-in-law, Theodorus 
Bailey, and thereupon removed to New York. Other men afterwards 
distinguished, who were law students in Poughkeepsie or began their 
careers here soon after the Revolution, were James Tallmadge, Jr., 
James Emott, the elder, CadwaUader D. Colden, Thomas J. Oakley 
and Jonas Piatt. 


The only really great event that has taken place in Poughkeepsie 
was the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. It was 


a great event because New York's ratification was essential to the 
success of the nation, and also because ratification was obtained only 
after a memorable forensic struggle in which such great men as Ham- 
ilton, Jay, George Chnton, and Chancellor Livingston took part. The 
court house in which the Legislature had met during the Revolution 
was burned in the spring of 1785 and a new one was built in 1787. 
The Legislature, after a long absence, returned in 1788 to hold its 
winter session in Poughkeepsie and appointed this place for the con- 
vention to act upon the Constitution. Gov. Clinton was very stropgly 
opposed to ratification and his influence determined the election of a 
large majority of the delegates against it. In ability, however, the 
majority was no match for the minority, which included Hamilton, 
Jay and Livingston. The delegates assembled June 17th and elected 
Gov. Clinton chairman. The debates dragged on until Virginia, the 
eighth state, and New Hampshire, the ninth, had ratified, and finally 
on July 15th Melancthon Smith, of this county, partly convinced by 
the eloquence and reasoning of Hamilton and Jay, moved that the 
Constitution should be ratified upon condition that a new convention 
of the states should be called to pass amendments. A ratification 
"upon condition" would not have been really a ratification at all, and 
Hamilton devoted all his energies to obtaining a change in the form of 
Smith's motion. At length Samuel Jones, of Queens County, one of 
the anti-federal members, was prevailed upon to move to substitute 
the words "in full confidence" for "upon condition." Melancthon 
Smith and Zephaniah Piatt agreed to and spoke in favor of this 
change and the victory was won, though only by the nairowest kind 
of a majority, the vote upon the ^ Jones motion being thirty-one to 

1. The delegates who yoted for Mr. Jones's motion, and they were practically the 
eame as those who voted for the final ratification, were John Jay, Richard Morris, John 
Sloss Hobart, Alexander Hamilton, Robert R. Livingston, Isaac Roosevelt, James Duane, 
Richard Harrison and Nicholas Low, comprising the complete delegation of the County 
of New York; Henry Scudder, Jonathan N. Havens, John Smith, of Suffolk; Samuel 
Jones, John Schenck, Nathaniel Lawrence and Stephen Carmen, the complete delegation 
from the County of Queens; Peter Lefferts, Peter Vandervoort, the delegates from Kings; 
Abraham Bancker and Gozen Ryerss, of Richmond ; Lewis Morris, Philip Livingston, Rich- 
ard Hatfield, Philip Van Cortland, Thaddeus Crane and Lott W. Saris, of Westchester; 
Zephaniah Piatt, Melancthon Smith, Gilbert Livingston and John DeWitt, of Dutchess, 
and John Williams, one of the delegates from Washington and Clinton Counties. Those 
who voted in the negative were Robert Yates, John Lansing, Jr., Israel Thompson, An- 
thony Ten Byck, of Albany; Thomas Tredwell, of Suffolk; George Clinton, John Cantine, 
George C. Schoonmaker, Ebenezer Clark, James Clinton, Dirck Wynkoop, the complete 
delegation from Ulster; John Haring, Jesse WoodhuU, Henry Wisner and John Wood, of 
Orange; Jacobus Swartwout, Jonathan Akins, of Dutchess; William Harper, Christopher 


twenty-nine. The final vote was thirty to twenty-seven. Smith, 
Piatt and Gilbert Livingston, of Dutchess County, the last two 
of Poughkeepsie, saved the day. The story of the convention has 
been fully told in an address delivered by the late John I. Piatt at 
the centennial of the ratification, June 26, 1888, and in an address 
by the late Rev. A. P. VanGieson, which has been published. The 
Journal of the Convention has also been recently republished by Vas- 
sars Brothers' Institute in fac simile form, of the original printed re- 
port of "The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention," in 1788. 

After the notable men of the convention had departed to their homes 
the little village of Poughkeepsie continued to reach out and grow. A 
map made in 1790 shows that some twenty houses in the central sec- 
tion were built between 1770 and 1790. The town of Poughkeepsie, 
also, must have been by that time pretty well settled and probably the 
area of cleared land was almost as great as it is at present. The 
limekilns at Barnegat were beginning to flourish certainly at this 
time. C. M. Woolsey's history of Marlborough publishes a map 
made in 1797 by Dr. Benjamin Ely, which shows limekilns on this side 
of the river at Barnegat and also at the mouth of the Wappingers. 

New Hamburg, first called the Hook Landing, afterwards Wap- 
pingers Landing, had made some progress and there was certainly by 
1789, and probably much earlier, a ferry at Captain VanKeuren's, or 
Theophilus Anthony's, about three miles below the village, at the 
neighborhood that was later called Milton ferry and still later Came- 
lot. It is called "Lewis's Ferry" in one of the early maps. (The 
present Camelot railroad station, it should be remembered, was moved 
from its old location a few years ago to Barnegat, where it now 

The ferry at the village of Poughkeepsie was regularly established 
by 1798 and had probably been running irregularly for a long time 
before that. Poughkeepsie's first real home newspaper, first called 
the Covmtry Journal and Poughkeepsie Advertiser, a name soon 

p. Tates, John Frey, John Winn^ Volkert Veeder and Henry Staring, of Montgomery; 
Ichahod Parker, David Hopkins and Albert Baker, of Washington and Clinton ; Peter 
Van Ness, John Bay, Matthew Adgate, of Columbia. 

It cannot be said that the eflCorts of George Clinton, John Lansing, Melancthon Smith 
and the other Anti-Federalists In the convention were without important results, for they 
may be said to have succeeded, in spite of the final form of New York's latlflcation, In 
forcingt upon the states the first series of amendments to the Constitution which em- 
bodied the bill of rights. 


Owned and preserved by the State as a Revolutionary Memorial, in the care and 
cnstody of Mawenawasigh Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The top picture shows the hiiilding before alteration. Copyrighted lf)04 hy Helmus W. 


changed to the Poughkeepsie Journal, was established by Nicholas 
Power in 1785. It is still published, one hundred and fourteen years 
later, as the Poughkeepsie Eagle. It became at an early date a Fed- 
eralist newspaper, supporting Washington and Hamilton, and toward 
the close of the century opposition papers made their appearance, 
though all were very short Uved until the establishment of the Political 
Barometer, in 1802. Isaac Mitchell, a writer of some note, was the 
editor of this paper for several years and author of the popular novel, 
"Alonzo and Melissa," which was published first in its columns as a 
continued story in 1804. 


March 27, 1799, Poughkeepsie was incorporated as a^ village, the 
charter providing for a board of five trustees to be elected on the third 
Tuesday in May. That, however, was only for the first election, all 
subsequent elections for many years coming in April. The boundaries 
of the village as then fixed remain the limits of the City of Pough- 
keepsie to-day. The first trustees were James S. Smith, Valentine 
Baker, Andrew BiUings, Ebenezer Badger and Thomas Nelson. The 
extant records of the village begin in 1803, when Andrew BiUings 
was president. The village then had something like 1,500 inhabitants 
and the population of the whole town in 1800 was 3,246. In 1810 
the town had 4,669 inhabitants and the village 2,981. In 1855, when 
the city had been taken out, the town had left but 3,110 people. The 
town added population very slowly down to 1900, when the growth 
of one of the suburbs of the city, called Bull's Head, East Pough- 
keepsie and more recently Arlington, had made much progress, chiefly 
because of the growth of Vassar College. ChanjiingviUe, that part of 
Wappingers Falls north of the creek, accounts for several hundred of 
the town's population. 

The earliest recorded act of the trustees authorized the digging of 
wells for a village water supply. There was already a fire company 
in existence with a fire engine. The citizens were required to turn out 
to fires and and assist in extinguishing them by forming bucket hues 
and passing water from the nearest well or other source of supply to 
the engine. The buckets were the property of the people individually 
and after each fire were collected at the dourt house where their owners 
came to pick them out. The most notable fire of the early village 
days was the burning of the court house, September 25, 1806, and 


on that occasion the difficulty of procuring water was a subject of 
comment. A new court house, the one torn down in 1903, was built 
in 1809 and the village trustees at a meeting held May 25th of that 
year warned the commissioners who had the work of construction in 
charge that "they do not build the said public building further east- 
ward on Market street than the ground in range of the houses of Joseph 
Nelson, John Forbes and Valentine Baker, situate on said Market 
street — also that the said company of commissioners be notified not 
to put unslacked lime adjacent to the market so as to cause injury 
to the village." The market at that time stood in the middle of Mar- 
ket street, at the junction with Main. It was frequently the subject 
of controversy and stood for a while adjacent to the Dutch Burying 
Ground — ^that is on the corner north of the present building of Smith 
Brothers. The graveyard remained there until 1830, when the prop- 
erty was leased for a hundred years and the Brewster block, still 
standing, was erected By 1830 the village had begun to grow very 
rapidly and land was considered too valuable to allow a burying 
ground on its most prominent comer. It is perhaps rather too bad 
that this open space in the center of the city could not have been pre- 
served, and it is certainly to be regretted that the court house was not 
built in the center of the square, between Main, Market and Washing- 
ton streets, where the land in 1809 was worth little. Washington 
street, I think, had not at that time been extended through to Union, 
and on the plot where the City Hall stands was the residence of 
Ebenezer Badger. West of the court house on Union street there 
was only a small frame building or two, one of which was the fire 
engine house. The village market remained in the center of Market 
street for a number of years after the construction of the court house, 
but had been removed for some time when the new market building, 
now the City Hall, was erected in 1831. The new market building, 
the upper floor of which was used as a village hall and the lower floor 
as a market, cost $7,200. Before the time of the Civil War its use 
as a market had been given up and it was rented to the United States 
Government for a postoffice during the early years of the war. The 
postoffice remained there until the present government building was 
erected in 1886 under the first postmastership of Robert H. Hunter, 
^mong the memorable events in Poughkeepsie during the early part 
of the nineteenth century was the visit of General LaFayette, Septem- 


ber 16, 1824. Many people must have stayed up all night to greet 
the famous Frenchman, for the steamboat James Kent on which he was 
a passenger arrived at about 2:30 A. M., and was welcomed by a great 
bonfire and a military salute from the Kaal Rock. LaFayette landed 
early and was greeted with an address of welcome at the Forbus House 
(on the site of the Nelson House) by Col. Henry A. Livingston, who 
compared the occasion to the visits of Washington to the village and 
to the ratification of the Constitution. Gen. LaFayette in reply re- 
ferred to his own former visits to Poughkeepsie and to the "great and 
astonishing changes" he beheld in the place. An official breakfast, 
for which the village trustees appropriated sixty-five doUars, was held 
at the Poughkeepsie Hotel, then called the Myers Hotel, and the 
breakfast room had been elaborately decorated foB the occasion by a 
committee of ladies. George P. Oakley described it as an apartment 
of "Portraits and Banners and Emblems and Evergreens and Flowers 
and Festoons and Garlands and Temples and Plate and Porcelain and 
Arches and Mottoes." 

Ten years later, or July 3, 1834, the village mourned the death of 
LaFayette. There were public services, a gun was fired every half 
hour all day from "Pine's HiU on Mansion Square," while a long pro- 
cession wound through the village and the bells were tolled. 

An important event was the establishment of the first central village 
water supply by the building of the reservoir on top of Cannon street 
hill in 1836, at a cost of $30,000. Water was pumped from the 
Fall Kill and was used only for fire extinguishing purposes, pipes being 
laid only on the main streets. The reservoir happened to be empty 
on May 12, 1836, when Poughkeepsie was visited by the greatest fire 
in its history, a fire which burned nearly all the buildings on the south 
side of Main street, between Liberty and Academy streets. At one 
time the destruction of a very large section of the village seemed in- 
evitable, as buildings on the north side of the street were several times 
on fire, but the force pump which supplied water to the reservoir had 
been started and water came down through the pipes at the critical 
time, so that the flames were controlled. 

Between 1830 and 1837 the village grew rapidly and a remarkable 
real estate boom was inaugurated by the Poughkeepsie Improvement 
Party, which included such men as Paraclete Potter, editor of the 
Poughkeepsie Journal, Nathaniel P. Tallmadge, United States Sena- 


tor, Matthew Vassar, Walter Ctinningham, George P. Oakley and 
Gideon P. Hewitt. Many acres of land were plotted and sold in lots, 
two chief centers of development being around Mansion Square and 
the old French farm, south of the English Burying Ground, that is, 
south of the present location of Christ Church. The industries and 
schools estabhshed by these enterprising men are described under spe- 
cial headings. Some of their enterprises were daring in the extreme. 
Among them may be noted here a locomotive factory, started long 
before there was any railroad in the neighborhood. They did much 
more than establish enterprises ; they made Poughkeepsie an up-to- 
date, model village according to the light of the times. The streets in 
the central section were aU paved with cobblestones and the sidewalks 
paved with brick. Trees were planted and efforts were made to make 
the town as attractive as possible. In the lower part of the town 
Delafield street was expected to become a leading residence street and 
land was sold under the restriction that all houses should be placed 
fifty feet back from the street, which was named after John Dela- 
field, a New York capitalist who backed many of the local financial 
enterprises. Nathaniel P. Tallmadge built there his own mansion, a 
fine house, still standing. The real estate boom was so notable as to 
attract considerable attention in New York and it is mentioned in 
many contemporary letters, particularly in those published by Free- 
man Hunt, who says, under date September 25, 1835, "Lots which 
were sold eighteen months ago for $600 have been sold for $4,000. 
A plot of fourteen acres in the suburbs of the village which was pur- 
chased ten months since for $4,000 was recently sold for $14,000. 
Another plot which could have been purchased nine months ago for 
$10,000 was sold a few days ago for $24,000." The many buildings 
still standing about town, ornamented by Grecian columns and por- 
ticos, all date from this period. The panic of 1837 ruined nearly all 
the members of the improvement party, except Matthew Vassar, who 
was able to buy what others had to sell and is believed to have made 
substantial additions to his fortune by doing so. Several of the lead- 
ing men of the time went west after the panic to retrieve their for- 
tunes. Senator Tallmadge was appointed Governor of the territory 
of Wisconsin in 1844 and Paraclete Potter had been made registrar 
of the United States Land Office in Milwaukee in 1841. Gideon P. 
Hewitt and Henry Conkhn were among others who went to Wisconsin. 


The collapse of the real estate boom and of several enterprises es- 
tablished by the improvement party retarded the growth of the vil- 
lage only temporarily, for the schools founded at this time continued 
to flourish and gave the place a wide reputation. In 1830 the village 
population was 5,0S3, in 1840 it was 7,710, in 1856, after incorpora- 
tion as a city, it was 12,763. The rate of growth was evidently not 
less after 1841 than between 1830 and 1840. 

The Hudson River Railroad was built through from New York to 
Poughkeepsie in 1849, and for a time trains ran to the lower part 
of the city, where passengers were transferred to steamboats, the 
heavy rock cutting beyond that point proving a source of delay. The 
first train, however, came through to the station on January 4, 1850. 
The Hudson River Railroad was distinctly a Poughkeepsie enterprise. 
Isaac Piatt had been advocating it for a long time in the Eagle and 
had taken a great deal of interest in obtaining subscriptions for the 
stock. In March, 1842, a convention of delegates from river towns 
was brought together at the village hall in Poughkeepsie, and though 
there were not very many outsiders present, the meeting ajppointed a 
central executive finance and correspondence committee, made up 
whoUy of Poughkeepsians, Matthew Vassar, Thomas L. Davies, Isaac 
Piatt and E. B. Killey; and the Poughkeepsie Telegraph in describ- 
ing the completion of the enterprise in 1850, gives the chief credit to 
this committee, which as early as 1842 opened subscription books and 
raised $1,450 for preliminary expenses of obtaining a complete sur- 
vey and a charter. New York City was very much inclined to oppose 
the railroad at first and took little interest in it until after it had 
been practically assured. When the charter was passed its enemies 
succeeded in incorporating in it a requirement that $3,000,000 must 
be subscribed before March 1, 1847, with ten per cent paid in. The 
newspapers of the day contained urgent appeals to the people to "save 
the charter," and the Eagle on February 27 printed the announce- 
ment that the amount had been raised, together with a historical sketch 
of the progress of the enterprise and the difficulties encountered by 
the original promoters. So rejoiced were the people at the announce- 
ment that bonfires were lighted and salutes were fired and there was a 
formal celebration with a splendid spread at the Poughkeepsie Hotel, 
of which Mr. Rutzer was then the landlord. While the efl'orts to 


raise money for the railroad were in progress the first ^telegraph office 
in Foughkeepsie was opened, October 19, 1846. This office was of 
peculiar interest to the people of Foughkeepsie because Frof. Samuel 
F. B. Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, lived in the town of Fough- 
keepsie, only two or three mUes south of the village, in the place now 
owned by William H. Young. Frof. Morse was known to every resi- 
dent of the village and was an officer in the Fresbyterian Church. In 
1850, besides its first railroad, the village also had its first gas lights 
and 1852 saw the establishment of its first daily newspaper, the Press. 


The City of Foughkeepsie was incorporated by the act of the Legis- 
lature, March 28, 1854, and the first city election was held the follow- 
ing April, when James Emott, Jr., became the first Mayor. He re- 
signed in 1856 to become a Justice of the Supreme Court, as his 
father had been before him. One of the early aldermen was Henry 
W. Shaw (Josh Billings). The second mayor was Charles W. Swift. 
Apart from some notable political meetings on Forbus Hill, the space 
which remained open for many years between Union and Church streets, 
back of the Forbus House, nothing of great importance took place 
in Foughkeepsie down to the Civil War. In October, 1856, fifteen 
steamboats ran excursions to bring people to a great Democratic rally 
on Forbus Hill. In the same month a cavalcade of eight hundred 
horsemen came into town to attend a Republican rally. The cam- 
paign of 1860 was even more memorable, when the Wide Awakes and 
Little Giants paraded the town night after night. 

The outbreak of the Civil War, of course, caused intense excitement 
in Foughkeepsie and there were many war meetings to aid the re- 
cruiting. After the first companies had gone and the enthusiasm to 
volunteer had worn away the city voted large sums of money and in- 
curred considerable debt for bounties. The story of the regiments is 
told elsewhere in the military history of the county. During the war 
a scarcity of small change occurred in this city, as elsewhere, and the 

1. The telegraph line was laid from Buffalo to Foughkeepsie before It was extended 
to New York City, as Is shown from the following Item found In a Foughkeepsie paper of 
the date of May 1, 1850, by Theodore W. Davis : "The office of the Magnetic Telegraph will 
be removed this day from Its former location In Garden street to rooms over the store of 
Mr. Adam Henderson, corner of Main and Market streets. Wires are now stretched from 
Buffalo to this place and will soon be completed to New York. Mr. Curtlss Is the op- 
erator." It Is said that messages were sent from Buffalo to Foughkeepsie for a. while 
and were here put Into the mall for New York. 


city issued its own shinplasters, as did also a number of business firms, 
until they were forbidden to do so by law. One of the leading events 
of the war years was a Sanitary Fair, held at 178-180 Main street, 
then an unoccupied building owned by Matthew Vassar, March 15 to 
19, 1865. The whole city was interested in it and the net proceeds 
were more than $16,000. The close of the war brought celebrations 
over the return of the soldiers and a great throng of students to East- 
man College, which added much to the prosperity of the city. Harvey 
G. Eastman soon became a leading citizen and in 1865 purchased and 
beautified the property which became known as Eastman Park and has 
just been purchased (February, 1909,) by the city to become a per- 
manent city park. Vassar College, opened in September, 1865, 
brought at first but 853 students, but was destinednto become a most 
important factor in the life of the city. It had grown to 1,000 soon 
after the close of the century. More will be found about these insti- 
tutions under the heading of "Schools." 

Before 1870 the second great period of growth, comparable to that 
of the days of the old improvement party between 1830 and 1837, was 
in fuU sway. This later period of improvement included the building 
of the new water works, pumping from the Hudson river with sand 
filtration, the installation of a complete sewerage system, the Fall- 
kill improvement by which the old mill ponds on the kill were abohshed 
and the stream was walled in, the Poughkeepsie & Eastern Railroad, 
the building of the city railroad and the beginning of the Pough- 
keepsie Bridge. Harvey G. Eastman, George Innis, Mark D. Wilbur 
and George P. Pelton were leaders in this latter improvement era. 
The Poughkeepsie & Eastern Railroad had been long advocated by the 
Eagle and at one time, just before the war, there seemed a chance of 
its construction. Whatever chance there was, however, was destroyed 
by the panic of 1857 and the project was not again taken up until 
after the war. The railroad was finished to the Connecticut hne in 
1872, but the difficulty of procuring capital was so great that it could 
not be completed until the city had added $600,000 to its own in- 
debtedness to push the work through. The waterworks and the Fall- 
kill improvement together with the P. & E. bonds and the bounty bonds 
increased the debt of the city to about two million dollars, which at 
seven per cent interest imposed a burden so great that almost a quar- 
ter of a century was to elapse before the people felt free to go ahead 
with needed improvements again. 


The sand filter beds installed with the new water system in 1872 
were the first successfiil sand filters in the country and are still in use, 
though rebuilt and much enlarged. 

The most important and far reaching enterprise of the period suc- 
ceeding the Civil War was the Poughkeepsie Bridge, and it stands 
to-day a monument to the energy and perseverance of Harvey G. 
Eastman and John I. Piatt. In the earlier movement Eastman was 
the leader. He was both mayor and member of Assembly and ob- 
tained the legislation necessary to allow the placing of piers in the 
river. John I. Piatt obtained from tlie Pennsylvania Railroad presi- 
dent, J. Edgar Thompson, the necessary financial backing and the 
cornerstone was laid with great ceremony December 17, 1873. The 
panic of that year had already occurred, however, and the death of 
Mr. Thompson caused the Pennsylvania Railroad to repudiate its 
subscription. After that nothing could be done for a long period but 
keep the charter alive and wait for better times, and meanwhile, in 
1878, Mr. Eastman died. The bulk of the work then fell upon Mr. Piatt, 
who became member of Assembly in 1886. He obtained the charter 
extensions necessary and succeeded in defeating the rival Storm King 
project, and also in enlisting new financial support from New Eng- 
land and from Philadelphia. A group of Philadelphia capitalists 
finally financed the enterprise to completion and the first train crossed 
the bridge in December, 1888. The ideas of its promoters, however, 
that it was to become a great link between the coal fields of Pennsyl- 
vania and the factories of New England and that it would make a 
large city of Poughkeepsie, hardly began to be realized for another 
twenty years. 

The capitalists who furnished the money for the building of the 
bridge were unable to make satisfactory arrangements for the pur- 
chase of the Poughkeepsie & Eastern Railroad and consequently built 
a line paralleling it and connecting with the Hartford & Connecticut 
Western Railroad. On the west side of the river a railroad was built 
to Campbell Hall, where it made connections with the Ontario & West- 
ern and the Erie, and soon afterwards a connection was made there 
also with the Lehigh. After several financial vissicitudes and re- 
organizations the bridge and its connecting railroads, against which 
the irunk lines of the country seemed to combine, became known as 
the Central New England system, and in 1904< came into possession 


of the powerful New York, New Haven & Hartford system. Mean- 
time, soon after the completion of the bridge a railroad was built from 
Poughkeepsie to Hopewell Junction, connecting the bridge with the 
Highland division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, pre- 
viously the New York and New England Railroad. It is this branch 
which now carries the bulk of the business. One of the first results 
of the consoUdation with the New Haven road was the running of the 
Highland division passenger trains to Poughkeepsie instead of Fish- 
kill Landing, and the abandonment of the car ferry freight transfer 
at Fishkill Landing followed. In 1907, the old Poughkeepsie & East- 
ern having passed through a number of bankruptcies, was purchased 
by the New York, New Haven & Hartford and joined with the Central 
New England, a system which now includes all railroads reaching 
the Hudson from the east in Dutchess County. In 1907 the bridge 
was strengthened by the addition of a central girder, which in- 
volved almost a rebuilding. The first indication of increased business 
came in 1908, when a large amount of freight, previously trans- 
ferred by car ferry through the East River and New York Harbor, 
was routed, by the New Haven road via the Poughkeepsie Bridge. 

Plans were then made to double track the railroad from Hope- 
well Junction to Poughkeepsie and from Poughkeepsie westward to 
Campbell HaU, and the work is now (March, 1909,) actively in prog- 
ress. Meanwhile, the bridge lines have already furnished locations 
for most of the new factories that have been brought to Poughkeepsie 
and have taken all but one or two of the lumber and coal firms away 
from the river front. Largely through the efforts of an active 
Chamber of Commerce, the city appears to be entering upon a new 
period of growth and the bridge furnishes the central impetus. The 
prediction of Eastman that we should some time have a population of 
fifty thousand seems likely to be verified. 

The expansion of municipal activity incident to the improvements 
inaugurated before 1873 and the great debt accumulated led to an 
important revision of the City Charter in 1874, by which the present 
system of government by boards was fully established, with a common 
council having supervisory power over all expenditures through sub- 
mission to it of the estimates of each board. This Charter also 
abolished the spring election, which had been in existence from the 
time the village of Poughkeepsie was incorporated. The revision of 


1874 was made as the result of a number of meetings organized by 
a committee from the wards, appointed by Judge Barnard and Judge 
Taylor, and the Charter itself was largely the work of John I. Piatt 
and Allard Anthony. The city boards were aU elected by the people 
until 1883, when the mayor was given power to appoint the water 
board and also a police board, then created. In 1896 the water board 
was abolished and a board of public works was created to have charge 
of the streets and parks as well as the water and sewer systems. Its 
members were elected until 1901, when the centralization of all power 
in the hands of the mayor was completed and he was given authority 
to appoint aU boards and executive officers. In 1902 the offices of 
recorder and justice of the peace were abolished and a city court was 
established with Joseph Morschauser as its first judge. Since that 
time the only important Charter change was one made in 1906, giving 
authority to place all wires under ground on the main streets. 


In view of the fact that Poughkeepsie has so long been known as a 
city of schools it is interesting to record that the first state law "for 
the encouragement of schools" was passed in 1796 at a legislative 
session held in Poughkeepsie. This act was passed in response to a 
recommendation from Gov. George Clinton and became the foundation 
of the state system of aid to schools and of the state regents. It did 
not give rise at once to a pubhc school system in the modern sense, 
meaning free schools, and aid was extended mostly to incorporated 
schools or academies, though there were also a few schools of lower 
grade that may have received aid. The Dutchess County Academy 
was already well established in Poughkeepsie when the act was passed. 
This long famous institution had been originally founded at Fishkill 
and it is said that the frame work of the building was removed to 
Poughkeepsie in 1792, when it was erected on the southwest comer 
of Cannon and Academy streets, giving Academy street its name. The 
lot, 130% feet on Academy street and 112% on Cannon, extended 
westward to that on which the Young Women's Christian Association 
building now stands. The old building is still in part in existence, as 
it was removed in 1837 to the northeast corner of North Clinton and 
Thompson streets, where it still remains, though much altered from its 
original appearance. A large new building had been erected in 1836 
on South Hamilton street, corner of Montgomery, the same building 


which is now the Old Ladies' Home. Many well-known men and women 
obtained their education in the Dutchess County Academy. Its sec- 
ond record book, beginning with 1840 is preserved in the Adriance 
Memorial Library and begins with a report of the trustees to the 
regents for the year ending October 9, 1839. The first pages con- 
tain a description of the new building and property, which was valued 
as follows: 

Value of lot for Academy Building $ 2,000.00 

" " building thereon 11,128.15 

library 169.00 

Philosophical Apparatus 167.60 

" Academy Furniture 800.00 

cc ei 
(C « 


Total $13,758.65 

There was a debt of $5,540.51 for the payment of which, with in- 
terest and insurance, a fund of $400 was set apart from the receipts 
each year, while the balance went to the principal, who paid from it 
the assistant teachers. That the principal made no great fortune 
from the arrangement is evident from the statement that the receipts 
for the year amounted to $1,514.12. There were all together five 
teachers during the year, but only four at any one time. R. E. Rob- 
erts, a graduate of the University of Cambridge, England, taught 
languages. For the first three months he received $66. "For the 
next six months his compensation was $200 for five hours' service each 
day. About two weeks from the close of the term Mr. Roberts was 
removed from the Academy by his death in the twenty-seventh year 
of his age. He had been a teacher about two years." Ansel H. Tobey, 
aged thirty-one, taught penmanship and natural sciences. He re- 
ceived $125 per term of twenty-two weeks and had been a teacher 
about five years. Darwin Canfield, aged twenty-two, taught English 
and Arithmetic and received $400 a year. Luther Northrup, forty- 
three, taught history and geography and was paid $400 a year for 
teaching one-half of the hours. William Jenney, the principal, was a 
graduate of New York University, twenty-nine years of age, and of 
fours years experience. He was the first principal in the new build- 
ing. One of the last in the old building was Eliphas Fay and he and 
William MacGeorge were perhaps the most notable of the principals 


of the Academy. Fay afterwards conducted a private school in Union 
street. Following were the rates of tuition in the Academy in 1839- 
1840, per quarter: 

The Common Branches, including reading, spelling, writing, gram- 
mar and arithmetic $4.50 

The Common Branches with history 5.00 

The above with chemistry, book keeping, philosophy and Algebra 6.00 

The higher branches of Mathematics 7-00 

Greek and Latin 8.00 

French and Drawing, extra per quarter 5.00 

The terms were of twenty-three weeks and began the first Wednes- 
days of May and November, each preceded by a vacation of three 
weeks. Board in the family of the principal, including stationery and 
aU necessary expenses, was $90 a term, and it was stated that good 
board in families in the vicinity of the Academy could be obtained at 
$3.00 a week. The report was adopted by A. G. Storm, John Brush, 
Alexander Forbus, Thomas L. Davies, Richard D. Davis, Peter P. 
Hayes, Frederick Barnard and Leonard Maison, trustees. The 
Academy finally had to be given up on account of the progress made 
by the High School. In 1866 the Academy building was rented to 
the city, and the High School, after having been discontinued a year, 
was re-opened there. It is a matter of some regret that the city 
authorities did not see fit to continue it in the old building, but a more 
central location was demanded and in 1870 the building was sold 
to Jonathan Warner, founder of the Old Ladies' Home, and the money 
received was donated by the Academy trustees to the Board of Edu- 
cation to be used in the construction of the present High School. 

The reputation of being "the City of Schools" came to Pough- 
keepsie mostly through the institutions founded during the improve- 
ment party's best days, and the Poughkeepsie Collegiate School, 
founded in 1835, was the greatest of them and has left the most con- 
spicuous monument — the Grecian temple which still crowns College 
Hill. This school was opened in 1836 with Charles Bartlett as prin- 
cipal and it was soon attracting boys from aU parts of the state and 
nation. Mr. Bartlett ranked as a leading educator of his time 
and, the Collegiate School was regarded in its day as quite as impor- 
tant and quite as much an object of local pride as Vassar College is 


to-day. Charles Bartlett died in 1857 and the school was continued 
by Otis Bisbee and Charles B. Warring, who had been among his lead- 
ing teachers. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War Mr. Bisbee 
and Mr. Warring dissolved partnership and the latter erected a build- 
ing on Smith street and opened the Poughkeepsie Military Institute, 
the first military school in Poughkeepsie. Mr. Bisbee introduced the 
military drill on College Hill a year or two later and remained there 
until 1867, when the property was sold to settle the estate of Charles 
Bartlett. He then erected the present Riverview Academy in the 
southwest part of the town and it has continued an excellent and popu- 
lar school under the management of his son, Joseph Bartlett Bisbee. 
The Warring School continued for a considerable number of years 
and its building is now a public school. R,iver\Bew is the only sur- 
vivor of the institutions of the Improvement Party, but Lyndon Hall 
dates almost to their time. It was organized in 1848 as the Pough- 
keepsie Female Collegiate Institute by Dr. Charles H. P. McCleUan, 
who conducted it for about ten years. His successor was Rev. C. D. 
Rice. Prof. G. W. Cook bought the property in 1870 when the school 
became known as Cook's Collegiate Institute, a name which it retained 
until purchased by its present principal, Samuel Wells Buck, who 
christened it Lyndon Hall. 

The Poughkeepsie Female Academy, one of the most important in- 
stitutions of the improvement party, erected the large building on 
Cannon street, now owned by the Women's Christian Temperance 
Union. This academy was founded in 1836 and was for many years 
the largest of the boarding schools for girls in the city. The last 
principal was Rev. D. G. Wright, who discontinued the school in 1885. 

There have been probably not less than fifty private schools at 
various times in Poughkeepsie, some of them rather large institutions. 
The Cottage Hill Seminary, on the east side of Garden street where 
the Shwartz block now stands, was an important school for girls for 
many years and the building was last used as a boys' school under 
the principalship of John Miley for a few years in the early eighties. 
Lydia Booth, a step niece of Matthew Vassar, was one of the early 
proprietors of the girls' school there. A school of some renown was 
conducted by the Friends for a number of years in a building still 
standing on Mansion Square. It was one of the places visited by 
Henry Clay when he came to Poughkeepsie in 1839. The present 


Putnam Hall School for girls occupies a building erected soon after 
the war by Mr. and Mrs. Edward White. It was for a long time 
known as Brooks Seminary. Space will permit only mere mention of 
other private schools long since gone, like the Pelham Institute, Bish- 
op's or Leslie's for boys. Miss Bosworth's School, Butler's and 
Bockee's for girls and the Quincy, the latter only recently given up. 

An institution of much importance for a time was the "State and 
National Law School," brought to Poughkeepsie from Ballston in 
December, 1852. Its president was John W. Fowler, a man of con- 
siderable prominence as a lecturer, and was located in the building 
at 233-235 Main street. A good many lawyers of wide reputation 
were educated there, including several who became prominent on the 
bench. Judge Conklin, of Utica, father of Roscoe Conklin, Judge 
Henry Booth, of Chicago, and Matthew Hale were for a time among 
its professors. This institution was crippled by the Civil War and 
soon closed. 

Eastman College was started in a very small way by Harvey G. 
Eastman in the autumn of 1859. Its first quarters were in the same 
Main street building, then called the Library Building, where the law 
school was located. Eastman was a wonderfully clever advertiser and 
soon drew students, although he had almost no equipment. He made 
a specialty of reaching the young men whose terms of enlistment were 
expiring in the army and at the close of the Civil War so many of 
them had come here that they taxed his abihty and the resources of 
the city to care for them. Two or three old churches, the upper 
floor of the City Hall and all the unoccupied rooms that could be ob- 
tained were rented and fitted with desks, and the 1,800 students were 
scattered all over town wherever they could find a place to board. 
Though his equipment was scanty, Eastman infused some of his own 
energy into his students and brought the most eminent men of the 
day here to lecture to them. The number of students never again 
approached the crowd that came here following the war, but the 
college has always been a most important institution and seldom has 
less than four or five hundred students. After Mr. Eastman's death 
it was conducted by Ezra White, who erected the present college build- 
ing on Washington street. Clement Carrington Gaines has been the 
president since 1884 and has considerably widened the course of study. 

Away back before 1830 Poughkeepsie had a Lyceum Association 


and a Mechanics' Literary and Benevolent Association. The latter 
had a library of about 270 volumes and a cabinet of minerals. These 
Associations were united and incorporated in 1838 as the Pough- 
keepsie Lyceum of Literature, Science and Mechanic Arts." The Ly- 
ceum Association was for many years a very active and important 
educational force. It did not attempt to make money and the price 
of the lectures was put so low as to be in the reach of nearly every- 
body, but it brought here many of the leading men of the times. It 
is still in existence, though its lecture course was given up in 1889 
and its annual income, now about $126, is devoted to the purchase of 
books for the City Library. 

The Public Library, which brought together the books of this older 
Association and of earlier circulating libraries, was moved into what 
was called the Library Building, already mentioned, 23S-235 Main 
street, early in December, 1852. The Library had been formed under 
the school district library law in 1835. With the exception of a year 
or two in the court house, it remained there until the Library and 
High School building was erected in 1872 and gradually grew to be 
a large library. In October, 1898, it was removed to the beautiful 
Adriance Memorial Library building, which had been erected and pre- 
sented to the city by the children of John P. Adriance as a memorial 
to their father and mother. The Library soon afterwards was taken 
out of the control of the board of education and given to a board of 
library trustees, first appointed in 1899. In 1872 the Library con- 
tained not quite 5,000 volumes and the number of books loaned was 
less than 20,000 per year. In 1908 the number of volumes was 44,577 
and the number loaned about 112,000. 

The public schools are now, of course, the schools in which the citi- 
zens are most interested, but they were not among the first. There 
was a school of some kind in Poughkeepsie certainly as early as the 
Revolution, and on a map made in 1790 the Church street lot, on 
which public school No. 2 now stands, is marked "the school house 
lot." A school building has been located there ever since. It was the 
site for many years of the Lancaster School, founded in 1811, a 
school which in a sense was the forerunner of our present public school 
system, though it was only partly a free school. A few free pupils 
were educated in the Dutchess County Academy and in the other 
incorporated schools and there were at an early date what were 


called "common schools," partly supported by subscription. The free 
public schools of Poughkeepsie, entirely supported by taxation, date 
from 184S, when the first board of education was created by act of 
the Legislature. David L. Starr, Ira Armstrong, Thomas Austin, 
Benjamin Gile, Isaac Piatt, Egbert B. KiUey, George C. Marshall, 
Bamett Hawkins, James Reynolds, Jr., William P. Gibbons, Christo- 
pher Appleton and Matthew J. Myers constituted the first board. 
They were given authority to borrow $12,000 and to raise $6,000 by 
taxation. On January 29th, 1844, the first grammar school for boys 
was finished and opened on the corner of Mill and Bridge streets. 
Josiah I. Underbill was its principal. The public school system de- 
veloped slowly, the private schools and academies receiving for many 
years most of the patronage of those who were able to pay. Until 
the incorporation of the city in 1854 the village constituted only a 
single school district and received but small share of the state money. 
The collection of school taxes up to that time remained with the 
town authorities. Under the city administration the High School 
made a beginning in 1859, but it was moved about to several locations 
until the sale of the Dutchess County Academy when the present High 
School building was erected in 1872. The central Grammar School 
addition was made to the building in 1899. New school buildings 
have since been erected on Lincoln avenue, on Delafield street and in 
place of the old No. 1 school on Mill street. Important improve- 
ments have been made in the courses of study and the High School 
some years ago was made a college preparatory school. 

A few words should be said about what was widely known as the 
"Poughkeepsie plan." This had reference to two school buildings 
erected by the Roman Catholics for parochial schools. They were 
taken by the city at nominal rental. The teachers in them were nearly 
all members of religious orders, but were paid by the city. Outside 
of school hours the buildings were used for religious services. The 
plan worked well enough during most of the long and able pastorate 
of the Rev. James Nilan at St. Peter's Church, but was finally given 
up in 1898, at a time when there was much turmoil in the school 
board. For a few years after this one of the buildings was rented 
to the city for $1,000, but has recently again been made a parochial 



Vassar College, the first of woman's colleges, founded by Matthew 
Vassar, was chartered by the Legislature, January 18, 1861. There 
were twenty-eight trustees, of whom about half were residents of 
Poughkeepsie. Benson J. Lossing and others have so fully written 
the history of the college that it is unnecessary to go into details 
here. Matthew Vassar at the beginning gave the site, about two hun- 
dred acres of land, part of which had once been a race track, and he 
added some $400,000. James Renwlck, Jr., was the architect of the 
main building and William Harloe, of Poughkeepsie, the contractor. 
As the work of construction was done during the war, at constantly 
rising prices, Mr. Harloe lost heavily by his venture. The college 
was opened in September, 1865, with 353 students. There were no 
college preparatory schools for girls at that time and these first 
students were of all grades, a few of them pretty well advanced, but 
by far the greater number not qualified to enter according to the 
present standards. It took most of the first year to clasify them, 
and when the second catalogue came out, 1866-1867, four had been 
found fit to rank as seniors and they constituted the class of 1867, 
the first class to graduate at Vassar. Even in that catalogue seventy- 
eight students were put down as unclassified and 189 as "specials." 
During that year, however, the preparatory department was organ- 
ized and it numbered seventy-five students in the third catalogue. The 
fact that Vassar maintained a preparatory department won her the 
enmity for a number of years of all the proprietors of higher grade 
collegiate and classical schools for girls. It was deemed necessary, 
however, to maintain the department and it was not abolished until 
1887, the year after President James M. Taylor took charge. Under 
his vigorous management the growth of the college has been con- 
tinuous, until in 1905 the trustees found it necessary to limit the 
number of students for a term of five years to one thousand. That 
number has been several times slightly exceeded. The college has 
been almost completly transformed, so that the early graduates hardly 
know it when they return to reunions. Five new dormitories, a chapel, 
library, recitation hall, infirmary and two science buildings have been 
erected during Dr. Taylor's term. The death of Matthew Vassar 
occurred in June, 1868, when he was addressing an annual meeting of 
the trustees. His nephews, Matthew Vassar, Jr., and John Guy Vas- 


sar, continued his interest in the institution. The former died in 1881 
and the latter in 1888. Both left the college considerable sums of 
money and John Guy Vassar made it one of his residuary legatees. 
His estate was in litigation until 1891, when the college obtained a 
large addition to its endowment. Others came forward to take the 
place of the Vassars, and John D. Rockefeller and Frederick F. 
Thompson have been large benefactors. The new chapel, erected in 
1904, was the gift of two graduates, Mrs. Mary Thaw Thompson, 
'77, and Mrs. Mary Morris Pratt, '80. The magnificent library is 
the gift of the widow of Frederick F. Thompson, the infirmary of 
Mrs. Edward S. Atwater, of Poughkeepsie, the New England Build- 
ing of the New England Alvmmae and the latest building completed in 
February, 1909, is the Sanders Memorial Laboratory for Chemistry, 
given by Henry M. Sanders, one of the trustees, in memory of his wife. 


Soon after the incorporation of the Village of Poughkeepsie there 
was considerable activity on the part of the town authorities in laying 
out new roads and streets. Main street was extended through to the 
river "at or near the place commonly called Caul Rock Landing." 
Li 1800, and in 1802 the eastern end of the street, beginning at the 
court house, was surveyed as a part of the new Dutchess Turnpike, 
leading to the eastern boundary of the county. The maps made by 
the turnpike surveyors are still in existence. About 1806 the Post 
Road north and south was re-surveyed and its location changed in 
many places as the Highland Turnpike. It continued as a turnpike 
until 1838 and there was once a toUgate on the South Road, about 
at the present city limits. The Dutchess Turnpike became at once 
a most important stage route from Connecticut, bringing much trade 
to Poughkeepsie. Great loads of country produce were brought here 
for shipment to New York and the freighting business on the river 
made much progress. In 1813 eight sloops were sailing weekly to 
New York from Poughkeepsie and three steamboats also landed each 
week at the foot of Main street. In 1814 Poughkeepsie became a 
steamboat terminal, the Firefly, the smallest boat of the Fulton and 
Livingston fleet, sailing three times a week from "Pardee's dock" at 
the foot of Main street. The Main street landing seems to have been 
called by several names, but most of the land around it had been pur- 


chased in 1800 by William Davies. The upper landing had been the 
site of a mill since the first settlements, as we have seen, and the ferry- 
was estabUshed there as early as 1798. A group of industries grew 
up about the neighborhood soon after 1800. The Oakley, Hoffman, 
Reynolds and Innis famihes were engaged in freighting, milling and 
manufacturing there and the mills afterwards became the Gifford, 
Sherman and Innis Dyewood Mills, one of the most important of the 
city's industries, but discontinued some fifteen years ago. The Ferry 
Company was incorporated in 1819 and at that time the old periauger, 
or sail ferry, was superseded by a "team ferry," or horse boat, which 
in turn gave place to a steamboat in 1830. The ferry landing was 
moved to Main street in 1879, by which time the upper landing had 
lost most of its business. Two of the old Dyewood,buildings remain, 
one of them in use as a chair factory. The mill itself was sold to the 
railroad company and was torn down. The old wooden building, 
originally Oakley's nail factory and afterwards for many years Ar- 
nold's chair factory, was burned in 1908 and replaced by a brick 
building. The power house of the electric lighting company was 
erected on the site of one of the old upper landing storehouses in 1894. 
The lower landing, foot of Pine street, and the Union landing, foot 
of Union street, were for many years very busy places, particularly 
the former, and there was also in early days a landing still further 
south, in the neighborhood of the Separator Works, called John Reed's 
Landing and later Holthuysen's. Sloops ran from all of these for the 
first quarter of the nineteenth century, when they began to be super- 
seded by "towboats," or barges, towed to New York by steamboats. 
The New York and Albany steamboats selected Main street as their 
point of call from the first and gradually drew business from the other 
landings. As time went on, however, lines of steamboats were es- 
tablished with their headquarters at the upper, lower and Main street 
landings, and there was at one time also a steamboat from the foot 
of Union street. The lower landing was abandoned as a terminus in 
1872 and the upper landing in 1873 by a consolidation of the various 
local freighting interests. The Union street landing in 1848 had 
passed into the hands of the Poughkeepsie Iron Company, when the 
first local blast furnace was erected there. William Bushnell, Joseph 
Tuckerman and Edward Beck were early proprietors of this furnace, 
with Albert E. Tower as superintendent. The ores were brought 


from Sylvan Lake, in Dutchess County, and fluxed with Barnegat 
limestone. Mr. Tower afterwards became owner of the furnace, which 
was long called the Lower Furnace. The Upper Furnace, still stand- 
ing, was built in 1859, near the old Whale Docks. The lower fur- 
nace was dismantled in 1885 and the Poughkeepsie Yacht Club House 
now stands on its once busy wharf, in old times piled high with coal, 
limestone and pig iron. 

The Fall Kill for many years was an important factor in the 
business development of Poughkeepsie. The first large mill pond was 
that above Smith street, known as the Red Mill pond, and known in later 
years as Winnikee Pond. Possibly the first dam was constructed 
there as early as 1730 by Frans LeRoy, though there seems to be no 
definite record of it until it came under the ownership of Bartholomew 
CranneU, as shown on a map made in 1770. There was a small mill 
pond above the falls, near the mouth of the stream before 1800, but 
the first large storage reservoir there was built by George Booth about 
1803. This was later known as Pelton's Pond and was the last sur- 
vivor of the Fall Kill mill ponds. This dam was finally taken down 
in 1899. Booth is said to have brought from England the first wool 
carding machinery used in this country. He conducted a woolen fac- 
tory also near Wappingers Falls. Not far above Booth's pond on the 
Fall Kill a cotton factory was established about 1811 by David and 
Benjamin Arnold, and just beyond the Post Road bridge was Ellison's 
miU, afterwards Parker's. There were a number of cotton and woolen 
factories in the town of Poughkeepsie down to the close of the war 
of 1812, but most of them were ruined by the period of free trade that 
followed the declaration of peace, in 1815. Spafford's Gazateer says 
that there were also fifty looms in families producing 20,000 yards 
of cloth, and says there were fourteen ^grain mills in the town at that 
time. Not more than four or five of these mills could have been in the 
village. One Was at the mouth of the Spacken Kill and is still stand- 
ing; several were on the Caspar Kill and most of the rest probably 
on the Wappingers, though very small streams like the one flowing 
through Vassar College Lake turned mills in those days. 

1. Spafford speaks of the success of Dutchess County agriculture as due largely to the 
fact that this county was one of the first to use gypsum as a fertilizer. Old residents 
say.that the gypsum was Imported In rock form from Nova Scotia and ground in the 
same mills that ground grain, the mills grinding the rock for "land plaster" part of the 
year, then cleaning out and grinding grain later In the season. 



There was an iron foundry in Poughkeepsie as early as 1814, 
located on the corner of Main and Washington streets, and opposite, 
on the west corner, was Ebenezer Badger's tannery. Later foundries 
were established from time to time further up Main street, and one 
of them, started in 1831 by Solomon B. Frost and Benjamin Vail, 
survives to-day as the Poughkeepsie Foundry and Machine Company, 
with a large new plant north of the Central New England Railroad. 

The first Vassar Brewery was built about 1802 by James Vassar 
and was burned in 1811. A larger building took its place and the 
management fell to James Vassar's son, Matthew Vassar. This brew- 
ery was on the site of Vassar Institute, but extending through to 
Bridge street. By 1830 it had become a very profitable industry, 
occupying a group of buildings, and in 1836 the brewery at the river, 
still standing, was erected. It was here that most of the fortune was 
accumulated that went to the founding of Vassar College. The for- 
tunes of Matthew Vassar, Jr., and John Guy Vassar, nephews of 
Matthew Vassar, were only partly made in the brewing business, most 
of them resulting from fortunate investments in outside enterprises. 

The improvement party founded a number of large industries, most 
important of which were the whaling companies and the silk factory. 
The Poughkeepsie Whaling Company was incorporated in 1832 and 
the Dutchess Whaling Company a year later. James Hooker was 
president and Alexander Forbus treasurer of the former and Isaac 
Merritt and George P. Oakley held similar ofllces in the latter. These 
two companies in 1841 owned as many as seven ships, which went on 
long cruises, some of them almost around the world. They brought 
men here from New Bedford, Mass., and other New England whaling 
ports, built ships, storehouses, cooperages, candle factories, etc. The 
Dutchess Company located at the neighborhood still sometimes called 
the Whale Dock, foot of Dutchess avenue, and had the largest estab- 
lishment. Apparently the losses of ships as well as the increasing 
scarcity of whales caused the failure of these companies. Other towns 
on the river, notably Hudson, were engaged in the whaling industry 
at about the same time. The Poughkeepsie Glass Works, started in 
1879, occupies the site of the Dutchess Whaling Company's buildings. 

Just north of the whale dock the improvement party started an 
enterprise that might have been of great importance, if it had not 
been so far ahead of the times. It was a locomotive factory, founded 


just after the panic of 1837, but twelve years before there was any 
railroad in this neighborhood. It was described by Benson J. Loss- 
ing, who made a woodcut of the building for the FamAy Magazvne, 
as "Much the most extensive of the kind in America," and is said to 
have cost almost $100,000. One locomotive was built there and was 
shipped away by boat. It should be said that a railroad across the 
county was projected at that time, but the project was little more 
than a dream until after the Civil War. The locomotive factory 
building was used as a chemical factory for a while, but stood empty 
much of the time and was torn down in 1859, when the upper furnace 
was built. The silk factory, above mentioned, incorporated in 1835, 
erected the building on lower Mill street, which in 1850 came into the 
possession of Charles M. Pelton and was used for many years as a 
carpet factory. The promoters of the silk factory purchased several 
farms on which it is said they intended to raise silk worms. The enter- 
prise proved an early failure. Carpet manufacturing and also pin 
making were carried on in 1840 by several firms in Poughkeepsie. 

Among the industries that flourished for many years was ship build- 
ing, which was conducted at several points along the water front, 
notably at the Whale Dock, after the abandonment of the whaling 
business. Several large steamboats, including the Reliance and the 
propeller Joseph F. Barnard, were built here before the war. Wagon 
and carriage manufacturing were carried on by several firms until 
recent times. The tanning industry flourished from an early date up 
to the last quarter of the nineteenth century and brought several well- 
known families to Poughkeepsie, including the Southwicks and Boyds. 

The manufacturing industry by which Poughkeepsie is best known 
to-day, that of the Adriance harvesting machinery, had its beginnings 
somewhere about 1850, when John Adriance became interested in the 
inventions of mowing machines. He had been in the iron foundry 
and hardware business and had begun to build on a small scale a mow- 
ing machine called the Forbush. His son, John P. Adriance, who was 
in the hardware business in New York, saw the possibilities of the new 
machines and investigated several of them, spending a number of years 
in Worcester, Mass., where he was interested in the manufactureing 
of one of them. In 1859 he returned to Poughkeepsie and leased the 
factory buildings at the Red Mills, comer of Smith and Mill streets, 
having accumulated patents and rights to use the essential features of 


a successful mower, the Adriance Buckeye. Thomas S. Brown had 
been associated with Mr. Adriance before this and had much to do 
with the development of the machine. In 1865 the company removed 
to its present location on the river, where it has continued to expand 
year by year. In 1892 the general offices of the company were 
brought here from New York and since then several large buildings 
have been added to the plant. A recent improvement was the in- 
stallation of a factory railroad, connecting all buildings and depart- 
ments. A complete machine is turned out now every five minutes. The 
factory of Adriance, Piatt & Company is the largest and most im- 
portant in the city, but the DeLaval Separator plant is a close second. 
This is a branch of an industry whose original factory was in Stock- 
holm, Sweden, and was brought here in 1892 by offer of a subscrip- 
tion of ten thousand dollars from the citizens fo? the purchase of a 
site. The investment was a good one. The first shop occupied less 
than half an acre, now the factories of the company have five acres 
of floor space and half a mile of water front has been purchased. The 
property now extends to the foot of Pine street, once the site of ex- 
tensive lumber, coal and freighting business. The DeLaval employs 
about seven hundred men in the busy season. 

Several large industries were started soon after the war, includ- 
ing the Eureka Mowing Machine Works, which was not very suc- 
cessful and moved away, the Rolhng Mill, which after a time passed 
into the hands of the Phoenix Horseshoe Company, and Whitehouse's 
Shoe Factory. The latter was very successful for many years, but 
failed in 1891 and its buildings are now used as a cigar factory. The 
Dutchess Manufacturing Company, making trousers, is a large and 
growing concern, built up under the management of the late J. Frank 
Hull. It was originally a consolidation of several smaller clothing 
factories established not long after the war. The present location was 
purchased in 1888. Several underwear factories have recently been 
located in Poughkeepsie by the efforts of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and the Seneca Button Works was brought here in 1907 from Seneca 
Falls. The Anchor Bolt and Nut Company, originally established as 
the Chapinville Wheel Company, on Mill street, has a good sized plant 
on Parker avenue nearly opposite the Central New England Railroad. 

The cooperage business, which was built up to considerable propor- 
tions at the time of the whaling companies, still continues, though on 


a somewhat smaller scale. This industry brought the Lown family 
to Foughkeepsie. There is one brewery, that of V. Frank's Sons, in 
successful operation. 


The first chartered bank in Foughkeepsie was a branch of the 
Manhattan Bank of New York, established at least as early as 1811. 
In that year an act was passed in Albany chartering the Middle Dis- 
trict Bank, which had its main banking house in Foughkeepsie and a 
branch in Kingston. Fourteen of the trustees were required to be 
i-esidents of Dutchess and seven of Ulster. Levi McKean, one of its 
first presidents, was postmaster of Foughkeepsie from 1802 to 1819. 
He was at one time also a private banker, probably before the Middle 
District Bank was opened. Henry Davis conducted a private bank, 
which he called the Exchange Bank, in 1819, and two or thiee notes 
signed by him as president and Walter Cunningham, cashier, are 
stiU in existence. Davis became the first president and Cunningham 
the first cashier of the Dutchess County Bank, chartered April 12, 
1825. This bank occupied the same site as the Merchants' Bank, the 
present cashier of which is Walter Cunningham Fonda. The Dutchess 
County Bank was placed in liquidation at the expiration of its char- 
ter in 1845 and the Merchants' Bank was organized to take its place. 
The old bank had a capital of $600,000, three timies larger than the 
capital of any bank since that organized in Foughkeepsie. Matthew 
J. Myers was the first president of the Merchants' Bank and James 
H. Fonda, cashier. The Middle District Bank failed in 1829 and was 
the only bank that has ever failed in Foughkeepsie. It had a capital 
of $600,000, a majority of which was controlled by Feter Everitt, son 
of Richard Everitt. Note holders and depositors were paid almost 
in full after a long period of liquidation. 

The Foughkeepsie Bank was organized in 1830 with a capital of 
$100,000. Thomas L. Davies was its first president and Reuben 
North was for many years its cashier. The solid old bank building 
with its portico of heavy plastered columns was built the same year 
and stood until 1906, when it was torn down to give place to the build- 
ing of the Foughkeepsie Trust Company, into which the Fough- 
keepsie Bank and the City Bank had previously been merged. The 
Farmers' and Manufacturers' Bank began business in its present 
building, February, 1835. James Hooker was the first president, but 


Built in 1809, replaced by present building in 1903. The old "Lawyers' Row" 
of wooden buildings beyond was demolished in 1885 to make room for the present 
Post Office. 

Photograph taken about 1870. 


served only during the organization and when business began Matthew 
Vassar was elected president. James Grant, Jr., was the first cashier, 
but Fred W. Davis served in that capacity longer than anyone else. 
The Poughkeepsie Savings Bank was chartered in 1831 and began 
business in 1833 in what was known as the Burritt Building on Main 
street. Col. Henry A. Livingston was its first president and served 
until 1856. His successors have been John B. Forbus, Henry D. 
Varick, David C. Foster and Edward Elsworth. The Savings Bank 
building was erected in 1871. This bank now has deposits of almost 
twelve million dollars. The Fallkill National Bank began business 
in 1852 in its present building with William C. Sterhng as its first 
president and John F, Hull, cashier. The City Bank was organized 
in 1860 and Joseph F. Barnard, afterwards for so many years justice 
of the Supreme Court, was its first president. The name generally 
associated with this bank is that of Hudson Taylor, who was elected 
president in 1879 and served until the consolidation with the Pough- 
keepsie Bank, prior to the organization of the Trust Company. The 
First National Bank, the last started, owes its name to the fact that 
it was the first bank organized under the national bank act in 1864. 
The older state banks reorganized as national banks about a year 
later, when the law had been amended so that they could retain their 
original names. Harvey G. Eastman and John P. Adriance were 
early directors of this bank. Zebulon Rudd and Frank E. Whipple 
served long terms as cashier and Jacob Corlies as president. 

The Dutchess Insurance Company dates back to 1836, when it was 
chartered as the Dutchess Mutual Insurance Company. James Em- 
mott, father of the first mayor, was its first president. It is one of 
the few old mutuals that have survived all changes and disasters, hav- 
ing been made at comparatively recent period a stock company. Its 
present building was first occupied in 1855. 


As soon as there were political parties in the United States it is 
safe to say that there were parties in the town of Poughkeepsie. As 
nearly as one can tell from the scanty records of early election returns 
and from the names in the civil list. Gov. Clinton controlled the town 
down to the time of the convention which ratified the Constitution in 
1788. Clinton was first an Anti-Federalist and then a Jefi'ersonian 
Republican. Soon after the Constitutional Convention, at which the 


delegates broke away from his influence, there is evidence that Feder- 
alists were occasionally elected members of Assembly, though the 
Anti-Federalists seem generally to have been successful in electing 
Congressmen and returned Theodorus Bailey, of Poughkeepsie, to the 
National House of Representatives several times. He became a 
United States Senator in 1803, but soon afterwards resigned with De- 
Witt Clinton and became postmaster of New York City. In 1798 
John Jay, Federalist candidate for Governor, carried the town of 
Poughkeepsie by ninety to eighty-two votes and from that time the 
Federahsts appear to have been generally successful. William Emott, 
father of the elder Judge James Emott, Jessie Oakley, James Kent 
and David Brooks were among the prominent Federalists of the day. 
Zephaniah Piatt and Gilbert Livingston were leading Repubhcans and 
continued to be supporters of Clinton, although they voted for the 
ratification of the Constitution. Piatt was judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas, corresponding to our present county court, and left 
Poughkeepsie about 1795 with his brothers to take up lands on Lake 
Champlain, where they became the founders of Plattsburg. 

The first distinctly local paper, the Poughkeepsie Journal, was es- 
tablished in the spring of 1785 by Nicholas Power, who became the 
first postmaster of Poughkeepsie in 1792. Early copies of the Journal 
do not quite give clear evidence of any particular political leanings, 
as communications of all shades of opinion were published, but Power 
appears to have been a Federalist and efforts were made to estabKsh 
opposition papers, evidently in the interest of the party of Jefferson, 
before 1800. The first to obtain a real foothold, as already stated, 
was the Political Barometer, under the able editorship of Isaac Mitch- 
ell. The Barometer, though a pretty good paper, led a rather pre- 
carious existence and changed hands many times. It was sold in 1806 to 
Thomas Nelson and son and again sold in 1811, when its name was 
changed to the Republican Herald. In 1812 Michell returned from Albany 
and re-purchased it, changing the name to the Northern Politician. 
He died a few months later and it became the Republican Herald 
again. There were many factions in the politics of the state of New 
York in the first few years of the nineteenth century and the Republi- 
can Herald represented one of them, and evidently the losing one. It 
wa» in opposition to James Tallmadge, Jr., one of the strongest men 
of the day, and was discontinued in 1823. In 1806 Paraclete Potter 


obtained an interest in the Poughkeepsie Journal and remained for 
many years the leading editor and one of the leading men of the town 
and county. He conducted a considerable book and job printing es- 
tablishment and also a book store which was long the rallying place 
of the literary lights of the town. In 1815 Charles P. Barnum and 
Richard Nelson established the Dutchess Observer as an organ of one 
of the factions of the Republican (later Democratic) party, and in 
1824 another paper, the Republican Telegraph, was established with 
WiUiam Sands and Isaac Piatt in charge. The Observer and the 
Telegraph were combined in 1828 and the paper has come down to 
the present times as the News-Telegraph, absorbing all rivals repre- 
senting the same party until a recent period. 

The year 1828 was a most important one in the pt)litics of the state. 
It was the first real presidential election, that is, the first election at 
which the people of this state had a right to vote directly for electors, 
and it was the election at which Andrew Jackson, the popular idol, 
was the leading candidate. The Poughkeepsie Journal came out in 
support of Jackson, even before the Telegraph did, and carried most 
of the Federalists with it. That marked the final collapse and break- 
up of the old parties. There were, however, many supporters of John 
Quincy Adams in Dutchess, who believed he should be re-elected, and 
they, of course, needed a newspaper. The result was the establishment 
of the Dutchess Intelligencer, with Isaac Piatt as editor. This paper 
had hard sledding for a number of years, as nearly everywhere the 
people were shouting for Jackson. The Adams men, however, were 
strengthened locally somewhat by the fact that Judge Smith Thomp- 
son, whose home was where the Poughkeepsie Rural Cemetery is now 
located, was their candidate for Governor. He was beaten by Martin 
VanBuren, partly because of the outbreak of the anti-Masonic agita- 
tion in the western part of the state. It is hardly necessary to name 
all of the short lived newspapers of the day, but the opposition to 
Van Buren's Albany regency rule caused the establishment of the 
Dutchess Republican, 1831, by Thomas S. Ranney, and the anti- 
Masons had a paper for a few years called, first, the Dutchess In- 
quirer and afterwards the Anti-Mason. In 1833 Messrs. Piatt and 
Ranney united their papers and finding the Intelligencer-Republican 
too awkward a title, changed it in 1834 to the Poughkeepsie Eagle. 
By that time the opponents of Jackson, who had been calling them- 


selves National Republicans, were beginning to call themselves Whigs 
under the leadership of Henry Clay, and the Eagle at once came to. 
the front as the organ of the new party, while the Journal had drifted 
into a secondary position as a Democratic organ and did not fully 
support all of Jackson's policies. Egbert B. Killey and Aaron Low 
were publishing the Telegraph at this time, but in 1835 Benson J. 
Lossing bought Mr. Low's interest and became prominent as an editor. 
Leaders among public men of the early part of the century were Gen. 
James TaUmadge, Randall S. Street, James Emott and Thomas J. 
Oakley. Of these the greatest was Gen. TaUmadge, who lived in a 
house which stood on the comer of Garden and Main streets. He was 
a man of national reputation and it was he who offered in the House 
of Representatives in 1819 an amendment to the act for the admission 
to the Union of the State of Missouri prohibiting "the further intro- 
duction of slavery" there. This amendment was adopted by the 
House, but rejected by the Senate and led to the famous Missouri 

A little later Smith Thompson and Nathaniel P. TaUmadge became 
prominent. The latter was not only a United States Senator but be- 
came widely known as the leader of the Conservatives, a faction of the 
Democratic party that opposed Jackson's bank poUcy. The Pough- 
keepsie Journal supported him and as his attitude gradually led him 
into full union with the Whig party, the Journal became a Whig or- 
gan. Nathaniel P. TaUmadge was much talked of as a candidate for 
Vice President in 1838, and iii 1839 he actually was offered the nomi- 
nation with William Henry Harrison. He had by that time become 
so warm a friend of Henry Clay that he declined because Clay had 
not received the nomination for President. Thus TaUmadge lost his 
chance of becoming President. Walter Cunningham, already many 
times mentioned, was a prominent Whig leader, particularly active in 
conventions and is frequently referred to in Thurlow Weed's Auto- 
biography. Richard D. Davis was one of the most prominent Demo- 
crats and was elected to Congress in 1840 and in 1842. After 
Nathaniel P. TaUmadge had come into the Whig ranks there were 
two Whig papers in Poughkeepsie and it was natural that they should 
combine. Joseph H. Jackson and William Schram were then pub- 
UsMng the Journal and in 1844 Jackson retired and Mr. Schram 
formed a partnership with Isaac Piatt, of the Eagle. The double 


title, "Journal and Eagle," was retained until 1850, when the name 
Journal was dropped. Mr. Schram continued a partner in the Eagle 
firm until 1865, when he was succeeded by Mr. Piatt's eldest son, 
John I. Piatt. Another son, James B. Piatt, came into the firm in 
1869. The paper is now in control of a third generation of the same 

In 1839 both Henry Clay and Martin VanBuren visited Pough- 
keepsie. VanBuren lived in Columbia County and had many times 
stopped in Poughkeepsie and his visit in 1839 was chiefly significant 
because he was President at that time and was accorded a big recep- 
tion. Judge Charles H. Buggies, Gen. Leonard Maison and Col. 
Henry Pine were among the prominent local Democrats who welcomed 
him. Henry Clay's visit was only about a month later In the same 
summer. He made an address to the people from* the veranda of the 
Poughkeepsie Hotel, and then was taken to see the sights of the town, 
including College Hill. In 1845 Daniel Webster spent several days 
in Poughkeepsie trying a law case. His summing up was referred 
to in the local papers as a masterpiece of, oratory. 

As every important cause had to have its newspaper, the Temper- 
ance movement of the early forties brought out the Temperance Safe- 
guard, edited by G. K. Lyman, and in 1845 the Native American, or 
Know Nothing movement gave rise to the Poughkeepsie American. 
The last mentioned paper came into the hands successively of Isaac 
Thompkins and of Edward B. Osborne and was made an organ of the 
"hard shell" branch of the Democratic party. Its name was changed 
to the Dutchess Democrat and it was absorbed by the Telegraph, Mr. 
Osborne becoming a partner of Egbert B. Killey, Jr., in 1856. Al- 
bert S. Pease, who edited the Telegraph for a while, purchased the 
Press, the first Poughkeepsie daily, at about the same time. He con- 
tinued it until 1863, when Mr. Osborne brought the Telegraph and 
Press together. The Press had been a morning paper up to Decem- 
ber, 1860, when the Daily Eagle was started, but soon afterwards 
changed to an afternoon paper and so remained until 1883, when 
James W. Hinkley purchased both the Telegraph and the Press and 
combined them with the News. This brings us down to recent times. 
The News had been estabUshed in 1868 as a morning paper by Thomas 
G. Nichols. It had a short career as an independent, then as a Demo- 
cratic paper, and was purchased in 1872 by John O. Whitehouse to 


support his campaign for Congress. In that year Mr. Nichols es- 
tablished his third paper, the Swnday Courier, now one of the leading 
papers of the city. The Enterprise was started in 1883 after Mr. 
Hinkley had consolidated the Press with the News, leaving the field 
open for an afternoon paper. W. C. Lansing, Edward Van Keuren 
and Derrick Brown were its founders, the two former having pre- 
viously purchased the Dutchess Farmer, an agricultural paper, which 
became the Weekly Enterprise. This paper was independent, with 
Democratic leanings, until about a year ago, when it was purchased 
by a stock company of which Edward E. Perkins is president, and 
was made the oiBcial Democratic organ. The Evening Star dates 
from 1889, but was for a short time called Poughleeepsie. It has 
been independent in politics until the past two or three years, when its 
present editor^ A. A. Parks, made it Republican. 

When the anti-slavery agitation, before the war, brought forth 
the new Republican party, the Eagle at once became its exponent in 
Dutchess County, a position in which it has remained. There were 
some pretty warm times during the progress of the anti-slavery agita- 
tion and Matthew Vassar, Jr., in his diary teUs of the breaking up of 
two meetings at which abolitionists were speakers. The year the Re- 
publican party was organized in Dutchess brought out John Thomp- 
son, of Poughkeepsie, as successful candidate for Congress. B. Piatt 
Carpenter's career began only a year or two later. In the campaign 
of 1860, which has already been referred to as a memorable one, Ste- 
phen Baker was elected to Congress and such men as Alfred B. Smith 
and John I. Piatt were making their first political speeches. Albert 
VanKleeck was political manager of the day. Homer A. Nelson had 
been elected county judge by the Democrats in 1855 and was elected 
to Congress in 1862, Charles Wheaton taking his place as county 
judge. James Bowne and George Innis were mayors of Poughkeepsie 
during the war, the latter serving three terms. Of H. G. Eastman's 
career as a political leader enough has perhaps been said elsewhere. 
The most notable political campaign in Poughkeepsie was the White- 
house campaign in 1872, when Eastman was a candidate for mayor, 
and John H. Ketcham candidate for Congress against Whitehouse. 
Stories are still told of the fabulous sums expended in that campaign, 
which is said to have nearly ruined Mr. Whitehouse, althou^ he was 
successful. He carried Poughkeepsie by 379 majority and the city 



came within eleven votes of giving Horace Greely for President a 
majority. This is the nearest the Democrats ever came to carrying 
the city for a presidential candidate. George Morgan was the first 
Democratic mayor of the city, elected in 1869. There have been but four 
since that time — William Harloe, Edward Elsworth, William M. 
Ketcham and John K. Sague. ^, 


The first church in Poughkeepsie was, of course, the Dutch Church, 
which was organized October 10, 1716, by Rev. Petrus Vas, pastor 
of the Church at Kingstpn, who installed Michael Parmenter and 
Pieter DuBoise as elders and Elias VanBenschoten and Peter Par- 
menter as deacons. The history of this church has been pretty fully 
written by the late Dr. A. P. Van Gieson, who translated many of the 
Dutch records.^ No complete list of baptismal and marriage records, 
however, has ever been published. Subscription books for the first 
church building were circulated in 1717 and the church was finished 
in 1723 and is said to have been of stone. There are some records 
that make it appear that it was not continliously occupied and was 
allowed to fall considerably out of repair. The first deed in Liber A 
in the Dutchess County Clerk's office is that which conveys the title 
to the lot on which it was built from Jacobus VandenBogert to Cap- 
tain Barendt VanKleeck, Myndert VandenBogert, Peter Velie and 
Johannes VanKleeck. It is dated December 26, 1716, and is copied 
in full in Dr. Van Gieson's book. The ^ first minister was Rev. Cor- 
nelius Van Schie, who came from Hffl:and in 1731 to take charge of 
the congregation both at Fishkill and Poughkeepsie for the princely 
salary of £70 (about $175) of New York money. He was, however, 
furnished also with firewood for summer and winter and was presented 
with a brown horse, which cost £4 and 10 shillings, also a house, 
"three morgens of pasture" and a garden suitably fenced. Dominie 
Van Schie was free to locate either at Poughkeepsie or Fishkill and 
chose Poughkeepsie, and the two congregations jointly purchased the 
land on which the present church stands and built the first parsonage 
about 1732. The first church was located on the southeast corner 
of Main and Market streets and the land around it was used as a 
burying ground and continued to be so used, as is stated in another 

1. First Reformed Church of Poughkeepsie. Rev. A. P. Van Gieson, D.D., 1893. 


part of this chapter, until 1830. Meanwhile, however, the second 
church was built, somewhere about 1760, land having been purchased 
for it from Gale Yelverton on the north side of East Lane, as Main 
street was then called, opposite the end of Market street. Around 
this church also burials were made and a considerable number of stones 
Are still standing there, in the rear of the Nelson House Annex. The 
church just previous to the erection of the second building had been 
badly divided between the Coetus and Conferentie parties, the first of 
which held that ministers could be ordained in America, while the sec- 
ond maintained that the only authority was in Holland. The fourth 
pastor of the church. Dominie Henricus Schoonmaker, was a member 
of the Coetus party and on his arrival here, in 1764, for ordination, 
he found the church in possession of the opposite party and the ser- 
vices of ordination took place under a tree not far from where the 
present church is located, the officiating minister, Rev. John H. Goet- 
schius, standing in a wagon. The Conferentie party called another 
minister. Rev. Isaac Rysdick, from Holland, and from 1765 to 1772 
the churches had two pastors. Dr. Rysdick left Poughkeepsie to take 
charge of the Fishkill, Hopewell, and New Hackensack churches in 
1773, after which time the Poughkeepsie church always had a pastor 
of its own, separate from Fishkill. Dr. Van Gieson notes that Mr. 
Schoonmaker, who was a most eloquent preacher in the Dutch lan- 
guage, left Poughkeepsie in 1774 chiefly because he could not preach 
well in English. There had been occasional preaching in the Eng- 
lish language in the church ever since 1740, and from that time the 
Dutch lost ground while the English continued to gain. The Dutch 
language was not officially given up until pretty nearly 1800, and its 
long continuance was the cause of considerable losses of the younger 
element in the church. In 1789 the church was incorporated, with 
Henry Hegeman, Peter Tappen, Isaac Romine, John Frear, Myndert 
VanKleeck, Henry Livingston, Jr., Abraham Fort and Benjamin 
Westervelt as elders and deacons. During and just after the Revo- 
lution the church was in charge of Rev. John H. Livingston, after- 
wards president of Rutgers College. At the close of his pastorate 
there was a period of interregnum and there appears to have been a 
time, while the atheistic agitators of the French Revolution were at 
theif height, when religion in America was at a rather low ebb and all 
the churches had some difficulty in maintaining themselves. After 


the Dutch language had been officially given up the church seems to 
have tried to hold as many of the English speaking people not affiliated 
with the Episcopal Church together as possible and an effort was made 
even to drop the Dutch name, which, however, did not succeed fully 
until much later. The Dutch Church appears to have taken the place 
of the Presbyterian Church in Poughkeepsie, however, for a consider- 
able period. In 1822 the church on the north side of Main street was 
abandoned and a new building was erected upon the site of the pres- 
ent church, then a part of the parsonage lot. A part of the church 
property on the north side of Main street had long before been sold 
and the Poughkeepsie Hotel had been built upon it. The rest was 
then leased for a long term and the Main street frontage was held by 
the church until 1908, when the two properties occupied by Robert 
KnOx's Sons and Drislane as grocery stores were sold and the money 
applied to the purchase of the present parsonage on Mill street. Ill 
1830 the property on the south side of Main street, corner of Market, 
known then as the Dutch Church Cemetery, was leased for one hun- 
dred years, and the Brewster Block was erected. This block has been 
somewhat altered so that the roof lines and fronts do not exactly cor- 
respond as they formerly did, but it is still possible to trace from the 
general character of the buildings the extent of the church property. 
The building of the third church and the leasing of the property on 
Main street for long terms was all done under the able pastorate of 
Rev. Cornelius C. Cuyler one of the notable ministers of the church, 
1809-1833. Another notable minister of the church was Rev. A, L. 
Mann, under whose pastorate, in 1847, the congregation had so in- 
creased that the accommodations of the spacious building appeared to 
be too small and a second church was organized with Tunis Brincker- 
hoff, Charles P. Adriance, Abraham G. Storm and Joseph H. Jack- 
son as elders and James W. Bogardus, Casper D. Smith, Albert Brett 
and John P. Flagler as deacons. They erected the present Second 
Reformed Church on the corner of Mill and Catharine streets and it 
was dedicated on Washington's Birthday in 1849. Its first pastor 
was Rev. Charles Whitehead, installed October 2, 1849. On Sunday, 
January 18, 1857, the first Dutch Church was burned and the fire 
was one of the most memorable events in the history of Poughkeepsie. 
The thermometer, it is stated, was thirteen degrees below zero at noon 
and a strong north wind was blowing which forced it down to twenty 


degrees before dark, when a fierce snow storm had set in. The fire 
started in the roof of the church just at the close of the Rev. Dr. 
Mann's morning sermon, and was discovered soon after the dismissal 
of the congregation. There are still living a few old firemen who re- 
member the event and they agree in declaring that water froze in the 
air as it left the hose pipes. It is certain that hydrants were frozen 
and that one or two of the old piano box fire engines froze up so that 
they could not be used. The burning of the steeple, according to the 
account in the Poughleeepsie Eagle of the day, "presented a fearful 
column of fire ascending far up toward the clouds." After it had 
fallen the mass of burning material was so great that the entire space 
inside the walls seemed filled with flame until ten o'clock at night, in 
spite of the water the hand engines could pour upon it. The present 
church was erected soon after the fire and was dedicated September 
7, 1858. It had originally a lofty spire, which was condemned and 
taken down in 1878. One of the most notable pastorates of the 
church was that of Rev. Dr. Acmon P. Van Gieson, which began in 
1867 and continued until his deatliSin the spring of 1906. 

The first English Church in Poughkeepsie, the Presbyterian Church, 
was organized as early as 174<9, but failed to maintain itself on a per- 
manent basis or to erect a building. Services were conducted first 
in connection with Fishkill and afterwards in connection with Char- 
lotte precinct, which included Washington Hollow and Pleasant Val- 
ley. After 1772 there appears to have been only occasional sermons 
until some time in the nineteenth century. 

The Church of England, the predecessor of the present Episcopal 
Church, owes its beginning to the missionary work of Rev. Samuel 
Seabury, who occasionally visited Poughkeepsie as early as 1755, 
preaching to the people who belonged to his faith. The church started 
with a vigorous organization in 1766 and erected its first building on 
the corner of Church and Market streets, where the Armory now 
stands. The first church building remained standing until 1883, when 
the old Christ Church, still well remembered, was erected. During 
the Revolution most of the prominent members of Christ Church, in- 
cluding its minister. Rev. John Beardsley, who had come here from 
Groton, Conn., remained loyal to the king and the feeling against 
them»was so great that the church for a time was closed. Mr. Beards- 
ley originally had charge of the Fishkill church as well as the Pough- 


keepsie church, but like the Dutch dominie, he elected to make his home 
here, and eighty-seven acres of land were purchased for him on th^ 
Filkintown road, where the old Glebe House, now generally known as 
the Fricker House, still stands. A royal charter was granted the 
church March 3, 1773, by King George III and a grant of two hun- 
dred acres of what had previously been regarded as common land was 
added to the Glebe. This land afterwards caused the church consid- 
erable htigation and an attempt was made to confiscate it during the 
Revolution. After the prejudices of the Revolutionary times had 
somewhat softened, the church was reopened and a new rector, bear- 
ing the Dutch name Henry VanDyke, came to take charge m. 1787. 
In 1797 Trinity Church, of New York, assisted it with a gift of five 
hundred pounds for a parsonage house and two years later the house 
still standing on the southeast corner of Cannon and Academy streets 
was purchased for that purpose and used for a short time. The prop- 
erty on Montgomery and Academy streets, where the present church 
stands, and so long known as the old English Burying Ground, was 
purchased in 1828 and remained a cemetery until 1871, when the 
common council forbade further interments there. By that time it 
had grown up into a forest and was for a long time much neglected. 
A high picket fence surrounded the property, but did not prevent the 
small boys in the neighborhood from getting in and creating a cer- 
tain amount of damage to tombstones and the railings which sur- 
rounded many of the plots. When the present beautiful new church 
was built all this was cleared up, many of the graves were removed 
to the Rural Cemetery and the smaller stones which used to be studded 
thickly throughout the whole plot have been mostly laid flat on the 
ground so as not to interfere with the running of a mowing machine. 
The cornerstone of the new church was laid September 25, 1887, and 
it was consecrated May 15, 1888, by Bishop Scarborough, who had 
been the first rector of the Church of the Holy Comforter. Albert 
Tower, proprietor of the iron furnaces which for so many years were 
a leading Poughkeepsie industry, contributed more than half of the 
total cost of the building, which has been stated at $120,000. This 
was during the notable rectorship of Rev. Henry L. Ziegenfuss, who 
served the church from 1874 to 1894. 

The second Episcopal Church in Poughkeepsie, St. Paul's, w;as or- 
ganized in August, 1835, and was built originally of wood in Grecian 


Doric style, in 1837. It was built by the real estate boomers of the 
day as one of the attractions of Mansion Square neighborhood. The 
present church was finished and opened in May, 1872, during the 
rectorship of Rev. S. H. Synnott. 

The Church of the Holy Comforter owes its existence to WiUiam 
A. Davies, who inherited from his father, William Davies, a large 
amount of land, including a part of the Main street dock property. 
He resided in the house nearly opposite the railroad station, after- 
wards the home of Hon. George Innis. William A. and Thomas L. 
Davies gave the church a lot 125 feet square, May 10, 1859, and the 
church was consecrated October 25, 1860, Rev. John Scarborough be- 
coming the first rector. He remained until 1867, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Robert Fulton Crary, who remained in active service 
until 1907. 

The first new denomination to organize in Poughkeepsie after the 
Revolution was the Methodist. Rev. Freeborn Garettson preached 
the first Methodist sermon hete in 1796 in the Dutch Church. The 
Methodists organized in 1804 and by 1805 were strong enough to 
build their first church, which was located on the east side of Jefferson 
street, a few hundred feet south of Church street, the plot being stiU 
open and one of the oldest of several little abandond graveyards in 
the city. This church, we are told in "Vincent's Methodism in Pough- 
keepsie," was about fifty by forty feet, with galleries, but was left un- 
plastered above the galleries until 1814, when Poughkeepsie became a 
Methodist station with a settled minister, Rev. J. M. Smith. In 1826 
they had outgrown the Jefferson street church and purchased for $650 
a lot on Washington street, where Eastman College now stands, and 
a new church was dedicated on December 27th of that year. It is 
stated that the Methodists at that time had but 182 members and were 
$900 in debt on their old church, but by 1837 they had increased to 
616 and in 1840 they decided to form a second congregation, which 
five years later built the Cannon street Methodist Church at a cost of 
$8,650. This church long remained one of the most prominent in 
the city and the congregation continued to grow until a new building 
became necessary, and in 1892, in the pastorate of Rev. C. H. Gregory, 
the present Trinity Church was dedicated on the corner of South Ham- 
ilton street and Hooker avenue, the old church having been sold to 
the Masons, who extended its front out to the sidewalk and remodeled 



it into the present Masonic Temple. Meanwhile, in 1847, a German 
Methodist Church had been organized under Rev. Daniel Duerstein 
and the first building was dedicated September 22, 1850, on the site 
of the present German Methodist Church in South Bridge street. The 
present Washington street Methodist Church, on the corner of Mill 
street, was built in 1858, and a few years later the old church was 
purchased by H. G. Eastman for his growing commercial college. In 
1843 the members of the colored Methodist Church, who had separated 
from the congregation of the first church in 1837, erected a building 
on the site of their present church in Catharine street, and in 1853 
the Methodists sent out still another congregation, when the Hedding 
Church was erected. 

The Quakers, it is said, had established a meeting house somewhere 
on Clover street not long after 1800. The Quakef families had been 
numerous in Dutchess County for some time and had gradually come 
in and settled in the village, many of them becoming very prominent 
citizens. In 1820 they erected a new meeting house on the rear of a 
deep Washington street lot, a part of which is still occupied by the 
Hicksite meeting house, built in 1894, now fronting on Lafayette 
Place. The old meeting house building is still in existence, but has 
been altered into a double dwelling. After the separation of the 
Hicksite and Orthodox Friends the later purchased a lot on the north 
side of Mill street, not far above Garden, and there built a meeting 
house, which was used for a number of years, but finally also was con- 
verted into a dwelling house and now stands on Conklin street. The 
Montgomery street meeting house was built by the Orthodox Friends 
in 1863, being the only church in the city built during the war. It 
has since been enlarged somewhat and considerably changed in ap- 

The Baptists organized in 1807 and their records are complete and 
well preserved, a short, well-written history of the church having been 
published by Rev. Rufus Babcock in 1841. The first building was 
erected on Mill street, not long after the organization, on the site of 
the present Baptist Church, the lot having been donated by Col. James 
Tallmadge, one of the prominent citizens of the day. In 1839 the 
Lafiayette street Baptist Church, now the Polish Catholic, was built 
at a cost of $20,000, one-half of which was donated by Matthew Vas- 
sar, and the old church in Mill street was rented to the new Methodist 


congregation which afterwards erected the Cannon street church. The 
building of this Lafayette street church was one of the causes of a 
division in the congregation, one of the branches returning to the old 
Mill street church. These remained apart until 1867, when they came 
together in the Lafayette street church until the building of the pres- 
ent church in Mill street in 1879, when the Lafayette street church 
was abandoned. John Guy and Matthew Vassar, Jr., were leading 
contributors to the new building, as their uncle had been to the one 
abandoned, and the church was at the time very much the finest in 
the city. The colored people who had maintained a Baptist congre- 
gation in Poughkeepsie for some ten years erected a building on the 
comer of Winnikee avenue and Smith street, about two years ago, 
known as the Ebenezer Baptist Church. 

The Presbyterians, as we have seen, organized the first English 
speaking congregation in Poughkeepsie long before the Revolution, 
but were unable to maintain themselves. Apparently Scotch inuni- 
gration and immigration from the north of Ireland was mostly into 
the interior of the county rather than to the river towns. It was 
not until 1817 that the Presbyterians were able to form a permanent 
organization in Poughkeepsie, and not until 1826 that they purchased 
the property next west of the original Dutchess County Academy, on 
Cannon street, and built their first church on the lot where now stands 
the Young Women's Christian Association building. There were then 
eighteen members, and Joseph Allen, David Hibbard, William Wil- 
hams and Marquis de Lafayette Phillips were chosen as ruling elders. 
This church stood for a long time and was used for many purposes. 
The Presbyterians gave it up in 1850 and built a new church on the 
corner of Cannon and Hamilton streets in the pastorate of Rev. Henry 
G. Ludlow. This second building in turn, has been superseded by the 
finest and most costly church in the city, dedicated April 5, 1908. 
This beautiful new building cost, with its memorial windows, organ 
and equipment, pretty nearly $200,000, a large part of which was 
donated by William W. Smith and a considerable sum also by Mrs. 
John F. Winslow. At the time the first church was built the contro- 
versy which a few years later divided the denomination into a New 
School and Old School was raging and resulted in 1831 in the or- 
ganijation of the Second Presbyterian Church, which erected a build- 
ing on the corner of Mill and Vassar streets, now the Jewish Syna- 


gogue. When the Presbyterians built on the corner of Cannon and 
Hamilton streets the original church on Cannon street was sold to the 
Universalists, who maintained services in Poughkeepsie for a number 
of years, but were never very strong. They rented the building as 
a sort of village hall for lectures and entertainments for a considerable 
number of years and later it became and remained for a number of 
years St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. The history of the Catho- 
hc Churches is written in a separate chapter, so need not be further 
referred to here, except to say that St. Peter's congregation was the 
first organized and dates from about 1839. 

German immigration became important enough to require occa- 
sional services in that language about 1840. The first German church 
organized, as has been already stated, was the Methodist, and the 
Lutherans were not organized until 1856, nor able* to own a place of 
worship until 1858, when they purchased and fitted up what is prob- 
ably the oldest building in town, the old Noxon House, on the east 
side of Market street near the corner of Noxon. The German 
Lutheran Church in Grand street was the first church in the city built 
after the war and was dedicated in 1866. In 1901, so many of the 
second generation of Germans had begun to prefer the English lan- 
guage and were drifting into other churches that an English Lutheran 
Church was organized and purchased property at 176 Church street 
in 1903. 

The Congregational Church, an outgrowth of the Second Presby- 
terian Church, was organized in 1837, and for a time made use of the 
building on the comer of Vassar and Mill streets.. The present Con- 
gregational Church, on Mill street, below Garden, was dedicated June 
5, 1860, and the old church was sold to the Hebrews, who had main- 
tained an organization here under the name of the Children of Israel 
since 1848. A second Hebrew congregation was organized a number 
of years ago with a place of worship on Noxon street. 


The Young Men's Christiaa Association was organized August 21, 
1863, with John H. Matthews, president; James S. Case, vice presi- 
dent; Frank L. Stephens, corresponding secretary; John I. Piatt, re- 
cording secretary, and William B. Fox, treasurer. It was an out- 
growth, however, of an older association, organized in 1856, called the 
Young Men's Christian Union, the president of which was Alfred B. 


Smith. The Association held meetings in a room over the City Bank, 
on the corner of Main and Market streets, until in 1872 it felt itself 
strong enough to purchase the present building, then the great place 
of lectures and amusements in the city known as Pine Hall. The build- 
ing was remodelled and has from time to time been improved, until 
last year it was decided to abandon it, as Mr. William W. Smith had 
offered to erect a new building on the site of the old Hooker House on 
Market street. The cornerstone of the new building was laid Novem- 
ber 16th 1908, after the building had already been partly erected. 
It will probably cost in the neighborhood of $200,000. Mr. Smith 
was also the chief donor of the new building for the Young Women's 
Christian Association, erected in 1904, on Cannon street on the site of 
the old church building which served so many denominations. The 
Young Woman's Association was organized in 1881 and incorporated 
in 1884. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union also has a build- 
ing on Cannon street, the old Poughkeepsie Female Academy, pur- 
chased in 1889. This organization was founded in 1873 in aid of 
the Woman's Crusade, then in progress in Ohio. 

The Union Rescue Mission was organized in 1894 and started in 
what was formerly an old saloon at 42 North Clover street. The 
cornerstone of the present building was laid in October, 1896. This 
work has been, since started, under the superintendence of Charles 
H. Madison. During the past year the local board of trustees handed 
it over to the Federation of Rescue Missions, which is now in control. 


Poughkeepsie is unusually well provided wjth charitable institutions. 
The oldest of these is the Women's Union Bible and Tract Society, 
which dates back at least to 1840, when its first president was Mrs. 
Frederick W. Hatch, wife of the rector of St. Paul's Church, and it 
seems to have been the successor of organizations formed in the early 
part of the century. It has no building, but employs regular visitors 
who go into the homes of the poor and ascertain their needs. 

The Home for the Friendless on the corner of South Hamilton and 
Franklin streets, was built in 1887, the result of the work of a society 
organized earlier, known originally as the Poughkeepsie Female Guar- 
dian Society. The building of this orphanage has been considerably 
enlarged and it provided a home in 1908 for about fifty children. 

The Old Ladies' Home was founded by Jonathan Warner, who pur- 



chased, in 1870, the building originally erected by the Dutchess 
County Academy. William W. Smith, about 1905, considerably en- 
larged this building and it has been made a very attractive and cheer- 
ful place for those who spend their dechning years there. 

The Vassar Brothers' Home for Aged Men, which occupies the site 
of the residence of Matthew Vassar, corner of Main and Vassar streets, 
was erected by John Guy Vassar and Matthew Vassar, Jr., in 1880. 
This was one of the many benefactions of the Vassar brothers, another 
of which was the Vassar Brothers' Institute, also located on Vassar 
street on the site of the early Vassar Brewery. The Institute has an 
endowment fund and carries on popular lectures and class work in 
arts and crafts, mechanical drawing, etc., during each winter. The 
building was erected in 1882 to provide a home for |wo local societies, 
the Poughkeepsie Literary Club and the Poughkeepsie Society of 
Natural Science, which had been in existence for a number of years 
and had been very successful. They have now, however, practically 
ceased to exist as separate organizations. A second home for old 
men, the Pringle Home, designed for men of literary tastes, was 
founded in 1900 on Academy street in a house formerly the residence 
of Col. O. T. Beard. 

Vassar Brothers' Hospital was founded by Matthew Vassar, Jr., 
and the main building was erected in 1884 in the south part of the 
city overlooking the river. It was made one of the residuary lega- 
tees of the estate of John Guy Vassar and thereby came into the pos- 
session of a large endowment. Additions nearly doubling its capacity 
were built a few years ago and a library and laboratory building was 
erected in 1899. 

There had been an earlier hospital, known as the St. Barnabas, 
using a building on North Clinton street. The St. Barnabas fund is 
still in existence and used for home relief, and there is now talk of 
building with it a new St. Barnabas Hospital for tuberculosis patients. 

The House of Industry was an outgrowth of the Woman's Re- 
lief Associations formed during the Civil War. It was organized in 
the fall of 1865 with Mary Ferris as president. In 1873 it purchased 
its present home on Liberty street. Its aim is to furnish work to 
women who need it. 

Note — See Appendix for list of the farmers and land owners of the town of 
Poughkeepsie who registered cattle brands under the colonial law, and also list of 
Supervisors from 1788 to 1854. Ward and Precinct Supervisors in Chapter "VI. 




By S. R. Fbee. 

THE township in Dutchess County tnown as Amenia, embraces 
something over forty square miles. This territory comprises 
a part of the eastern portion of the tract of land originally 
owned by the Great Nine Partners, and lots numbers 43 to 72 of the 

It lies on the extreme eastern border of the county, and has for its 
northern limit the town of North East; for the southern, the town 
of Dover; for the western, the towns of Stanford and Washington; 
for the eastern, the towns of Sharon and Kent, in Connecticut. 

Stretching along the entire eastern border of the town are the Ta- 
conic mountains. Near the middle of the town is a broken range 
of hills that extend southward to the Fishkill mountains. 

The valleys skirting these elevations are very fertile and well 
adapted to grain and grass culture. The production of milk is prob- 
ably the largest industry in the town. The principal streams of 
water are Ten Mile River, often called the Weebutook, which was 
the Indian name; the Wassaic Creek; West Brook and their tribu- 

For many years the mining of iron ore has been extensively carried 
on in several parts of the town. At this writing, the mines are all 
silent; but interested parties say that the old mine near the village 
of Amenia wiU soon be operated again. 

History and tradition appear to agree in making Richard Sackett 
the first white settler in the Town of Amenia. The old records show 
that on March 11th, 1703, Richard Sackett petitioned the Colonial 
Government for a license to purchase a tract of land in Dutchess 
Coflnty, east of the Hudson River, called "Washiack," now softened 
into Wassaic. 


The same records tell us that the petition was granted in October 
of the same year. The precise date of Mr. Sackett's entry upon his 
vast domain is not known, but there is tradition to show that within 
three or four years of the above date he built a house near the place 
which has been known since the days of the Revolutionary War as 
the Steel Works, where he lived and died. The old records also show 
that Mr. Sackett was not able to make good his title to said lands, as 
the British sovereign was not willing his possessions in the New World 
should be disposed of without his consent. 

The unfortunate Mr. Sackett died in poverty in 1746, and was 
buried not far from the house he built. Mr. Newton Reed, in his 
valuable history of Amenia, quotes from a manuscript of Barnabas 
Payne, in which the author says he has "several times visited the grave 
of Mr. Sackett at the Steel Works, but at this writing no stone re- 
mains by which the grave can be identified." 

The order of succession by which the town was settled has not been 
well preserved. From about the middle of the eighteenth century 
the town began to fill up rapidly. Mr. Reed has furnished a long 
list of early settlers, which includes the following names : Uldrick 
Winegar and his son Captain Garrett Winegar, Lieut. Samuel Sny- 
der, Henry Nase, Captain Isaac Delamater, Baltus Lot, Adam Show- 
erman, the families of Knickerbocker and Van Deusen, Hezekiah King, 
Abraham Paine, Stephen Kinny, Benjamin Hollister, Peter Klein 
(Cline), Justus Powers, Elijah Park, Joel and Abner GiUett, Cap- 
tain Stephen Hopkins, Abraham Bockee, Captain Thomas Wheeler, 
Col. William Barker, Deacon Moses Barlow and his brother Nathan, 
Daniel C. Bartlett, Zera Beach, Caleb Benton, Silas Belden, Captain 
John Boyd, Lemuel and William Brush, Judah Burton, Ezra Bryan, 
Benjamin Carpenter, Joseph Chamberlain, James Reed, Judah Swift, 
Jeremiah Ingraham, Nathan Conklin, David Collin, Rev. John Corn- 
wall, Jacob Evartson, John Gamsey, Roger Gale, Deacon Asa Hol- 
lister, Samuel Jarvis, Thomas Mygatt and John Balis. 

The sturdy German came from the early settlements along the 
upper Hudson; and the Dutch came from their "New Amsterdam" 
(New York) ; arid the stern Puritan came from Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. A blending of these vigorous elements made up the early 
society of Amenia. 

The Colonial boundaries of the Precinct of Amenia embraced a 


large part of the present town of North East. The Amenia of to-day 
was determined in the year 1823. 

There are in the town six villages. Amenia, the largest, a station 
on the Harlem railroad has above a hundred dwelling houses. Wassaic, 
the next in size, has above eighty dwellings. Smithfield, Amenia 
Union, South Amenia and LeedsviUe are small, pleasant villages. 

Amenia and Wassaic have both lost and gained since the publication 
of the last history of Dutchess County. From Amenia Village have 
gone the old historic Seminary and the Methodist Episcopal Church; 
but in the place of the Seminary is a well furnished and officered High 
School, with an average attendance of 175 pupils. For the loss of the 
Church there appears to be no substitute. There remain, however, 
three Churches, Presbyterian,, Baptist and Roman Cathohc, with ample 
sittings and a cordial welcome for all who desire to attend religious 

In a commercial way Amenia has made very substantial gains in the 
last forty years. 

We note first the Willson & Eaton Company, organized in 1878, 
wholesale and retail dealers in lumber, coal, lime, cement, all kinds of 
grain and stock foods. An extensive manufacture of bricks, and a 
wood working plant, well fitted with the most improved machinery for 
the most elaborate architectural designs. When this company was 
organized thirty years ago it did a business amounting to about 
$75,000 a year. Its sales at this writing reach the enormous sum of 
a million five hundred thousand dollars annually. The company em- 
ploys in its varied departments upwards of eighty men. 

Next in the order comes the Iron Foundry, owned and operated by 
Mr. B. H. Fry, a native of Amenia, furnishing employment for forty 

For the next we have the Shefiield Farms Slosson Decker Company 
for the production of caseine, requiring for the process something 
above ten thousand quarts of milk per day. This enterprising com- 
pany has factories scattered along the Harlem railroad from Hills- 
dale to Patterson. 

Last but not least is the Harlem Valley Brick and Supply Com- 
pany, located here in 1906, for the manufacture of ornamental brick. 
The stiff mud process is used, and the product is a very superior 
article. The present drying capacity is 30,000 brick per day. The 


main office of the company is located at White Plains, where a large 
business is carried on in the sale of sewer pipe, paving brick, fire 
brick, and ornamental building brick. 

Amenia Village may also boast of a complete water system with 
hydrants located on the principal streets, a well organized fire and 
hose company, an acetylene gas plant which furnishes Hght for the 
streets, the dwellings and the churches, and an imposing granite foun- 
tain, the gift of Mrs. Joseph Guernsey, in memory of her husband, 
who was a native of Amenia. 

Wassaic has lost the old Gridley furnace and the Pendelton sash 
and blind factory, but has gained the Borden condensed milk factory, 
employing about seventy-five men. The village has a graded school, 
and a Presbyterian Church. . 

A modest hamlet lying about three quarters of a mile southeast 
from Wassaic, long known as the Steel Works, demands some notice 
here. A half dozen houses make up the hamlet, yet it can boast a 
carriage making and general repair shop, a sale and exchange stable, 
with all sorts of horse furnishings, and the Smith Stevens & Benton 
Motor Company. So the old historic Steel Works, which maintained 
a forge and worked pig iron into steel for the use of the Colonial 
army, in the war for liberty and independence, bids fair, after the 
sleep of the century, to be heard from again. The villages of South 
Amenia, Amenia Union, Leedsville and Smithfield appear to the casual 
visitor to change but little as the years go by. The inhabitants 
change, but the stately residences, well preserved and set in the midst 
of charming landscapes, seem almost as enduring as the hills that 
surround them. 

Leedsville, once the conunercial center of the township of Amenia, 
is now a quiet hamlet, much appreciated by those who would find 
relief in summer from the noise and heat of the great cities. 

Nestled in a sweeping curve of the Weebotuck, are the vine em- 
bowered cottages once occupied by the Bentons, long famed as poets 
and lovers of art. The Bentons are not there, but the moral and 
intellectual atmosphere which they created still lingers about the 
place and gives it an air of distinction. As late as 1832, when a 
seminary for Amenia was seriously under consideration, many of the 
influential citizens of the town favored Leedsville as the most suitable 


location. From an address given in Amenia in 1875 by George W. 
Ingraham (now deceased) we quote the following: 

"In 1832 this commvmity became enthusiastic on the subject of education, and 
resolved to have a seminary located somewhere in the town. The three prominent 
places named were Amenia, Leedsville and Amenia Union. For beauty of situa- 
tion Leedsville stood first, and a power was brought in favor of that place which 
was hard to overcome. Two full years were spent in fruitless controversy. How- 
ever, in the month of May, 1834, a committee was appointed, with Rev. Phineas 
Rice as chairman, to determine the location of the prospective seminary. In 
early June the committee rendered a sealed verdict, which was not to be opened for 
twenty-four hours after the conmiittee had left the place. The following day the 
seal was broken, the verdict read, when to the surprise of some and the joy of 
others. Cook's Hill in the Village of Amenia, was named as the favored spot. 
The most active in this new educational movement were George Ingraham, J. 
Williams, Dr. L. W. Stanton of Amenia, Selah North, Joseph D. Hunt and William 
A. Benton of Leedsville, and the whole community of Amenia Union. Work 
was immediately begun on Cook's HiU to construct a foundation for the new 
edifice. This was accomplished by cutting down the Hill some sixteen feet and 
grading the grounds to their present proportions. In the summer of 1835 the 
seminary was built and the school opened in the autumn of that year, with Rev. 

C. K. True as principal." 

In the year 1888 the Amenia Seminary closed its remarkable his- 
tory. During its existence of fifty-three years students were enrolled 
from every State in the Union, and at one time there were students 
from the island of Cuba and South America. The advent of the 
graded schools rendered the existence of such an institution as the 
seminary unnecessary. The vacant and time-worn buildings still stand 
on Cook's HiU, but the halls and class rooms no longer echo with the 
footsteps of young men and maidens in the pursuit of knowledge. 
To the multitude who knew and loved the old seminary there is a 
feeling that the head should be uncovered, and the footsteps be made 
soft and slow, as one passes over these historic remains. 

In the early part of the year 1906 some of the old students ex- 
pressed a desire for a reunion of the Alumni of the once famous insti- 
tution. The 22d day of August, 1906, was the day appointed for 
the event. The day was sultry and threatening, but in spite of heat 
and clouds, fully a thousand people gathered to celebrate the occasion. 
Several persons came who attended the seminary at its opening (1835), 
Tlie exercises opened with an address by the venerable Bishop Cyrus 

D, Foss of Philadelphia, who was an early pupil of the seminary, and 


later was principal. He was followed by the Hon. G. G. Reynolds 
of Brooklyn, a native of Amenia, in a felicitous address. An original 
poem and short address by Joel Benton, another of Amenia's sons, 
now of Poughkeepsie ; a paper by R. B. Taylor of Brooklyn, and a 
short address by Rev. D. H. Hanaburgh of Carmel, constituted the 
afternoon programme. 

The evening exercises consisted of an address by Prof. S. T. Frost, 
of Mount Vernon, N. Y. Address by Mrs. Mary Mead Clark of 
Amenia. Address by Rev. A. K. Sanford, D. D., Pleasantville, N. Y. 

The Rev. Denis Wortman, D. D., of East Orange, N. J., and The 
Hon. H. C. M. Ingraham were also on the programme, but the hours 
took wings and would not fold them even for our pleasure, New- 
man's orchestra and two soloists. Miss Carrie Newman and Mrs. A. 
F. Conklin added a delightful feature to the occasion. The above 
outlined programme with the addition of two or three extempore 
speeches by Dr. S. G. Cook and Rev. C. S. Harrower, D. D, both of 
New York city made an occasion long to be remembered by the citi- 
zens of Amenia. 

The first movements in the direction of religious organization in 
Amenia are much involved in obscurity. Mr. Reed says, the first 
Church was organized near the center of the town in 1748, and was 
named Carmel in the Nine Partners. Ten years later we discover a 
more distinct historic trail in the erection of the old "Red Meeting 
House." We have a very complete record of this early institution to- 
gether with a hst of its membership and the cost of the house of wor- 
ship. Reliable tradition determines the exact spot where the old his- 
toric church was erected. About fifteen rods north of the "Old 
iBurying Ground," on land now owned by Mrs. Cora Morgan once 
stood the famous old "Red Meeting House." 

This church organization appears to have been undenominational. 
Men and women of all faiths made up its membership; and preachers 
from the several protestant denominations at various times dispensed 
the gospel message. Tradition says that the celebrated George 
Whitefield preached in the old "Red Meeting House" in the summer 
of 1770 to a vast crowd gathered from all parts of the country. 

The great war which was waged to decide the liberty of the Colon- 
ists drew sharp lines of distinction in the social order. Men who had 


fought and suffered for liberty could not easily tolerate those who had 
been lukewarm and indifferent. 

Then too, as the spirit of personal liberty increased among the 
people, dogmatic questions of a religious character soon began to 
agitate the popular mind. 

In 1790 the Baptists organized a separate society, and about the 
same time the Methodists took up the same role. 

The Baptist people erected their house of worship nearly opposite 
the Red Meeting House, on land now belonging to John Haskins, and 
the Methodists built further north on land then belonging to Thomas 
Ingraham, now best known as the Frost estate. The building was 
erected almost directly opposite the dwelling now owned and occupied 
by Mr. I. N. Bristol. Some fragment of broken brick and mortar 
stiU remain to mark the site of the first Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Amenia. 

The separation of the Baptists and Methodists from the parent 
society greatly weakened it ; but there is evidence to show that regular 
services were maintained in the old Red Meeting House for some 
years thereafter. 

In the year 18S3 the Presbyterian element in the Society of the Red 
Meeting House built a house of worship on east Main street in the 
village of Amenia. Between thirty and forty years later the society found 
a generous friend in the Hon. A. W. Palmer, who donated a beautiful 
site for a church and parsonage on North street. On this site the 
society built and dedicated their new house of worship in the month 
of June, 1867. This society has of late found a friend in the person 
of Mrs. H. S. Chapman, formerly of Amenia now of Glen Ridge, N. J., 
who in the summer of 1903 sent her check of several hundred! dollars 
to be used in the building of an addition to the lecture room. 

In the year 1851 the Baptist society pulled down the old structure 
that stood about a mile north of the village, and converted whatever 
was useful into a new church building which they located on South 
street. This house has been repaired, enlarged and beautified from 
time to time, and is today, with the adjoining parsonage, one of the 
attractive features of the village. 

The Methodists also came down from the north, and worked the old 
ma^rial into a new church, which they located on west Main street in 
the year 1845. For many years this church was very prosperous, but 


with the decline of the Seminary its mission seemed to be ended. The 
property was finally sold, and the few remaining members united with 
other churches, or were removed by that power that shapes all human 

If one inclines to country hfe Amenia offers as many attractive 
features as any town in the county. In the first place the land is 
very fertile and the scenery is unsurpassed. The drive from Amenia 
village around the mountain via. Wassaic, South Amenia, Amenia 
Union and Leedsville, a distance of ten miles, can hardly be equaled 
in the Harlem valley. In summer the fields are strikingly green, the 
streams clear and pebbly, and the air, fresh from the mountains, very 
invigorating. Another highway is Ukewise noteworthy, viz. from 
Amenia village over De Lavergne Hill and thence to Wassaic via. 
^'Turkey Hollow." This drive, for wildness of iScenery is not sur- 
passed by anything we have seen in the far-famed Berkshire Hills of 
Mass. The highway follows a stream that leaps and plunges, roars 
and dashes, foams and splashes like Southey's cataract that came 
down so mightily from Lodore. Good roads also add greatly to the 
comfort of country life. 

The roads in Amenia are not perfect, but they are being much im- 
proved and are likely to be much more improved in the near future. 
A movement has been recently inaugurated to put down stone or con- 
crete sidewalks in the village of Amenia, and a considerable sum of 
money has already been secured for this purpose. 

Amenia has its full complement of stores, a hve weekly newspaper, 
a National bank,^ and two first-class hotels. These together with an 
enterprising and intelligent people should insure future prosperity. 

The names of the Precinct Supervisors wiU be found in Chapter 
iVI, The succession of Town Supervisors since its organization in 
1788 has been as follows : 

1T87— '93 

Barnabas Paine 


Isaac Smith 

1794r- '97 

Edmund Perlee 


Benajah Thompson 

1798— 1800 

Cyrenus Crosby- 

1811— '18 Elisha Barlow 

1801— '02 

Philip Spencer, Jr. 


Abraham Bockee 


Elisha Barlow 


Joel Benton, Jr. 


Benjamin Herrick 


Thomas Barlow 

1805— '08 

Benajah Thompson 


Abraham Bockee 

See Part II of this work. 




Joel Benton 


John H. Cline 


David Nye 



Milo F. Winchester 



Tabor Belden 


Isaac H. Conklin 


Joel Brown 


Charles M. Benjamin 


Joseph D. Hunt 


Isaac H. Conklin 



Philo Cline 


Charles M. Benjamin 


Walter Perlee 



Hiram Cooper 



Philo Cline 



George Williams 



William A. Benton 


Ambrose Mygatt 



Philo Cline 



John W. Putnam 


John K. Mead 


Milo P. Winchester 



William N. Merritt 


John W. Putnam 



Hiram VaU 



MUo F. Winchester 



Noah Gridley 



William H. Tanner 



John H. Perlee 



Albert Cline 


Philo CUne 



Isaac H. Conklin 



George H. Swift 



William H. Bartlett 



John C. Paine 


William H. Tanner 



Robert Grant 


James S. Chaffee 



Judah Swift 


William B. Nelson 



Walter P. Perlee 



William A. Sherman 


MUo F. Winchester 



James S. Chaffee 


Charles E. Bostwick 



Miles K. Lewis 


William H. Grant 



Henry N. Winchester 


Benj. F. Carpenter 

Mr. Newton Reed published in 1875 an excellent little local history of Amenia 
containing much valuable information respecting the early history of the town and 
of its people, the original settlers and their descendants. 

It is not within the scope of this History of Dutchess Coimty to go into the 
local histories of the various towns with the particularity that in a special town 
history would be appropriate and expected. 

If one desires more intimate information of Amenia and its people than can be 
found in the foregoing article, he is referred to "Early History of Amenia by 
Newton Reed, Amenia, DeLacey & Wiley, Printers, 1876." 

The book can be found in the public library of Poughkeepsie in the Adriance 
Memorial Library Building. — (EniroB.) 



THIS is one of the southern tier towns of Dutchess, its southern 
angle extending almost to the north line of Putnam county. 
It is bounded on the north by Union Vale; on the east by 
Pawling and Dover; on the west by East Fishkill, and for a short 
distance on the northwest by La Grange. The present area is placed 
at 18,162 acres. 

The surface of the town is generally hilly and in the southern 
angle mountainous. In the central portion is a good agricultural 
region, and directly northward are found extensive deposits of hema- 
tite ore, which have been mined considerably. The streams are mere 
creeks, tributaries to the Fishkill which flows southwesterly through 
the center of the town. Near the western border is Sylvan Lake, a 
beautiful sheet of water, covering over one hundred acres. 

The name of the town is derived from Col. Henry Beekman, who, 
in 1697, obtained a grant of all the land east of Rombout's Patent 
to the Oblong. This embraced the present towns of Beekman, Union 
Vale, a portion of La Grange, and nearly aU of Pawling and Dover 
with the exception of a strip along their eastern border. For this 
grant Col. Beekman was obliged to pay to the Crown of England an 
annual rental of forty shillings. He therefore surrendered the patent 
and petitioned for a new grant to the same property on more favor- 
able terms. The new patent was issued June 26, 1703. 

By Colonial Act of December 16, 1737, Beekman's Precinct was 
formed, the territory corresponding with that embraced in the patent. 
An act was passed May 20, 1769, by which Beekman's was divided 
into two precincts, the second to be called Pawling's, which included 
the present towns of Pawling and Dover. March 7, 1788, Beek- 
man became one of the original eight towns in the county. This was 
practically a continuation of the precinct^ the territory remaining 


the same until 1821, when the town of Freedom (now La Grange) was 
set off. Beekman was further reduced in 1827 by the erection of 
the town of Union Vale. 

Settlements within the present town limits are supposed to have 
been made early in the eighteenth century, but records relating thereto 
have been lost or destroyed. A man by the name of De Long is 
credited with keeping an inn near the present village of Green Haven 
as early as 1725, but his name does not appear in the list of free- 
holders of 1740. The location of the tavern on Colles map of 1789 
places it about a mile and a half southeast(tof Sylvan Lake. James 
De Long, who was town clerk in 1802-'03, is said to have been a 
descendant of the settler of that name. The families of Carman, 
Brill, Noxon, Baker, Pleas, Uhls from Germany, Cary, Dennis, Hax- 
tun. Sweet and Gardner, were among the earliest known settlers. John 
Carman represented the precinct at Supervisors' meetings from 1739 
to '42. His name appears in the official record of Supervisors in 
1754, and that of Bartholomew Noxon in 1761. William Humphrey 
held this office in 1763. 

The town records contain proceedings of precinct meetings from 
April 7, 1772, to the formation of the town in 1788. The following 
officers were elected in 1772: Joshua Carman, Supervisor; Maurice 
Pleas, Town Clerk; Samuel Dorland, James Vanderburgh, Assessors; 
Simeon Noxon, Constable and Collector; Thomas Clements and 
Maurice Pleas, Lispectors of Litestate Estates. 

Additional records of Beekman Precinct will be found in Chapter 

The Highland Division of the N. Y., N. H. & H. Railroad, run- 
ning east and west through the central part of the town, has stations 
at Green Haven and Poughquag. 

The Clove Branch Railroad Company was chartered November 
21, 1868, with a capital of $150,000, to construct a road from Clove 
Branch Junction, on the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut Rail- 
road, to Sylvan Lake, a distance of 4.25 miles, which was built and 
opened in 1869. April 28, 1870, the company was allowed to extend 
its road by a branch to any of the iron mines in the surrounding 
towns. A branch was accordingly opened in 1877, from Sylvan 
Lake«to Clove Valley, a distance of 4.01 miles. This enterprise in- 
creased mining operations in northern Beekman, but with the abandon- 



ment of the mines in 1883, the railroad service in the course of a few 
years also ceased. 

There are no incorporated villages in the town. Poughquag, Green 
Haven, Clove Valley and Beekmanville are hamlets. 

Poughquag, which derives its name from "A-po-qua-gue," the Indian 
name for Sylvan Lake, is a pretty little village with a population of 
about two hundred. It contains a Methodist church, a district school, 
and the stores of Charles Brill and GrifBn Miller. Mr. Miller is the 
present postmaster, succeeding, in 1908, John H. Draper, who was 
appointed in 1894. Other merchants of this village in times past,, 
were Hamilton ColweU, F. S. Merwin, Charles F. RasseU and Charles 
H. Slocum, the present County Treasurer, Nearby is the grist mill 
of William A. Murphy, town clerk, who bought the, property in 1898, 
effecting many improvements. 

The edifice of the Methodist Society here was erected in 1839, and 
dedicated January 15, 1840, the Rev. Mr. Cochran officiating. The 
present pastor is Rev. Charles Sager. 

A short distance northeast of Poughquag was the home of Col. 
Vanderburgh, an officer of some prominence in the Revolution. He 
enjoyed the friendship and confidence of Washington, who in his diary 
mentions stopping with him to take dinner, when on a hasty visit to 

The village of Green Haven, near the southwestern border, con- 
tains the store of Irving Dutcher, who is also postmaster and Super- 
visor. In Revolutionary times there was a grist mill here conducted 
by one Vincent. The Bogarts from Holland were among the early 
settlers in this neighborhood, and in precinct records is found the 
name of Richmore Bogart, Justice of the Peace. 

At Clove Valley is the store and creamery of David V. Moore, who 
has held the office of postmaster since 1895. In 1831 the firm of 
Elisha Sterling & Co. built here a charcoal furnace, and the locality 
is famiHarly known as "Beekman Furnace." The charcoal furnace 
had a capacity of about twelve tons per day, and the iron made wa& 
of superior quality. The Clove Spring Iron Works was organized in 
1873. This company, in addition to operating the charcoal fur- 
nace, erected an anthracite furnace, with a capacity of some twenty- 
five tons per day. The industry gave employment to many men, and 
for several years Clove Valley had a population exceeding two hun- 


dred; but the enterprise did not prove a financial success and in 1883 
was discontinued. 

At the hamlet of Beekmanville is located the Baptist church, which 
was bmlt in 1839, and dedicated December 25th of that jear, by 
Rev. Daniel T. HiU, who remained as its pastor three years. The 
edifice cost $3,000 and was paid for largely through the efiForts of 
Nicholas German and Abner Osbom. The pulpit is now supplied 
from Pawling. 

May 11th, 1861, Beekmanville was the scene of a large gathering 
of patriotic citizens who assembled to formulate plans for the enlist- 
ment of volunteers in defense of the Union cause. The meeting was 
addressed by District Attorney Allard Anthony of Poughkeepsie, 
Rev. Mr. King of Yonkers, and Mr. Benson J. Lossing, who was a 
native of the town, and whose speech on this occasion was prophetic 
of the ultimate triumph of the Union arms. During the Rebellion 
the town of Beekman raised and expended nearly $35,000 for volun- 
teers and substitutes. 

The Beekman Iron Mine in this neighborhood was discovered in 
1846 by William E. Haxtun. It was opened in 1869 by Albert Tower, 
who owned and operated it for many years, giving employment to 
thirty hands. 

Another ore mine nearby, owned by the Sylvan Lake Ore and Iron 
Company, was also extensively worked, but these mines, like the fur- 
naces at Clove Valley, have long been abandoned. 

Dr. Clark A. Nicholson, for several decades the only resident phy- 
sician of the town, located in Beekmanville in 1847, and became largely 
interested in the development and sale of the adjoining iron mines. 
He died in 1885, and was succeeded by Dr. D. C. Tripp. 

Roman Catholic churches are situated at Sylvan Lake and Clove 
Valley, an account of which appears in another chapter. 

The Supervisors from the organization of the town in 1788, have 
been as follows : 

1788— '91 

Jonathan Dennis 


John Wilkinson 

1793— '96 

Jesse Oakley 

1831— '32 

Egbert Gary 

1797— '04 

Ebenezer Gary 

1833— '34 

Thomas Lee 

1805— '13 

Samuel A. Barker 

1825— '36 

Egbert Gary 


Thomas Flagler 

1827— '38 

John Gooper 


Samuel A. Barker 

1829— '31 

Egbert Gary 

1816— '19 

Egbert Gary 

1832— '33 

James De Long 




Egbert Gary 


William W. Haxtun 

1836— '39 

Elnathan Haxtun 

1870— '72 

George T. Doughty 


Egbert Gary 

1873— '74 

James E. Dutcher 

1841— '42 

James H. Denton 


David Ludington 


Egbert Gary 

1876— '77 

John H. Draper 


Gilbert B.^Noxon 


Edwin L. Williams 


Joseph C. Doughty 

1879— '80 

Joseph H. Storm 


Gilbert B. Noxon 


Isaac "Vail 


Joseph C. Doughty 


Daniel Luddington 

1848— "49 

Wilson B. Sheldon 

1883— '84 

John Jones 

18S0— 'SI 

William A. Holmes 


Gharles H. Slocum 

1862— '53 

James F. Dakin 


John Van Wyck 


Elnathan Haxtun 

1887— '88 

Daniel Luddington 

1866— '67 

Wilson B. Sheldon 


James H. Russell 

1858— '69 

Smith Gronk 

1890— '91 

Kromline Andrews 

I860— '61 

De Witt C. Gary 

1892— '93 

David*V. Moore 

1862— '66 

Jeremiah Sheldon 

1894— '96 

Wilson B. Storm 

1866— '67 

WiUiam W. Haxtun 

1896— '06 

David V. Moore 


George Tabor 

1906— '09 

Irving Dutcher 



THIS town, which was named for Governor George Clinton, 
originally extended westward to the Hudson, and as far south 
as the northern boundaries of the present towns of Pough- 
keepsie and La Grange, comprising over 66,000 acres, with a popu- 
lation according to the Federal Census of 1790, of 4,607. 

The division of the county into precincts in 1737, created Crom 
Elbow, which passed into Charlotte in 1762. Clinton was formed 
from the precincts of Charlotte and Rhinebeck, on the 13th day of 
March, 1786, two years prior to the civil reorganization of the 
county, whereby precincts became towns. Cornelius Humphrey, who 
had served as Supervisor of Charlotte in 1773 and '75, was elected 
Supervisor of the new town, and in 1787 was succeeded by Richard de 

The territory of Clinton was reduced January 26, 1821, by the cre- 
ation of the towns of Hyde Park and Pleasant Valley, to its present 
area of 23,4!87 acres, bounded as follows: On the north by Milan; 
east by Stanford and Washington; south by Pleasant Valley, and 
west by Rhinebeck and Hyde Park. 

There are four small lakes within its borders, of which Long Pond 
is the largest. Little Wappinger creek flows southerly through the 
center of the town. Schultz Mountain, the principal elevation, rises 
780 feet above the tide. The town contains no village of commercial 
importance. Clinton Comers, Clinton Hollow, Schultzville and Pleas- 
ant Plains are hamlets. 

The precinct records shed some light upon the names of the first 
dwellers in the original town. Among those recorded from 1748 to 
1756 are Nathan Bull, Moses Harris, Isaac Germond, Dirck Van 
Vliet, Jacob Spricor, John Earll, Lieut. Lewis, Jonathan Lyon, Isaiah 
Sherman. The earliest settlers within the present town limits were the 
families of Van Vliet, Schultz, Sleight, Garrison, Cookingham and 


Traver, some of whose descendants reside upon the ancestral acres. 
Further reference to these families will be found in Part II of this work. 
Inscribed on field stones in the old cemetery near the Presbyterian 
Church at Pleasant Plains have been deciphered the names of Geritj^e 
Masten Van Vliet, wife of Aurie Van Vliet, and Capt. Joost Garrison 
and Magdalena his wife, buried in the year 1779. 

"^^ Henry Sleight, a native of Long Island, is credited with being the 
first innkeeper. He built his tavern, which is still standing, about 
the year 1768, on the A. C. Briggs farm. 

Another early innkeeper and merchant was Abel Peters of Clinton 
Corners. His tavern and store were erected during the Revolution, 
and in 1792 he built a brick residence ; the brick was manufactured on 
the premises, the materials being thrown togethw in a mass, and 
mixed by means of oxen treading in it. 

The grist mill at Pleasant Plains, which has been operated by water 
power over one hundred and thirty years, is an interesting landmark. 
It was built in 1775 by John De Witt, son of Captain Petrus and 
Rachel (Radclifi^) De Witt. It later became the property of John 
LeRoy, who with his son Abraham, ran it for upwards of forty years. 
It was afterwards owned by George Cookingham, Harris & LeRoy, 
Frost & Cookinghom, and since 1877 by J. Z. Frost. It is a frame 
building S5 by 55 feet, three stories high, and cost about $8,000. 

John De Witt was a prominent man in the official affairs of Dutchess 
County. He was a member of the State Convention which adopted the 
Federal Constitution in 1788 ; and Sheriff of the county from 1785 
to '89 and from 1794 to '97. He also represented the county in the 
Assembly in 1786 '88 and '89, and again in 1793 and '94. 

Clinton has sent many of her townsmen to the Assembly, including 
Isaac Bloom, Morgan Lewis, Ebenezer Mott, John M. Thurston, Wil- 
liam D. Williams, Tobias L. Stoutenburgh, John Beadle, Samuel Mott, 
Israel Shadboldt, Gilbert Bentley and Wesley Butts. Their years of 
service will be found in Chapter VII, devoted to the Civil List. 

Hon. John H. Otis of Clinton Corners was also a resident of the 
town during his term of office in the State Senate, 1852 and '53. 

The earliest physician in the town was Dr. Nathaniel Marvin, who 
located at Pleasant Plains in 1794. He was succeeded by Dr. John 
Dodge about 1820. A sketch of Dr. Edwin Barnes^ who began prac- 


tice here in 1866, and was active in the councils of the Medical Society, 
wiU be found elsewhere in this work. 

A landmark of pioneer times is the Quaker Meeting House at CUn- 
ton Comers, built in 1777, in which year the Society was organized. 
Among the first members are found the names of George Harris, Isaac 
HaUock and Paul Upton. A separation in the Society occurred 
in 1828, owing to the dissension of EUas Hicks. Those who. did not 
adhere to him were termed Orthodox Quakers. They formed a new 
Society, and in 1829 built a church nearby the original stone meeting 

In the "Book of Records of the Trustees for Providence Society, 
in Charlotte Precinct," is found the earliest recorded effort for the 
establishment and maintenance of religious worship within the origi- 
nal town. A deed bearing date of September 15, 1784, reads 
in part: "In consideration of the good will and affection he bears 
unto the inhabitants in this neighborhood of Lot No. 4 of the small 
division of the Great Nine Partners, in Dutchess County, for the 
encouragement of reUgion and vital piety, and for the encouragement 
of education, Richard Alsop, of Newtown, Queens County, New York, 
gave, granted, conveyed and confirmed unto Timothy Doughty, Henry 
Humphrey, and John De Witt, Trustees for a Society of the Reformed 
Church of Holland, as now constituted in America, or, agreeably, to 
the constitution of the Kirk of Scotland, to them and their successors 
forever, trustees of said Society, in this neighborhood of said Lot No. 
4, for the express purpose of having a house erected for the worship 
of Almighty God, and a school house for the education of youth on 
the premises — a certain parcel of land, being part of said Lot No. 
4, to contain two acres." 

Over a year elapsed before any definite action was taken by the 
above mentioned trustees to avail themselves of the provision of Mr. 
Alsop. At a meeting held December 5, 1785, an organization was 
formed to be known as "The Trustees of the Presbyterian Society," 
of which the following persons were elected trustees: John Lawrence, 
Cornelius Van Vliet, David Knapp, John De Witt, Jesse Bell and 
Timothy Doughty. 

Some difficulty was encountered in securing from the County Pres- 
bytery a stated supply for one quarter of his time. It was not until 
1787 that an arrangement was made' whereby the Rev. Wheeler Case 


was to devote one-^third of his time to this Society, beginning July 
1st of that year, in consideration of the annual payment of £23, 7s. 
The Society evidently did not prosper and was terminated, according 
tb the. records, in October, 1789. 

Divine services were continued, however, at the residence of John 
LeRoy and' in the school house, then on the site of the present Pres- 
byterian Church, as often as a supply could be obtained. 

The recordfe in connection with the present church state that the 
Presbyterian Church of Pleasant Plains was organized on the 28th 
day of March, 1837, by Rev. Alonzo Welton of Poughkeepsie, and 
consisted of the following thirteen persons, viz. : John LeRoy, Isaiah 
Van Keuren, John Piatt, William Odell, Stephen LeRoy, Thomas De- 
Witt LeRoy, Hannah LeRoy, Gertrude Van Keuren, Malinda LeRoy, 
Welthy LeRoy, Jane M. Odtell and Phebe Ann McAvery. These per- 
sons were formerly members of the Presbyterian Church of Pleasant 

The church began its organization with twenty-one members, and 
secured Rev. William N. Sayre for its first stated supply. The present 
building was erected in 1837 and enlarged in 1859. The parsonage 
was built in 1866. The Rev. Sherman Hoyt was the first' settled pas- 
tor. He was called in 1843, and remained eighteen years. His min- 
istry is represented as having been one of great power, and the mem- 
bership of the church rapidly increased. 

At Schultzville is located the First Christian Church of Clinton, 
organized in the spring of 1863. Christian services were held in the 
hamlet as early as 1846, at which the Rev. Philetus Roberts officiated. 
David H. Schultz, Benjamin Conger, Dr. Peter Denny, Edward Pultz 
and Smith J. Gildersleeve were active members of the congregation. 
In 1866 the present church building was erected on land donated by 
Theodore A. Schultz, who also contributed $3^000 towards the cost 
of the edifice. In 1869, during the pastorate of Rev. J. Q. Evans, 
the parsonage was built. 

Theodore A. Schultz also donated funds for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a site and erecting a hall at Schultzville for Warren Lodge, 
F. & A. M. This is one of the oldest lodges in the State, an interest- 
ing account of which appears in the chapter devoted to the Masonic 

Extensive slate deposits in Schultz Mountain, a short distance west 



of SchultzvLUe, have at diflFerent times afforded considerable industrial 
activity. In 1798 slate was quarried here for roofing the house of 
Mrs. Richard Montgomery of Rhinebeck. Operations were continued 
successfully for about twenty-five years, when it was discovered that 
the grade of slate was too heavy for durable roofing purposes, and the 
quarries were abandoned. Slate from this mountain which had been' 
placed on the roof of the cotton mill at Pleasant Valley in 1815, had 
to be removed in 1845, and the building recovered with Vermont slate. 
In 1866 the industry was revived by a Mr. Smith from Vermont. Sev- 
eral buildings were erected, and about thirty men given employment. 
Efforts were made to utilize the product both for roofing and mantel 
purposes, but in neither instance was the result satisfactory, and since 
1874 these quarries have been in idleness. 

The official records of the town have been carefully preserved, and 
are in the possession of the town clerk, together with some of the pre- 
cinct records, beginning with the year 1771, at which time Wilham 
Doughty was clerk. Subsequent clerks were Peter Germond, 1772; 
John Allen, 1792; David Traver, 1796; Jonathan Owen, 1799 to 
1805; Koert Dubois, 1808 and '09, and Henry Vanderburgh, 1811 to 
'1'5. John De Witt was Supervisor from 1800 to 1802. 

The succession of Supervisors since the organization of the town 
in 1821 has been as follows:^ 

1821— '32 

John F. Schultz 


Stephen H. Smith 

182a— '25 

John Dodge 


Fred C. Filkins 

1826— '27 

John Wooley 


Gilbert Bentley 

1828— '29 

John Dodge 

1853— '54 

Robert D. Cornell 


John Wooley 

1856— '56 

Jonathan P. Sheldon 

1831— '33 

Welcome Arnold 

1857— '58 

John G. Halstead 

1834— '35 

Alanson Wildey 

1859— '60 

Fred B. Schultz 

1836— '38 

Alfred Duell 


Wilson Hicks 

1839— '40 

Daniel H. Schtdtz 

1862— '63 

John S. Wing 

1841— '42 

Daniel Sands 


Egbert C. Butler 


David Curtis 


J. F. S. Stoutenburgh 

1844— '45 

Isaac I. Piatt 


Philip Cookingham 


TiUey Grouse 

1867— '69 

David B. Haight 


EInathan Gazley 

1870— '71 

Jacob Z. Frost 


Wesley Butts 

1872— '73 

Henry R. Van Vliet 


Daniel H. Schultz 

1874— '76 

John H. Otis ; 

ir Obtained through Mr. George S. Tan VUet of Pleasant Plains, together with many 
other Interesting facts concerning the town's history. 




Mandeville Burger 


Timothyr'G. Palmer 


Duane Story 


Smith Sherman 


Duane Story 


Henry R. Van Vliet 


Charles B. Doughty 


Hiram Stoutenburgh 

1885— '87 

Rowland W. Hicks 

1888 John J. Rymph 

1889— '90 Edward Herrick 

1891— '92 Llewellyn Lent 

1893 Jacob Z. Frost 

1894— '97 Pedro Sweet 

1898— '99 Duane Story 

1900— '01 George B. Welch 

1902— '07 Charles W. Carpenter 

1908— '09 Charles "W. Wright 




By Richakd Fkancis Mahek. 

THE Town of Dover lies on the southeastern border of the 
county. It is bounded on the north by Amenia and Wash- 
ington ; on the south by Pawling ; on the east by Connecticut, 
and on the west by Union Vale and Beekman. The town abounds in 
wild and beautiful scenery. On the eastern and western borders are 
ranges of hiUs almost mountainous in their dimensions, while the center 
forms a valley, some four hundred feet above tidewater, containing 
thrifty farms and pleasant villages. The principle streams are Ten 
Mile River and Swamp River. 

Dover was formed as a town from Pawling, February 20, 1807. 
It is not definitely known by whom the town was first settled, but it 
is supposed that the first settlements were made by the Dutch who 
came here from the vicinity of Hudson's River. Among the early 
home makers in this region we find the old Dutch names of Ouster- 
hout, Van Dusen, Dutcher and Knickerbocker. It is said that the 
first named — ^the Ousterhouts — and the Wilcoxes, Dutchers and Ben- 
sons were the first settlers, and that they located under the East 
Mountain; but there are no dates accessible to define the time of their 

In the cemetery at Dover Plains are a considerable number of moss 
covered tombstones, fast hastening to decay, on which are inscribed 
the names of those who were undoubtedly among the earliest to seek 
a home in this pleasant valley. The inscriptions, nearly obliterated, 

"In memory of Mr. John Ousterhout, who died Jan'y 39, 1759. . 55 years." 

"In memory of Denton Woolsey, who died May 30, 1777, in the 36th year of 

his age." 

"^p memory of Deborah, wife to Nathaniel Gray, died June 13, 1770, . 31." 

"In memory of Ephriam Wheeler, who departed this life May 10, 1808, in the 

100th year of Ws age." 



"Capt. Valentine Wheeler, died Aug. 11, 1T82. 43 years." 

"Matthew Van Dusen, died Sept. S, 1806. 65." 

*♦ Jemima Burlinggame, wife of Benjamin Burlinggame, died June 8, 1790, in the 
*lst year of her age." 

"Hanna:h, wife of William Taber, died June 9tl), 1792. 81." 

"Hannah, wife of Job Tabor, died May 1, 1800. 57." 

"Silas Balding, died April 6, 1786. 69." 

"Elizabeth, wife of Gabriel Dutcher, died April 23, 1793, 73." 

"In memory of Mrs. Hannah French, wife of Mr. Jeremiah French, who de- 
parted this life Oct. 39, 1776. 61." 

Other early settlers were: Hans Hufcut and Martin Preston, who 
settled on what is known as Preston Mountain, and the latter is said 
to have been the first settler on the "Equivalent Land," or the Ob- 
long. Thomas and Alice Casey, from Rhode Island, emigrated here 
about 1750, and located on what is now known as Chestnut Ridge. 
Derrick Dutcher and Jacob VanCamp came here previous to 1731, 
and located near Plymouth Hill. 

One^pf the first mills in this section of the country was that known 
as the Preston Mill, which in early days had an extensive reputation. 
" The original structure has long since passed away, and the building 
which now occupies its site was built about a hundred years ago. 
Ebenezer Preston built three grist mills on Ten Mile River. The 
present oi^e is now owned by William A. Sheldon, at South Dover. 
Previous to the erection of the town the annual meetings were held in 
the tfivern of Jackson Wing, grandfather to Sheldon Wing. The 
name of Dover was given to the town at the Wing Tavern in 1807. 

DovEH Plains: This village is the most important settlement of 
the town and contains a population of 721. It is situated in the 
midst of charming scenery and has in its immediate vicinity natural 
curiosities which have attracted thousands of visitors. One of these, 
a rocky ravine, worn deep in the mountain west of the village, whose 
arched opening resembles the entrance to some cathedral of mediaeval 
times, is known as the "Dover Stone Qhurch." Within this entrance 
is a somewhat spacious cavern, roofed and walled by massive rocks, 
while beyond, pierced deep in the mountain, stretches a mile or two 
of picturesque ravine. The vicinity looks as though there had been 
at some time a great convulsion of nature which had lifted the rocks 
and hurled them into their present fantastic and suggestive shapes. 
It is claimed, however, that the conformation is due wholly to the 


action of water, which, even now, in a goodly stream courses down the 
gully. History tells us that Sassacus, sachem of the Pequod tribe, 
with many of his followers, found refuge in this watery cavern when 
he encountered a band of Mohegan hunters upon the site of the village 
of Dover Plains. He had fled from Connecticut, following the defeat 
of his army by English troops under command of Captain Mason. 

In 1802 the village contained less than a dozen buildings, and 
among the few residents at that time were Cornelius Dutcher, Jona- 
than Mabbett and James Ketcham. Among the first merchants in 
this vicinity — if not the pioneers in business — ^were Stephen, Justus 
and Uriah Gregory. They rented from Lawrence Belding a piece of 
ground some eight rods square, at the foot of Plymouth HiU, upon 
which they erected a store and blacksmith shop. For this ground 
they paid a yearly rental of forty shillings, their lease — ^which was 
dated April 1, 1790 — ^to continue five years. From this place they 
removed and commenced business in Pawlingstown, now Dover Plains. 
Not long after the removal, Stephen Gregory withdrew, and Justus 
and Uriah M. conducted the business some time and failed, and with 
their brothers, Ebenezer and EUas, moved to Sand Lake, Rensselaer 

Luther HoUey succeeded the Gregorys in the business, and for 
some years was a successful merchant. He removed to Salisbury, 
Conn. James Ketcham, Lawrence and Joseph Belding were the next 
merchants, beginning as partners, first in the store of the Gregorys, 
and then in Holley's store, where for eight years they did a prosperous 

James Ketcham was for many years a prominent man of the town. 
He was bom July 31, 1777, at Little Rest, in the town of Washing- 
ton, this county. In his infancy his parents removed to Hunting, 
L. I., where his father kept a small country store. In 1789, the famih' 
returned to the town of Washington, locating near the farm of the 
late Judge Isaac Smith, where the elder Ketcham opened a small 
store. In 1790, the father died, and James was placed in the store. 
He had some advantages of a common school education, and after his 
father's death worked for a time on the farms of WiUiam Cornwall 
and a Mr. Pugsley, for the sum of one shilling per day. His father, 
however, had expressed a wish to have him engage in mercantile pur- 
suits. His uncles, Titus and Jonathan Mabbett, were merchants. 


fl,nd built the house now owned by Walter Haight, in which they had 
a store. Justus and Uriah Gregory had a store near Lawrence Bel- 
ding's, and, failing about this time, the Mabbetts hired the store of 
Lawrence Belding and installed James Ketcham as their clerk. In 
1797 Lawrence and Joseph Belding purchased the stock of Jonathan 
Mabbett, — ^who had previously purchased the interest of Titus Mab- 
bett, — and James Ketcham became one of the firm of Lawrence Bel- 
ding & Co. In 1797 he married Lois Belding, and on May 6, 1799, 
Lawrence Belding bought from Luther HoUey the house and store at 
Dover Plains, to which they removed their stock, and where a pros- 
perous business was done up to 1806. Afterwards Jonathan Mab- 
bett purchased with James Ketcham the interest of the Beldings, and 
the firm became Mabbett & Ketcham, remaining ag such to 1810. In 
that year John Mabbett retired from business, and James Ketcham 
became sole proprietor. When the town of Dover was formed from 
-Pawling he was chosen first town clerk. George Casey became the 
first postmaster. The mail was carried on horseback once a week. 
After Mr. Casey left the town, James Ketcham was appointed post- 
master, and held the oflSce for thirty successive years. Under the 
administration of Polk he was removed, and Joshua Rodgers was ap- 
pointed in his stead, holding the office four years. Mr. Ketcham 
afterward held the office four years. He was a soldier in the war of 
1812, supervisor of the town five years, and a member of the State 
Legislature in 1814. He was a merchant up to 1827. He died Sat- 
urday, November 11, 1871. 

General John H. Ketcham, late Member of Congress from this 
district, was a grandson of James Ketcham. General Ketcham died 
in 1907. William S. Ketcham, the old Democratic war horse of east- 
«m Dutchess, is another grandson. 

The Dover Plains Hotel was built by Belden Dutcher about 1848, 
by whom it was kept a number of years. The present proprietor is 
William T. Elliott. Preston's Hotel was also built in 1848 by George 
Robson. The property is now owned by the heirs of George H. Losee, 
who died November 25, 1881. WiUiam Whalen is the proprietor. 

Reed's Block (Masonic Hall Building) was built by Mrs. David B. 
Reed, of New York, in 1868. 

David Maher, the proprietor of the Dover Plains Marble Works, 


has been in business here since 1867. He was born in Ireland in 
1845, and came to Dover Plains in 1862. 

Among the early physicians was Dr. Thomas Hammond, who began 
his practice here in 1824, and continued it to 1869. He was a sur- 
geon in the war of 1812. He died in Port Huron, Mich., in ]\Iay, 
1880. Previous to him a Dr. Delavan was a practitioner of the town 
for a number of years. Dr. Hooker was also an early physician, in 
the south part .of the town, contemporaneous with Dr. Hammond. 
Dr. Thomas Hammond, Jr., began to practice here in 1844, and con- 
tinued in the profession until 1869, when he entered the mercantile 
business, in which he remained three years. He then resumed his 
medical practice, which he continued three years, and again entered 
the mercantile business under the firm name of Belding & Hammond. 

The physicians now practicing are Dr. C. F. Roberts, Dr. Cook and 
Dr. C. L. Fletcher. 

George Hufcut was admitted to practice in 1848, and followed his 
profession here for some forty years. He died in Dover Plains in 
May, 1880. 

Horace D. Hufcut, a native of Dover, was born October 12, 18S6. 
He received his education at Poughkeepsie and in the Amenia Semi- 
nary, studied law with his father, George Hufcut, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1860. He died in 190S. 

The village had one newspaper, the Dover Press, which was es- 
tablished by S. B. Shaw, editor and proprietor, in 1878. The first 
number was issued November 29th of that year. It was a weekly, 
pubUshed every Friday for a year or two. 

Seth Deacon started a paper here ten years ago, the "Dover Plains. 
Review." It only ran about a year. 

The Dover Plains Bank was organized in 1857 as a State Bank. 
The officers were: David L. Belding, President; John H. Ketcham, 
Vice President; George T. Ross, Cashier. In 1865 the bank was re- 
organized as a National Bank with the following officers: David L. 
Belding, President ; John H. Ketcham, Vice President ; W. S. Morgan, 
Cashier. The present officers are: George W^. Ketcham, President; 
Edward Vincent, Vice President ; E. J. Reynolds, Cashier. The capi- 
tal of the bank is $100,000; surplus $35,000. The bank building 
was erected in 1867. 

The Military School at Dover Plains was established by Arthur E. 
Bangs in 1880. 

"CM' 4|M«4. 

--<«»> 1 


H ^ 


Hiding place of Sassacus, Sachem of the Pequod tribe, 1637. 


The Dover Plains Library was established ten years ago and is in 
a prosperous condition. About one thousand volumes are on its 
shelves, comprising historical works, classical works, and fiction. The 
entertainments given from time to time are the social events in this 
section. Mr. Seeley A. Johnson is the Librarian. The officers are: 
Mrs. A. H. Cook, President ; Mrs. D. B. Haight, Vice President ; Mrs. 
Irving Wheeler, Secretary ; Miss Rebecca Chapman, Treasurer. The 
Trustees: George B. Chapman, M.D., Richard F. Maher, Mrs. Hora- 
tio Benson, Mrs. Seeley Johnson. Book Committee: Mrs. A. H. Cook, 
Mrs. H. S. Benson, Richard F. Maher, Seeley A. Johnson. 

A new Union Free School at Dover Plains was established March 
19, 1908. The building will cost about $10,000 and the land, pur- 
chased from Mr. Hanna and Mr. Wing, about $1200, with $1500 
voted for furnishing. In naming the members of the Board of Edu- 
cation, we take the following from the impartial columns of the 
Amenia Times: 

The members of the board are well known, and as they will go down in town history 
as the first Board of Education established in Dover Plains we give a short notice 
of each member. George B. Chapman, M.D., was Dover's leading physician until 
a few years ago, when he retired and took up scientific farming. He owns the 
Midfield Dairy Farm, one of the most successful certified milk plants in the State. 
Dr. Chapman was recently appointed health officer of the town. Mr. Edward 
G. Reynolds, cashier of the Dover Plains Bank, is a native of Amenia and al- 
though a new member of the community, his friends recognize in him sound, prac- 
tical business ideas. Mr. David Maher, proprietor .of the marble and granite 
works, is a lifelong resident of Dover, and his election to the board was conceded 
to he a compliment to his ability, honesty and fitness to serve the interests of the 
public. Mr. John Dutcher is a retired locomotive engineer, and at all times a 
kindly, affable, pleasant gentleman, who has the welfare of the village at heart. 
Mr. John A. Hanna is as widely known as any man in Dutchess 'County, and his 
varied experience in the Assembly, Board of Supervisors, and as postmaster and 
merchant makes him a valuable member of the educational board. Mr. Charles 
Wyman, owner of the electric light plant and the coal and feed business, is re- 
garded as a thorough and satisfactory business man and upright in all dealings. 
Mr. Thomas P. Whalen is well known locally, having held town office for upward 
of twenty years. He is the present Commissioner of Highways and takes a deep 
interest in the success of the town. Dr. Chapman recently resigned and Mr. J. 
Edwin Benson was appointed in his place. Professor H. S. Benson is Principal. 

The J. H. Ketcham Hose Co. was organized July 20, 190S, and 
the following were the first officers: J. A. Hanna, Chief; Edward 
Blanshan, Foreman ; G. W. Polhemus, First Assistant Foreman ; 


George T. Record, Second Assistant Foreman; Horatio S. Benson, 
Secretary ; R. P. Ketcham, Treasurer ; Charles Wyman, Steward. The 
company comprises about sixty, members ; they are uniformed and 
have a fine meeting room. 

The McDermott Milk Co. have a large factory here, handling about 
100 cans of milk per day. 

Hall & Ferguson's large cold storage plant is located here. Dur- 
ing the warm months of summer the machinery at this plant is covered 
with a white frost. They have a capacity of 15,000 barrels of fruit. 
Mr. George W. PoUiemus is the buyer of the fruit and also general 
manager of the building and refrigerating plant. 

The Elm Stock Farm, located about one-half mile east of Dover 
Plains, is owned by Horatio N. Bain, proprietor of the Nelson House, 
Poughkeepsie. The farm consists of 250 acres of land and the build- 
ings are commodious and extensive. Mr. Bain has 100 head on this 
farm, comprising trotters, pacers, brood mares and colts. 

The Dover Plains Lodge, F. & A. M., was organized August 13th, 
1867. It has a membership, according to the last report, of 116. 

The Dover Plains Lodge, I. O. G. T., was organized November 
17, 1881. The Lodge disbanded a few years ago. 

Dover Plains contains four churches, the Baptist, Methodist, Catho- 
lic, and Episcopal, organized in the order named. In 1774 a Society 
of Friends was organized in the town, and was known as the Branch 
Preparative Meeting. It was an offspring of the Friends Society at 
what is now known as Quaker Hill. A small church edifice was erected 
soon after the organization. The society is nearly if not quite extinct. 

The Second Dover Baptist Church was organized in 1794. In 
the old burial ground at South Dover may be found an old time 
worn tombstone with the following inscription: 

"Samuel Waldo, Died Sept. 10, 1793. Aged 62 years." 

To this man, perhaps more than to any other, belongs the credit 
of stimulating the people of the Baptist persuasion, then living in 
this section, to organize as a church. The earliest records known of 
this society are dated April 21, 1794. At that date the following 
persons signed and presented a petition to the Baptist Church of 
Patelingstown, now known as the South Dover, or First Dover Church: 
Edward Southworth, David Simmons, Joseph Belding, Benjamin Allis, 


Moses Haight, Reuben Allen, Caleb Barnum, Mary Talman, Freelove 
Crandell, Mary Haight, Eliphalet Belding, Dorcas Gregory, Lydia 
Benson, Jerusha Simmonds, Samuel Elliott, Alse Casey, Elizabeth 
Koon, Hannah Benson, Jerusha Woolcut, Susanna Benson, Catie 

The early meetings of this society were held in a house situated in 
what is now the Valley View Cemetery, which was built previous to 
the Revolution for the Dutch Reformers, and by them deserted before 
its completion. In this house all denominations met for worship. It 
was badly out of repair, with rough slabs for seats, and with no 
facilities for heat, or light at night. The frame of this building was 
torn down some years since. A Union Church was built on the same 
ground about 1844!, which has since been taken dc^wn and converted 
into a blacksmith and wheelwright shop, now standing on Mill street 
in this village. 

On the 17th of December, 1832, a subscription paper was circu- 
lated to raise $2,500 with which to build a suitable church edifice. 
The desired amount was raised, and James Ketcham, Ebenezer Stevens 
and Thomas Hammond were appointed a Building Committee, and 
the building of the present house was begun. It was finished at a 
cost of nearly $6,000, Mr. Ketcham and Mr. Stevens meeting the 
deficiency. The church was dedicated in December, 1833, by Elder 
Perkins, who had become the pastor. He remained with the church 
until 1835, when, through internal dissensions, he resigned the pas- 
torate, and was succeeded by Elder P. Roberts. Elder Roberts' min- 
istry lasted but one year. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Ringrose. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Dover Plains was organized 
in 1852. The board of trustees consisted of the following persons: 
William H. Belding, Darius B. Talhnan, Will McKoy, William Sands, 
Samuel H. Tompkins, J. P. H. Tallman, James G. DeForest, David 
L. Belding, Darius Tallman. The erection of the church was begun 
and completed under the pastorate of Rev. William Ostrander in 1853, 
at a cost of $5,500. The church then numbered about forty persons. 
The present number is about one hundred. A convenient parsonage, 
costing about $2,500, is owned by the church, and the entire property 
is free from debt. 

A sketch of the Roman Catholic Church will be found in another 


St. James' Episcoparl Church was built in 1904. Previous to the 
erection of the church the EpiscopaUans held their meetings in the 
hall. Rev. Alexander Hamilton was the rector who built the church. 
The present pastor is the Rev. William Harris. Other ministers who 
have been in charge of the mission were as follows: Rev. Albert Bur- 
dick, Rev. Mr. Wayne and Rev. Mr. Ashton. The congregation 
numbers about forty. 

Three miles west of Dover Plains, on an elevation known as Chest- 
nut Ridge, is another Methodist Church, which was organized some 
years previous to 184J91 The church edifice was erected in that year. 
Among the early members were Robert Van Wyck and wife, James 
McCord and wife, Catharine Shears (now White) , George Van Wyck 
and wife, Mariette Hustus, Catharine Tompkins, Isaac Benton. The 
pastors, as a rule, have ministered to this church from Verbank and 
Dover Plains. 

Chestnut Ridge was also the home of Benson J. Lossing, the his- 
torian, who owned here an excellent farm of some three hundred' and 
fifty acres. Mr. Lossing was a native of Beekman, born February 
12, 181S. At an early age he was left an orphan and was compelled 
to rely upon his own resources. A dweller in a rural district, he 
naturally gravitated to farm work, doing for a year or so such labor 
as a boy was capable of performing. At the age of thirteen he went 
to Poughkeepsie to learn the trade of a watchmaker, and in 1833 en- 
tered into • partnership in that business with his former employer. But 
the mind of Mr. Lossing was bent in a different direction. He had 
early imbibed a taste for literature, a taste gleaned from stolen inter- 
views with a scanty stock of books ; and in 1835 he became part owner 
of the "Poughkeepsie Telegraph," and entered upon his career as a 
literary man. The next year, in company with E. B. Killey, he began 
the publication of a semi-monthly paper, more in unison with his tastes. 
This was the "Poughkeepsie Casket," in the management of which he 
first essayed the art of wood engraving, in order to illustrate his work. 

In 1838 he became editor of the "Family Magazine," the first illus- 
trated work of that kind ever published in this country. His first 
historical venture was "An Outline History of the Fine Arts," in 
1840-41. His next work, "Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-six: or 
The War for Independence," was written in 1846-47. The works on 
which his fame chiefly rests are the "Field-book of the Revolution" 



and "Our Country." The former was published in series by Harper 
& Bros., from June 1, 1850, to December, 1852, and had an extensive 
sale. Mr. Lossing died in 1891. 

Dover Furnace: To the south of Dover Plains, on the Harlem 
Railroad, lies the station of Dover Furnace. Here are located the 
ruins of the works of the South Boston Iron Company, established in 
February, 1881. The buildings of the company were erected in the 
summer of that year, and the principal business done was the manu- 
facture of iron for government cannon. 

Wm. B. Cutler is the only merchant. He conducts a general store 
that was built by Preston & Coyle, 1881. Edwin Vincent, the largest 
land owner in the town, resides at Dover Furnace. His son, Charles 
W. Vincent, is a graduate of Columbia School of I^ines and a mem- 
ber of the present town board. Other old residents of Dover Furnace 
are Charles Cutler, Frank Cutler, Gilbert Tabor, Eleazer Cutler. 

Shapparoon Lake, noted for pike,, perch and pickerel, is west of the 

South Dover: The hamlet of South Dover lies in the southern 
part of the town, on the Harlem Raili-oad. The depot at this point 
is known as Wing's Station, and the settlement here consists of the 
station, one hotel, two stores, postoffice and a few dwellings. 

The postoffice was established about 1852. The merchants are 
J. S. Wing, and Oscar Hasbrouck, of whom further notice will be 
found in Part H of this work. 

The hotel at Wingdale was built in 1858 by John Cornwell, who 
died in 1864. It is now conducted by Egbert Slocum. 

South Dover proper lies to the east of the station some two miles. 
This is also a hamlet of but few inhabitants, and is quite picturesquely 
located. The postoffice was established here about 1828, and the first 
postmaster is said to have been Mott Titus. John Ragan is the pro- 
prietor of a grist mill and the only merchant is George Trowbridge, 
who has been in business here three years. He had previously been 
engaged in business at Webatuck six years. 

Webatuck, or, as it is often spelled, Webotuck, is a small settlement 
about three miles distant from Wingdale. William C. Camp con- 
ducted a store here for several years, and in 1881 was appointed post- 
master. Cleveland Titus was his successor from 1885 to 1906, when 
the postoffice was discontinued. 


Jacob Harrington, it is said, was about the first settler in the 
locality of South Dover. A house which he built had in it a stone 
marked 1763. In that year his wife died, whose tombstone yet stands 
in the cemetery. His house was torn down some fifty years ago, and 
the residence of the late Alfred Wing stands on its site. The Wings, 
the Prestons, the Rosses and Sheldons were also early settlers here, and 
the Deuels were pioneer settlers in the hollow which bears the family 

South Dover has two churches, the Baptist and the Methodist Epis- 
copal. The society of the latter denomination was organized some 
years previous to 1855 ; but there exists no records to show the precise 
date of its origin or to shed light upon its progress. The church 
edifice was erected in 1855. 

For some years the society worshipped in the Union Church, which 
stood where the Baptist Church now stands. The succession of pas- 
tors previous to 1854 is unknown. 

The First Baptist Church of Dover was organized in 1757, and is 
the oldest church in the town. On the 9th of November, 1757, Mr. 
William Marsh, from the Philadelphia Baptist Association, visited 
South Dover, by request, and explained to the people of the Baptist 
persuasion who met with him the nature of a covenant, to which, "in 
the most solemn manner," a number subscribed, and were by him con- 
stituted into a church. On the first of December, 1757, Ebenezer 
Cole was chosen as clerk of the church. On the 4th of January, 1758, 
Samuel Waldo was chosen as pastor and was ordained by Elders 
Marsh and Willard. At a conference meeting held September 3, 1758, 
it was voted to build a meeting house thirty by forty feet. To see 
to the accomplishment of this work, Peletiah Ward, Manasseh Martin, 
Benjamin Seeley, Ebenezer Cole and Eliab Wilcox were appointed a 
building committee. That building was for many years the only place 
of worship in the town of Dover. From 1757 to 1794, during the 
pastorate of Elder Waldo, there were about 250 members admitted by 
letter and baptism. From 1794 to 1885 other pastors were Elders 
Freeman Hopkins, Detherick Elisha Booth, Job Foss, Elijah Baldwin, 
Nehemiah Johnson, Johnson Howard, John Howard, T. W. Jones, 
William G. Hoben, G. F. Hendrickson, William P. Decker, Rev. Isaac 
N.»HiIl and Rev. Edward S. Merwin. Rev. J. G. Dyer is the present 


The march of progress, aided by natural decay, is fast sweeping 
away all architectural traces of our forefathers, whose pioneer homes 
in this locality were constructed first of logs, and later when it became 
possible, of rough timber and boards, which could be had for the 

Foremost of the noted hostelries in the county during the Revolu- 
tion was the "Morehouse Tavern" at Webatuck. It was located on 
the then chief highway from Hartford to Fishkill. Under its roof 
many of the general officers of the Continental army slept. There 
Washington, Putnam, Arnold, LaFayette and other distinguished 
leaders have been entertained, and there Rochambeau and his officers 
have lodged. An interesting account of the sojourn of the Marquis 
de ChasteUaux at this tavern will be found in Chapter XIII, Bene- 
dict Arnold had his last friendly talk with his Commander-in-Chief at 
the Morehouse Tavern before he attempted to betray the American 

The Red Lion Inn, another notable tavern, was located at Weba- 
tuck, and part of the original building still stands. 

The old house north of Phihp Hoag's was built in 1751, as shown 
by date on chimney, by Hendrick Dutcher. When Washington evacu- 
ated Boston he passed with a portion of his command, so tradition 
says, by the road leading west from Wing's Station. His troops 
encamped for the night on the hill across the brook, west from Philip 
Hoag's, on both sides of the road. Washington took up his head- 
quarters in the old house just mentioned. Elder Waldo, a Baptist 
preacher, lived at that time where the Misses Hoag now reside. He 
carried all the milk produced by several cows into camp, together with 
other provisions, and distributed the articles among the soldiers. He 
invited them to come to his house and get whatever they wanted to 
eat. Many of them did so and partook of his generosity, and, to 
their credit be it said, nothing about the premises was in the least 
disturbed by them. A family by the name of Elliott lived on the 
place now occupied by Frank Hoag. They were less free with their 
provisions than Waldo and went to the officers with the request that 
the soldiers be entirely kept off their grounds. The result was that 
not a chicken or scarcely any other eatable was left about the premises, 
the troops making a clean sweep of everything the Elliotts possessed, 
and, notwithstanding their earnest entreaties, the officers paid no heed 
to their complaints. 



In the year 1821 the New York and Sharon Canal was projected. 
Many enterprising men took a lively interest in it, though some looked 
upon it as a visionary scheme. The canal was proposed to be con- 
structed from Sharon Valley down by the Ten Mile River, and by the 
Swamp River to the sources of the Croton in Pawling, and by the 
Croton either to the Hudson or to the Harlem River. The pre- 
liminary survey was made and sixty thousand dollars contributed. 
The money was deposited with a broker in New York, who failed, and 
the project was abandoned. In 1826 the project was renewed and a 
report of the Canal Commissioners was made to the Legislature. The 
estimated cost of the canal to the Hudson was $599,232, and by the 
route to the Harlem it was $1,232,169. This included the whole ex- 
pense of locks, excavation, aqueducts, . bridges and everything essen- 
tial to the completion of the work. There is no record of the project 
after this. The projectors were': Cyrus Swan of Sharon, Joel Ben- 
ton and Thomas Barlow of Amenia, William Tabor of Pawhng, and 
Mark Spencer of Amenia. 

The Harlem Railroad, which traverses very nearly the proposed 
canal route, was built through the town of Dover in 1849. 

VaUey View Cemetery was dedicated October 7th, 1871. It con- 
sists of twenty acres of beautiful, undulating meadow. The grounds 
were laid out by Mr. J. I. Wanzer. The first directors: John H. 
Ketcham, G. T. Belding, J. K. Mabbett, George, Allerton, Thomas 
Hammond, M. D., Joseph Belden and Horace D. Hufcut. 

The succession of Supervisors from the erection of the town in 
1807,, are as follows: 

1840 John M. Ketcham 

1841 Egbert Sheldon 

1842 William Hooker 

1843 J. W. Bowdish 
1844— '45 David Vincent 
1846— '47 Edgar Vincent 

1848 Ebenezer A. Preston 

1849 S. Wheeler 
1850— 'SI Edward B. Somers 

1852 John M. Tabor 

1853 George Hufcut, Jr. 
1854— '55 John H. Ketcham 

1856 WiUiam Hufcut 

1857 John B. Dutcher 


George Crary 

1808— '10 

Andrew Pray 

1811— 'IS 

James Ketcham 

1816— '30 

James Grant 


William Hooker 


James Grant 

1823— '28 

Absalom Vincent 


William Hooker 

1830— '33 

John M. Ketcham 


William Hooker 


Joel Hoag 

1836— '37 

John M. Ketcham 


Absalom Vincent 


Egbert Sheldon 

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Thomas Hammond, Jr. 


Edwin Vincent 


Wm. S. Ketcham 


Andris Brant 


AUen H. Dutcher 

1883— '83 

Albert Fry 

1861— '63 

Obed Wing 


George T. Belding 


Baldwin Stevens 


Ebenezer Preston 

1864— '65 

Edwin Vincent 


Geo. T. Belding 

1866— '67 

Wm. S. Ketcham 


Charles W. Vincent 


Cyrus Stark 


William Record 


Horace D. Hufcut 

1889— '90 

Sheldon Wing 


George W. Ketcham 


John A. Hanna 


Edwin Vincent 

1893— '93 

Theo. Buckingham 


Obed Wing 

1894— '95 

John A. Hanna 


Myron Edmunds 

1896— '97 

Roselle Mead 


Cyrus Stark 

1898— '99 

Myron Edmonds 

187&— '76 

Myron Edmonds 


Wilson Sheldon 


Andris Brant 

1901— '03 

Edward A^ Brush 


William H. Boyce 

1904— '07 

George V. Benson 


George T. Belding 

1908— '09 

Edward A. Brush 



THE historical account of the early settlement of the land and 
of the title to the soil now included in the town of East Fish- 
kiU is embodied in the succeeding chapter devoted to Fishkill, 
of which this town was originally a part, and from which it was set 
off as a separate town. 

The division was effected November 29, 1849, by act passed by the 
Board of Supervisors, under authority of a previous act of the Legis- 
lature. The survey of the new town was made by Elnathan Hasten 
of Beekman, and John Ferris of Pawling. Benjamin H. Strang, 
Janjes A. Emans, Garrett Deboise and Hasbrook Deboise were chain 
and flag-bearers. J. Wesley Stark of Pawling, Wilson B. Sheldon of 
Beekm9,n, and Alexander Hasbrook of Fishkill, Supervisors of the three 
towns, were a committee to superintend the survey. The land set off 
embraced about 33,000 acres, and formed the second largest town 
territorially in the county, being exceeded only by the town of Wash- 
ington. It is bounded on the north by La Grange ; east by Beekman ; 
south by Putnam County, and west by Fishkill and Wappinger. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Jacob Tompkins, in 
Stormville, on the last Tuesday in March, 1850, at which the follow- 
ing officers were elected: Supervisor, Benjamin Hopkins; Clerk, Wil- 
liam Hasbrook; Justice, Morgan Emigh, John S. Emans, Rushmore 
G. Horton and William Homan; Collector, Orry N. Sprague; Com- 
missioners of Highways, John Anderson, Charles Ogden and George 
Van Nostram; Assessor, Lewis Seaman; Sealer, Jacob Wiltsie; Over- 
seers of the Poor, Abraham Pullings and Abraham Adriance; Con- 
stables, Daniel Weeks, Jacob Wiltsie, John Van Vlack; Inspectors of 
Election, David Knapp, Orson H. Tappan, John K. Vermilyea, Peter 
Adriance, William B. Ashley and Abraham S. Storm. 
, Hopewell Junction is the only village of importance in the town. 
About the middle of the eighteenth century, Aaron Stockholm, a native 


of Long Island, settled on a farm in this neighborhood, and previous 
to the Revolution built a grist mill at Hopewell. Thomas Storm, one 
of the county's leading business men, was for many years engaged in 
trade here. He was a member of the Precinct Committee of Safety 
in 1777, and in 1781-'82-'83 and '84 was elected to the Assembly, 

When the railroad extending from Dutchess Junction to Pine Plains 
was completed in 1869, a hamlet sprang up near Hopewell station, 
and when the New England road was built, intersecting the Dutchess & 
Connecticut at this point, the hamlet was called Hopewell Junction, 
As a natural consequence the Junction has become the business center 
of the town. A coal and lumber yard was established in 1869 by R. 
C. Horton, and the following year Lawrence C. Rapelje built a hotel, 
which he leased to Edward Lasher, The village cfntains several 
stores, mechanical shops, and the Borden creamery. 

Settlement at Stormville, a hamlet near the east border of the town, 
was begun as early as 17S9. Derick Storm was the first to take up 
land here, and was soon followed by Isaac, George and Thomas Storm, 
whose descendants are stiU to be found upon the lands thus early pur- 
chased. The Carmans and Arkles settled near them, about the year 
1758, and to the north, Isaac Adriance, "of Nassau Island, Queens 
County," purchased two hundred and fifty acres of land in May, 1743, 
and shortly thereafter George and Abraham Adriance purchased and 

During the Revolution an American force was encamped for a short 
time just north of Stormville, This force was one of many that was 
posted back of the river to oppose the suspected inland march of the 
British to the upper Hudson, 

Theodorus Van Wyck was an early purchaser of land now included 
in this township, settling at Fishkill Hook, He was a true patriot, 
and being greatly molested by Tory neighbors, he removed, in 1775, 
to New York, where he was elected a delegate to the Second Pro- 
vincial Congress, As the patriots became more aggressive, he re- 
turned to his farm in the early part of 1776, and was again elected 
to Congress in that year from Dutchess County. In 1801 he was one 
of the ten delegates representing Dutchess in the State Constitutional 

Aaron Van Vlackren was the pioneer settler in the neighborhood of 
Gayhead. He was a native of Holland and removed to this county 


from Long Island, purchasing several hundred acres from Madam 
Brett. His son, Tunis Van Vlackren, built the first mill at Gayhead 
about 1768. Like all grist mills of that period, it lacked a "bolting 
cloth," and the ingenuity of the housewife was taxed to separate the 
flour from the bran, which was done, in a new country, by either a 
fine splitit sieve, or a very coarse cloth, through which the flour was 
pressed by the hand. 

The Emans family were early settlers in this town, and several of 
their descendants have been identified with public affairs of the county. 
James Emans obtained a grant of 137 acres of land from Madam 
Brett, near the present hamlet of East Fishkill. His grandson, John 
S. Emans, who was born in 1824, represented the town repeatedly in 
the county board of Supervisors. Li political views he was a Demo- 
crat, and was elected to the State Legislature in 1852 and '53. Al- 
bert Emans was elected to the Assembly in 1855, and again in 1858. 
Storm Emans was also elected Member of Assembly in 1883, and from 
1891 to 1894 held the office of Clerk of Dutchess County. 

In the list of iijhabitants of the county in 1740 are found the names 
of Jacobus, Rudolphus, Barnardus and Abraham Swartwout. This 
family was the first to settle in the vicinity of Johnsvillej and was con- 
spicuous in the early days of this county from an official point of 
view. Jacobus was Member of Assembly from 1777 to '83, and State 
Senator from 1784 to '95. 

Johnsville was the birthplace and home of Henry D. B. Bailey, 
author of "Historical Sketches of Dutchess County." He was bom 
in 1813, and commenced his literary labors in 1855. His grandfather, 
Nathan Bailey, was bom in Fishkill in 1738, a son of John Bailey, 
a native of Westchester County. 

The Montfort family were early settlers in the vicinity of Fishkill 
Plains. In the preciact records from 1738 to 1760, the name bears 
a variety of spelling. Peter Montfort bought 370 acres of land here 
in 1735. His son, Peter, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and 
the family was active in the establishment of the Reformed Churches' 
at Hackensack and Hopewell. 

The oldest monument to the faith and energy of the pioneer settlers 
in this town is the Reformed organization of Hopewell, which dates 
back to the year 1757. They had previously attended divine service 
at Fishkill and Poughkeepsie. For seven years the new church had 

S A.M'atrii isu. I^ubli^A bj-. 


no building for public worship, and no settled pastor. Services were 
held in private houses and in the large barn of Jacob Monfort, says 
the Rev. Addison C. Bird, the present pastor, to whose researches 
We are indebted for the historical data concerning this organization. 
In 1762 the congregation decided to build a church, and Garrett 
Storm, Johannes Wiltsie, Isaac Lent, Henry Rosecrans, Joseph Har- 
ris and Aaron Van Vlackren were appointed a building committee. 
Mr. Lent declined to serve, and Johannes Schult filled his place. The 
first church building, which was partly on the present site, was a 
wooden structure 40 by 50 feet. Seats were made by placing boards 
upon the ends of timbers around the church. Services were held twice 
on Sabbath, with only a half hour's intermission. Singing was con- 
ducted by the clerk, and this office was filled for mqjiy years by Isaac 
Adriance, father of CoL Isaac Adriance. Cornelius Van Wyck was 
also clerk for several years. Interments were usually made to the 
east and southeast of the church. Near the east wall, in 1768, were 
laid the remains of Englebert Huff, a Norwegian, who was once a 
member of the life guard of William Prince of Orange, King William 
III of England. During his residence in Rombout Precinct, he be- 
came identified with the Fishkill church. He died at the advanced 
age of 128 years. 

A few years after the erection of the church edifice, pews and gal- 
leries were built in. Among the pew holders are found the names of 
Stockholm, Luyster, Montfort, Flagler, Rapelje, Bogardus, and Col. 
Derick BrinckerhofF. Col. Brinckerhoff' was a member of the Colonial 
Assembly and of the First Provincial Congress. 

This organization was the recipient of several bequests in early 
times, one of which was ten acres of land, from Samuel Verplanck, 
bearing date of March 23, 1779. 

A congregational meeting to consider the erection of a new house 
of worship was held February 12, 1833. Jacob Swartwout was called 
to the chair, and John Storm was appointed secretary. It was re- 
solved that a substantial brick building be erected, and that the com- 
mittee for that purpose consist of the following gentlemen: H. D. 
Stockholm, Abram Adriance, Abram D. Van Wyck, Jacob Horton and 
Jacob Montfort. The building was finished in 1834! during the pas- 
torate of Rev. Charles B. Whitehead, and is the dignified church edifice 
of the present day. 


In 1765 Hopewell church received its first pastor, the Rev. Isaac 
Rysdyck. He came from HoUand to take charge of the congrega- 
tions of Poughkeepsie, Fishkill, New Hackensack and Hopewell. He 
was a thorough scholar, an able theologian, and a very effective 
preacher. It was said that he could write in Greek and Latin equally 
AS well as in his native Dutch; and with Hebrew he was as much at 
liome as in his mother tongue. He kept the records of Hopewell church 
an Dutch exclusively until 1781, and exclusively in English after 1784. 
He was probably the first Dutch minister to begin using the English 
language. During the greater part of his ministry he hved in Fish- 
kill, but later he moved to New Hackensack. In 1790 he resigned 
from the pastorate on account of the infirmities of old age. In about 
a year he died, and was buried beneath the New Hackensack church. 

The Rev. Isaac Blauvelt, who assisted Dr. Rysdyck in the last few 
years of his ministry, became the second pastor at Hopewell. It 
was under his pastorate that the church was incorporated according 
to the laws of the State of New York. Rev. Blauvelt remained but 
a short time, accepting a call to another field. 

The church was without a pastor for one year ; then it called the 
Rev. Nicholas Van Vranken. As he spoke Dutch and English fluently, 
preaching was conducted in both languages. He died in 1804, after 
a pastorate of only thirteen years. He was the last pastor of the 
associated churches. The classis dissolved the relationship, and Fish- 
kill became a separate charge. 

Rev. John Barkalo succeeded the Rev. Van Vranken. He resigned 
after a pastorate of five years. 

In 1812 the Rev. Dr. Thomas De Witt was called to the charge of 
Hopewell and New Hackensack churches. During his pastorate these 
churches, in 1825, became separate and independent congregations. 
For fifteen years he continued his ministrations at Hopewell, during 
which time the recently sold parsonage was built. Dr. De Witt re- 
moved to New York City in response to a call from the Middle Colle- 
giate Church. He was elected a trustee of Rutgers College in 1840; 
and for twelve years was editor of the Christian Intelligencer. He 
died May 18, 1874. 

From 1828 to 1835, Rev. Charles B. Whitehead was pastor of this 
church; and from 1835 to 1857, the Rev. Abraham PoUiemus, D.D., 
officiated. Both pastors were much beloved by their congregations. 



Rev. Dr. Oliver Cobb was then called, and remained fifteen years. 
He was followed by the Rev. Graham Taylor, who left Hopewell in 
1880, and is now Professor of Sociology in Chicago University. He 
is also the founder and resident warden of the social settlement known 
as the Chicago Commons. 

Rev. Cornelius H. Polhemus, who was called in 1881, continued ten 
years. A call was then extended to the Rev. Ernest Clapp, who re- 
mained until 1903. 

The present cemetery of the Reformed Church of Hopewell is not 
as ancient as the church. Neighborhood burying grounds were in use 
before the church was organized. The oldest tombstone inscription 
in the present cemetery is in Dutch, and reads as follows: 

"Heir Leydt Begraven Her Lichhaam Van Lutisha Van \C*yck huis Vrouw, Van 
Isaac Adriance, Oveleden Den 6. Dagh Van December Anno Dom 1763. Oudt 
Zynde 33 laar 10 Maande en 37 Daagen." 

Other early burials here are those of Cornelia, relict of Benjamin 
Moore, Sr., died June 8th, 1781 ; Catharine, wife of John Boughbum, 
died 1785; Francis Hasbrook, died 1789; Tunis Brinkerhoof and 
Gorus Storm, died 1790 ; Abraham Hasbrook and John Adriance, died 
1792 ; Thomas, son of John and Elizabeth Walden, died 1794 ; Sarah, 
wife of Thomas Humphrey, died 1794 ; Anna Montfort John M. Shear 
and Rem Adriance, died 1795; Jacob Horton, died 1793; George 
Brinkerhoof, died December, 1797, aged 71 years; Isaac Adriance, 
died 1797, aged 76 years; Gilbert, son of Francis Hasbrook, died 
April 15th, 1798; Burgune Van Alst, died 1803; Catharine Herren, 
died 1807, aged 78 years ; Nicholas Bogart and his wife Alida Ritz- 
ma, daughter of Rev. Johannis Ritzma. Nicholas was born in New 
York in 1729, and died in 1811. Alida was born in Holland in 1742, 
and died in 1813. 

Another early church organization in the town was the Baptist 
Church of Fishkill Plains, which bears the date of 1782. It was an 
offshoot of the Pleasant Valley Church, and early in the nineteenth 
century had a live and earnest working congregation. The pulpit 
was supplied for a long term of years by Pleasant Valley and Beek- 
man. As most of the families of the early settlers were strict adher- 
ents to the Reformed faith, the growth of this church was retarded. 
Services were finally discontinued and the church property sold some 
fifteen years ago. 



The Methodist Church of Johnsville was organized in 1826, through 
the labors of James Taylor, William, Samuel, Jacob and Oliver Ladue 
and Cornelius Ostrander. Its first pastors were Revs. Hunt, Selleck 
and Collins. In this locality, as in other sections of the country, the 
Methodists were very active in promulgating the Gospel, through the 
mcessant labors of their "circuit riders" and local preachers, and the 
Johnsville Church has accordingly prospered. 

The Bethel Baptist Church at Shenandoah, over which the Rev. Mr. 
Bastain has presided for the past five years, was dedicated in Decem- 
ber, 1835, and the church duly incorporated in 1837. Elder George 
Horton was in charge of the services from 1835 to '41. The records 
contain no account of the cost of erecting the building, but Abram 
Pulling and Isaac Knapp are given credit for contributing generously. 

The Episcopal Church at Hopewell Junction was built in 1888. 
There is also a Roman Catholic and a Pentecostal Church in this 
village. Stormville and Fishkill Plains contain chapels. 

The following list contains the names of those who have been elected 
to the office of Supervisor: 

1850— 'SI 

Benjamin Hopkins 


Charles W. Horton 

18S3— 'S3 

John V. Storm 


Peter A. Baldwin 


Nicholas H. Stripple 


Charles W. Horton 


Benjamin Seaman 

1881— '82 

Storm Emans 


Edmund Luyster 


Leonard V. Pierce 


John V. Storm 


Lawrence C. Rapelje 

1859— '60 

Benjamin Hopkins 

1886— '87 

Storm Bmans 

1861— '62 

Lawrence C. Rapelje 


Francis S. Van Nostrand 

1863— '64 

John S. Emans 

1889— '90 

Isaac S. Genung 

186S— '67 

Benjamin Hopkins 

1891— '92 

Lawrence C. Rapelje 

1868— '69 

Nicholas H. Stripple 


Adriance Barton 


John S. Emans 

1894— '97 

J. Wesley Van Tassell 

1871— '73 

Charles W. Horton 

] 898— '03 

Prank Fowler 

1874— '7S 

Peter A. Baldwin 

1904— '09 

Lewis H. Wright 

1876— '77 

John S. Emans 




By William E. Vekplanck. 

THE Town of Fishkill as constituted to-day is situated at the 
southwesterly corner of the county, ajd extends along the 
river northward from the tunnel at Breakneck mountain to 
a point about half a mile south of the village of Chelsea^ — ^the southerly 
boundary of the present town of Wappinger; thence the township 
extends eastward to the westerly boundary of the town of East Fish- 
kill; and it is bounded on the south by Putnam County. 

At one time the town of Fishkill included the towns of Wappinger 
and East Fishkill, or in other words the whole of the territory cov- 
ered by the Romboudt Patent. This territory was called Romboudt 
Precinct, as the towns of the State were formerly known. 

The area of the town was afterwards enlarged when Putnam County 
was established, in 1812, by cutting off all that part of the township 
of Philhpstown which lay north of Breakneck and west of the moun- 
tains and adding it to FishkiU. This change of territory in the 
vicinity of what is now Dutchess Junction, was made for the con- 
venience of the early settlers — Van Amburgh, Du Bois, Cromwell, 
B'rinckerhoff and other families. 

The title to such land south of the Romboudt Patent, in the town of 
Fishkill, was derived from deeds made by the Commissioners of For- 
feiture in the proceedings against Col. Beverly Robinson, whose wife 
was one of the heirs of the Phillipse Patent. Samuel Dodge and Daniel 
Graham were such Commissioners for the "Middle District," appointed 
in pursuance of an act of the Legislature of the said State, entitled, 
"an act for the forfeiture and sale of the estates of persons who have 
adhered to the enemies of this State and for declaring the sovereignty 
of the people of this State in respect to all property within the same." 

In 1788 an act was passed by the State of New York for dividing 


the counties of the State into towns. Under this act Romboudt Pre- 
cinct became known as the town of Fishkill. This was really the re- 
vival of the old Dutch name, and of this we have evidence from an old 
tombstone in the yard of the Dutch Church at Fishkill. The inscrip- 
tion is on the tombstone of the Rev. Jacobus Van Neste, who was the 
pastor until his death, April 10th, 1761, and reads as follows : 

"Hier Leydt Her Lighaam Van Jacobus Van Neste Bedienaar Des Heylige 
Evangelum Op Pochkeepsie En De Viskil In Dutches Comity Zynde In De Heere 
Geiust de 10 April 1761— Oudt Zynde 26 Jaar 2 Maad En 3 Daage." 

The Romboudt Patent above mentioned was a grant made by James 
n, in 1685, confirming the deed of the land made to Francis Rom- 
boudt and Gulian Verplanck by the Wappinger Indians in 1683. 

At the time of the cession of New Netherland by the Dutch to the 
English in 1664, aU the land hereabouts was in the possession of the 
Wappinger Indians. This tribe was part of the confederacy of the 
Five Nations, and had its home along the east bank of the Hudson, 
extending from RoelofF Jansen's creek (now in Columbia County) as 
far south as Manhattan Island, and eastward to what is now Con- 
necticut. Throughout this region the Wappingers roamed and hunted 
unmolested, so that all that the Dutch government actually ceded to 
the English was the bare sovereignty. Dutchess County and other 
political divisions were yet to be. 

Not long after the English occupation, Francis Romboudt, or Rom- 
bout,^ as the Dutch and English called him, a man of French extrac- 
tion, who was a merchant in New Amsterdam, with his partner, Gulian 
Verplanck, who were engaged in fur trading, conceived the idea of 
getting possession of land, for many people of influence with the Eng- 
lish , governors were taking up land freely, and on easy terms. Rom- 
boudt and Verplanck, following the law of the colony, obtained from 
the government, a license to purchase from the Indians (the original 
of which is still preserved among the State Archives at Albany), with 
a view of obtaining a patent from the Crown confirming the same. 
Whereupon the partners met the Indian Chiefs and came to an agree- 
ment with them as to the value of the land, and obtained a deed of 
conveyance, in 1683, which the chiefs signed and sealed, or at least 

1. He signed his name Francois Bombouts. 




they affixed their totem marks to it/ A copy of this document which 
sets forth the consideration, boundaries, etc., will be found in Chap- 
ter IV. 

Before the patent was issued in 1685, Verplanck had died and Jaco- 
bus Kip married his widow, and became co-patentee with Francis Rom- 
boudt and Stephanus Van Cortlandt. Van Cortlandt had advanced 
one-third of the consideration money given to the Indians, and was 
therefore entitled in equity to one-third interest. 

The territory comprised in the patent was to a great extent a for- 
est, as an old map drawn on parchment, in the possession of the writer 
shows. Indeed it was looked upon by its owners as merely a place for 
trapping beavers and other fur bearing animals, and it was many 
years before- it was opened to settlers. The trappers were Indians, 
whose huts could be found in the neighborhood of Stormville until 
comparatively recent times. The above mentioned map was made in 
1689 by one Holwell, a surveyor and his affidavit" made before one of 
the aldermen in New York, in 1689, indorsed on the original map, 
establishes the identity of the old document beyond question. 

The only white man living on the patent at the time was "Ye French- 
man" whose house, according to the old map, stood near the mouth of 
Wappinger creek. Local historians assert that this man was either 
Nicholas Emigh or Amout Viele. 

By authorization of the Supreme Court a partition was made, in 
1708, of the lands embraced in the Rombout patent lying between 
the Fishkill and Wappinger creeks. While this lands to the north and 

1. Facslmilies of the signa- 
tures of Verplanck and Eomlioudt 
on the deed from the Wappinger 
Indians to them In 1683. 

2. "New Tort, 20th day of April, 1689. Then appeared hefore me Paiilus Richard 

Alderman, Mr. Jno. Holwell Surveyor who took Oath upon the Holy Evangelists 

that this Map or Draught on the other Side is according to his hest Skill and Capacity 
ye true Draught or Map of a certain tract of Land, lying on ye East side of Hudson's 
Elver above ye High Lands so as ye same is described ( ?) • and sett forth in a Patent 
granted by ye late Governor Coll. Thomas Dongan to Stephanus Van Cortlandt, Francis 
Kombouts and Jacobus Kipp trustee etc. ^Dated October 17th ye first year of His 

Majestys Eeign being ye year of our Lord 1685. 
•This word is not entirely legible. 

Paul Richard, Al'dn." 


south of these streams respectively were left to be held in common by 
the patentees or their representatives or heirs. In this division the 
southern third fell to the lot of Catharine, wife of Roger Brett, the 
daughter and only child of Francis Romboudt; the intermediate third 
to the children of Guhan Verplanck; and the northern third to Ger' 
trude, widow of Stephanus Van Cortlandt. 

In 1709 Roger Brett and his wife built the house now standing 
in Matteawan on the south side of Main street, since known as the 
Teller House, and now occupied by their descendants. Dr. and Mrs. 
Robert Fulton Crary. Not long after building this house Roger 
Brett was drowned from a sloop. He was buried in a small cemetery 
at BymesviUe, near the Newhn homestead. He left the entire care 
of his estate consisting of many thousand acres to his widow, who 
subsequently became known as "Madam Brett." She proved equal to 
the task, and set about establishing mills, and inviting settlers from 
Long Island and elsewhere, to come upon her land and develop it. 
Madam Brett had three sons, Francis, Robert and Rivery. Rivery 
was named from the fact that he was bom on the river while his mother 
was on the way from New York on the sloop. He died at the age of 

Madam Brett died at an advanced age and her body lies buried 
under the pulpit of the Dutch Church at Fishkill. A few years ago 
a beautiful stained glass window, made by Tiffany & Co., of New York, 
was placed in her memory in the church by the Brett family and others 
interested in the history of Fishkill. 

Madam Brett's will was proved before the Court of Common Pleas 
of Dutchess County, March I*, 1763. She bequeathed to her eldest 
son, Francis, the major portion of her estate, including the Frank- 
ford storehouse and five farms containing two hundred acres each. To 
her son Robert's five children she bequeathed each a farm of two hun- 
dred acres. 

Among the families that came in response to Madam Brett's invita- 
tion to settlers were the Van Wyck, Brinckerhoff, Swartwout, Wiltse, 
Hasbrouck, Ter Bos (Terbush), Adriance (originally Adriaense), 
Van Voorhis and DuBois. Madam Brett also established the first 
mill — a grist mill. It stood near the mouth of the Fishkill creek, 
aboul^ on the site now occupied by the Tompkins Hat Factory at 


In 1743 the farming and milling industries of the precinct having 
largely increased, Madam Brett in company with about twenty other 
persons, entered into an agreement for the building of what after- 
wards became known as the Frankfort Store House, which stood close 
to the water at what was formerly known as the "Lower Landing," 
north of Denning's Point, where the old Wiltse houses are now stand- 
ing. This was the origin of river freighting. 

The old contract or agreement between Madam Brett and her asso- 
ciates is in the possession of one of her descendants. Miss Kathleen 
MacKinnon of New York, and is in a fair state of preservation. A 
facsimile of the signatures to the document appears on a subsequent 
page. The contract reads as follows: 

"To all Christian people to whome tlus present Writing %aU or may Concern, 
Catharine Brett, James Duncan, Theodorus VanWydi, Cornelis Van Wyck, Cor- 
nells Wiltse, John Brinkerhof, John Carman, Joshua Carman, Jun'r, Benjamin 
Haesbrook, Theodorus Van Wyck Son of Cornelis, Abraham Blom, Hendrik Ter- 
bush, Isaac Brinkerhof, Lawrence Locy, Jacob Brinckerhof, Joris Adriaense, John 
Van Vlockeren, Abraham Adriaense and Isaac Adriaense, all of Dutchess County 
in ye province of New York, Abraham Van Wyck and Joris Brinkerhof of the 
Citty of New York and Thomas Storm of West Chester County and Province afore- 
^id. Sends Greeting, Whereas the persons above Named have Jointly purchased 
from Francis Brett a Certain Lott or parcell of Land Scituate on the East Side 
of Hudsons River Adjoining to other Land of ye said Brett between Johanis Van 
Voorhees and Mathewes DuBois in w'ch purchase Every mans Share & proportion 
thereof is particularly Expressed, as by the deed of Conveyance may fully and at 
Large appear on which said Land the partners above named have built & Erected 
a Com'ys Store house and Dwelling house and for the better Convenience of all the 
parties Concerned they have agreed & Concluded to Divide the Same into Twenty 
Separate rooms or Divisions Equall to the rights and Number of whole Shares, for 
which there were Lotts fairly drawn. * * * At all times for Ever here- 
after. The, major part of the owners & Possessors of the Said Lands & prem- 
ises according to the Number of their Severall rights & Shares, Shall have the 
power to manage order & direct all the affairs relating to the Same (so as not 
Designedly to hurt or Damage any one of the partys Concerned) and to make & 
Establish such rules & Regulations as they Shall Judge beneficial for using & 
Improving the Same, And When Ever the Said Majority Shall Judge it proper & 
beneficial to make further Division or to Sell & Dispose of any part thereof, We 
do hereby Give & Grant unto them full power so to do. And Such Division or 
Divisions, or Deed of Conveyance by them made & Lawfully Executed, Shall be 
good and Valid in the law to all Intents and purposes whatsoever. And we & 
Each of us our heirs and assigns Shall be thereof & Therefrom for Ever Debarred 
& Excluded, and the moneys arising by such Sale to be accounted for when re- 
quired. And it is further Agreed that in all Cases the Majority of Votes Shall be 


reconed According to Each of their Several rights and Shares in ye Lands & prem- 
ises aforesaid that is to say that Every one who hath or hereafter shall have one 
two or more Whole Shares Shall have as many Votes, those who have one Share to 
have one Vote & where two or more are Joined or Concerned in one Share, Each 
of their Votes to be reconed according to their Several rights; and if it so happen 
that any of the partners be at a great Distance when any Vote or Regulation is 
to be made Every Such absent person Shall be allowed to give his Vote in Writing 
& the same with all other Transactions shall be Entered into a book to be kept for 
that purpose which Vote so given in Writing Shall be taken & allowed as good as 
if the person was there present 

In addition to the above document there is preserved a small account 
book giving the transactions of the company from its organization in 
1743 up to 1790. The business was then being conducted as usual, 
but how much longer it lasted cannot now be ascertained. The first 
part of the book is given up to financial transactions with the share- 
holders, the rest of it with the records of the annual meetings. Here 
are the minutes of an annual meeting in 1763 : 

"January ye 14th, then chose Abraham Adriance for Clarck for Franckfords 
store at the meeting at Richard Van Wyck's for the insuing year. Daniel ter 
Bush boatman for the year sixty three tiU the first of may in the year sixty four 
at twelve pounds and keep the Store House, Dock and Dwelling House in sufficient 
Repair, and the said Daniel ter Bush is to fence the orchard land and bringh in 
a, just account and the said Bush is to receive his pay out of the Rent Don by 
major voat, and the said Bush is to frate as useyd and find salt as useyel Chosen 
managers for the Insuing year — ^Theodores Van Wyck and Col. John Brincker- 
hoff to manige and rectiphy all affairs, and to Demand the Land that peter Bo- 
gardus has in possession. By major voat. The meeting to be at Richard Van 
Wyck the first day of January if Sunday then the next Day." 

There are no minutes of the proprietors between January S, 1776, 
and January 1, 1781, as there were probably no meetings because 
of the interruption of business and the disturbed conditions due to the 
Revolutionary War, although at the annual meeting in January, 1776, 
the proprietors resolved to meet in the following year after having ap- 
pointed Richard Van Wyck, clerk, and Daniel Ter Boss, boatman for 
the ensuing year. The following is a transcript of the meeting in 

"Dutchess County, Jan? 1st, 1781. "Att a Meeting of the Majority of the 
proprietors of Frankfort Store House — ^Voted that Theod" Van Wyck be Clerk of 
sA Meeting. Voted also That Major Terbos Continue in possession of said Estate 
to "the first of May 1783 att Twenty pounds p" Annum, Voted also that Major 
Terbos pay for the Said Estate from the year 1777 to the year 1780 Sixteen 

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pounds pr yeaiv-Voted also that Theod™ Van Wyck and John Adriance be a 
Committee from this Meeting to go to Major Terbos's and settle all the Accompts 
appertaining to the said Estate up to this day, and if said Committee should 
judge and Repairs Necessary, they are hereby authorised, to Employ persons to 
do the same & the proprietors to be accountable to pay the Cost thereof. Voted 
also that the next meeting be on the iirst day Jany next, or the next if the first 
day be a Sunday at the House of Col. Griffin." 

The Revolutionary War had closed when the annual meeting of the 
"Proprietors of the Frankford Store House" was held on January 1, 
1788. It was then 

"Voted that Major Daniel Terbos continue in possession of said estate until the 
first day of May, which wUl be in the year 1784, at £30 per annum, in case there 
is a peace concluded between America and Great Britain by the first day of next 
June, and on the contrary, that no peace takes place by thaijt day, the said Terbos 
to pay £20 pr. annum." 

The prices for freighting may be interesting to some readers. At 
the meeting in 1784 it was voted that 

"The said Terboss shall freight for the said proprietors after the following man- 
ner: Flour at 9 pence per cask; pork or beef at one shilling per barrel; salt at 
3 pence per bushel; wheat or other grain at 3 pence per bushel; a passenger at 
3 shillings and six pence, and all other things in proportion." 

The Frankfort Store House stood until 1826 and the business re- 
mained in the descendants of Madam Brett, conducted by the Brett 
and Wiltse families. The first Martin Wiltse was a Swede, who came 
to this country before the death of Madam Brett. He married a Miss 
Humphrey of New York and built the old homestead which is still 
standing at the "Lower Landing." Their children were James, Mar- 
tin, William, and Mary who married Theodorus Brett, the grand- 
father of Mrs. James W. Andrews, late of Matteawan, who has con- 
tributed much valuable information concerning the early history of 
the town. James Wiltse, the youngest son, succeeded his father at 
the Frankfort Store House. He sailed one of the packet sloops which 
then pUed from the adjacent wharf. He married a Miss Van Voorhis. 
Martin, the other son married twice — ^namely the two daughters of 
Henrx_§chenck, and built the house now standing at the Upper Land- 
ing, at the foot of Main street. Martin Wiltse, the elder son, estab- 
lished a ferry to the opposite shore and about this time there were 
three such enterprises, one from the Lower Landing to New Windsor 
by a periauger. (A periauger by the way was a two-masted vessel with- 


out a bowsprit or head-sail; in other words, a schooner without a jib.) 
The word is probably a corruption of the French pirogite. Later 
Martin, Jr., put on a ferry boat propelled by horse power, which he 
ran from the Upper Landings, and this lasted until 1819. The third 
ferry was from the Long Dock and was established by one Lawrence. 
He, however, failed after spending upwards of $20,000 in building the 
Long Dock. The house where Mr. Lawrence lived is still standing 
(much altered) on North Avenue opposite the old entrance to the De- 
Wint homestead, now known as Tompkins avenue. Mr. Lawrence 
married a Bogardus, who was a descendant of the famous Anneke 
Jans, whose descendants unsuccessfully claimed aU the land now owned 
by Trinity Church in New York, and gave rise to a great lawsuit 
which vexed the courts for many years. 

As the population of the Rombout Patent increased, communica- 
tion with Newburgh on the opposite bank became more frequent, so 
that other ferries naturally sprung up. Accordingly Alexander 
Colden, of the same family as CadwaUader Golden, who was at one 
time Surveyor General of the Province of New York, and afterwards 
Lieutenant Governor, secured a patent for land from George H in 
the year 1743, covering the site of the present City of Newburgh, 
and as an appurtenance thereto, he obtained the privilege to establish 
a ferry. The land covered by the patent was then in Ulster County, 
for Orange County did not then extend so far northward on the river 
as it now does, its northern boundary then being Quassaick creek. 
Colden street in Newburgh still perpetuates the name of the patentee. 
From old documents in the possession of the descendants of Martin 
Wiltse the following extracts are taken, being the recitals in an old 
deed, and quoted in the opinion of Thomas Addis Emmett, referred to 
below. They are as follows: 

"Whereas Oeorge the gecond formerly King of Great Britain, did, by certain 
Letters Patent duly issued under the Great Seal of the (late) Province of New 
York, bearing date on the twenty fifth day of June in the year One thousEind seven 
hundred and forty-three, and Recorded in the ofSce of the Secretary of the State 
of New York, in Lib: Pat: No. 12 Page 221 &c. and made to Alexander Colden 
then of Ulster County in said Province, Gentlemen, grant, ratify and confirm unto 
said Alexander Colden (among other things). All the Ground of Hudsons River 
lying and being under the water of the same river One hundred feet into the same 
from high-water mark. The whole length of the land held by said Alexander Col- 
den in a certain tract of Two thousand One hundred and ninety acres of Land 


in Ulster County, formerly gmnted to Andries Volk and Jacob Webbers and 
known as the New Burgh Patent; Beginning on the North side of Quassaic Creek 
and extending Northerly up Hudsons river upon a straight line Two hwndred and 
nineteen Ghainf, together with all and singular the benefits, liberties, ways, waters, 
easements, hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto belonging or in any wise 
appertaining, or that are necessary or convenient to be had, used or enjoyed there- 
with. And also the sole and full liberty and power of setting up, establishing, 
keeping, using and employing at all times forever thereafter, a good and sufScient 
Ferry to be duly kept and attended for the conveniency of passing and repassing 
with passengers, horses, cattle and all manner of goods, wares and merchandises 
whatsoever from any part of the aforesaid patented Lands to said Volk and 
Webber lying and being in Ulster County aforesaid then commonly called New 
Burgh Patent, to any part of the Easterly side of said River, the length of Two 
hundred and nineteen chains along the said liver and so opposite to said Land so 
granted to said Volk and Webbers, that is to say, from such place on the Easterly 
side of said River where a due East course from the North«slde of Quasaick Creek 
across the said River, shall strike the Easterly side thereof, the length of Two 
hundred and nineteen Chains Northerly up the said river; and from the Easterly 
side of said river to any part of the said patented Lands to said Volk and Web- 
bers and to and from and between any and every the places aforesaid; and also the 
full and free liberty to ask demand and take for ferriage at and for such fer- 
riage certain fees therein mentioned and epecifled. ***** 

And whereas said Leonard Carpenter and Jacob Carpenter for themselves, their 
heirs and assigns by deed bearing date on the eighth day of February One Thou- 
sand and eight hundred and five, made and executed by and between said Leonard 
and Jacob Carpenter of one part, and said party of the first part and Peter Bo- 
gardus of the second part, granted and conveyed unto said party of the first part 
(by said name and style of Martin Wiltse Junior) and to said Peter Bogardus, 
their heirs and assigns forever, a full liberty at all times thereafter, to land with 
their Ferry-Boats, and the goods brought therein, on any of the wharves or ferry- 
stairs of said Leonard and Jacob Carpenter their heirs or Assigns, at said town of 
New-Burgh without and hindrance or molestation whatever. And in consideration 
thereof said part of the first part and said Peter Bogardus, granted and conveyed 
the same liberty to said Leonard and Jacob Carpenter their heirs and assigns for- 
ever, and it was thereby mutually covenanted (amongst other things) that no new 
Ferry should be established from Fishkill Landing to said New Burgh as by said 
Deed will, reference thereto being had, more fully appear." 

The Quassaick Creek, wMch was the southern boundary of the pat- 
ent, empties into the Hudson between Newburgh and New Windsor, 
and it is at that point whence the 219 chains were to be measured north- 
ward, as well as from the point on the opposite shore, i. e., the end of 
Denning's Point. Within that space of about two miles no other 
ferry might be set up. By reference to the Patent we learn that the 
ferry charges were as follows : 


"And also full & free liberty to ask, demand & take for ferriage at & for such 
ferriage as aforesaid, the several & respective fees hereinafter mentioned & so 
approved of by our said Council as aforesaid, to wit: for every man & Horse Two 
shillings and six pence, but if three or more together for each man & horse two 
shillings; for a single Person only one shilling for each footman, if three or more 
together nine pence; for every single Horse or Beast one shilling & Six pence, 
but if three or more together for each one shilling & three pence; for every Calf 
or Hog six pence, for every Sheep or Lamb four pence, for every full Barrell one 
shilling, for every pail of Butter three pence, for every firkin or Tub of Butter 
six pence, for every BusheU of Salt or Grain three pence, for every hundred 
weight of Iron, Lead &c., nine pence, for every chaise, Hilterin or Sleigh four 
shillings; for every waggon or Cart six shillings, & so in proportion for all other 
things for which no Provision is hereby made, according to their Bulk or weight." 

By the Constitution of 1777 — ^the first one ratified by the State of 
New York — all royal charters were recognized and continued in force. 
The Colden ferry charter, however, had been operated so irregularly 
and at such long intervals that it was the opinion of some lawyers that 
it had lapsed by non-user. 

About the year 1812, John Peter DeWint, having built the Long 
Dock for his business of freighting on the river, took out a Hcense 
from the County Court, then called the Court of Common Pleas, to 
operate a ferry to and from his wharf and Newburgh, whereupon 
Martin Wiltse, who claimed the exclusive right under the Colden 
charter to ferriage from the Fishkill shore, consulted Thomas Addis 
Emmet, a celebrated member of the New York Bar at that time, as 
to his rights and the remedy. The opinion of Emmet, with his 
autograph attached is still well preserved. It is dated New York, 
Sept. 16, 1816, and reads as follows: 

"Opinion to Martin Wiltse, Jr., of Fishkill Landing on the rights to the Ferry 
from Fishkill shore to Newburgh. 

Case.-^SSth June, 1743, Alexander Colden obtained a Patent for the sole and 
full liberty to keep a ferry from the West to the East and from the East to the 
West side of the River opposite Newburgh. This right by some conveyances for 
» valuable consideration became vested in Jacob & Leonard Carpenter, of New- 

Under the allegation of non-user under the Patent and of long continued pos- 
session in themselves, Peter Bogardus & Mr. Wiltse contested the Patent right to 
the ferry on the East side, and by way of strengthening their title took «. license 
for a. Ferry from the Court of Common Pleas of Dutchess County (vid 2 N. Rev. 
laws 210). 

Thffe controversy was compromised and on the 8th Feby 1805 Articles of Agrees 
ment were made between the Carpenters of the first part, Martin Wiltse Junr & 


Peter Bogardus of Fiahkill Landing of the 2nd part granted and conveyed to the 
parties of the 2nd part in fee a full liberty to land with their ferry boats &cc. on 
any of their wharves or ferrystairs at Newburgh — & the Parties of the 2nd part 
granted & conveyed in fee the same liberty to the parties of the first. It was by 
the said articles agreed between the parties that no new ferry should be set up or 
established at the said Fishkill landings to any part of the said Newburgh, by 
either of the parties to the said agreement, and that none of the ferries from the 
said Fishkill landing should take any ferriage from the wharves of Newburgh 
without consent of the Carpenters — & that no ferryboat from Newburgh should 
take ferriage from any of the landings or wharves of the said Fishkills landings. 

On the 28th August, 180S, a deed of conveyance was made between the Carpen- 
ters of the first part and Martin Wiltse & Martin Wiltse, Junr. & Peter Bogardus 
of the town of FishkiU of the second part. By it the parties of the first part 
bargained, sold & conveyed to the parties of the second part in fee all their right, 
title, interest & claim to the ferry on the E. side of the Hudson River which was 
granted to Colden, they the parties of the 2nd part for eter after fulfilling and 
performing the duties required by the grant. They have ever since been regularly 
performed and Mr. Wiltse and Bogardus kept a ferry from Wiltses landing. 
John P. DeWint having made a new and long wharf on the Fishkill side, he and 
Thomas Lawrence set up a, ferry from it in 1812; having applied to the Court of 
Common Pleas of Dutchess County for a license under the existing law (2N. Rev. 
Laws 210) which was granted; but without intending to prejudice the patent. 
DeWint and Lawrence in order to strengthen themselves have contrived to asso- 
ciate with them the Carpenters & as it is supposed Peter Bogardus — and the new 
Team Boat set up by them runs not only under the license, but also imder the 
title of the ferrying from DeWints long wharf — ^while Mr. Wiltse stiU ferries from 
his old accustomed Wharf, but is materially injured by the competition. Ques- 
tion — Has Mr. Wiltse any remedy for the injury he is suffering and what, and 
against whom?" 

Then follows the argument, which being quite long and technical, 
is here omitted. The conclusion reached by Emmet was that Martin 
Wiltse was virtually without remedy. 

Not long afterwards Thomas PoweU of Newburgh acquired all the 
adverse claims to the Colden ferry charter and other rights to fer- 
riage, thereby obtaining complete title to the ferry, which he operated 
until his death. Afterwards his son-in-law, Homer Ramsdell, Esq., 
operated the same in connection with John Peter DeWint, owner of 
the Long Dock, Fishkill, and on his death in 1870, it was sold to Mr. 

The following has been recently supplied through the courtesy of 
the Ramsdell estate. 

The charter for the Ferry was granted May 24th, 1743, by Hon. 
George Clark, Lieutenant Governor of the Province and the Council 


to Alexander Golden. This charter was sold by the heirs of the 
patentee December 15, 1802, to Leonard Carpenter. The ownership 
passed through the Carpenters (Leonard and Jacob), the Wiltses and 
Bogardus to Isaac R. Carpenter, who sold a half interest to J. P. 
DeWint in 1832, and in 1833 Mr. Carpenter became sole owner by 
purchase. On May 1, 1835 the Ferry was sold to Mr. DeWint and 
on the 30th of May, same year, DeWint sold the whole to Thomas 
Powell, who deeded it to his daughter, Mrs. Frances E. L. RamsdeU, 
ip October, 1850. The interests of the Wiltses were all bought up 
by the Carpenters and DeWint prior to the sale in 1835 to Mr. De- 


It may not be out of place to devote some space to this topic, since 
this family for over a century was by far the largest landowner in 
the township, if not in the county; and also because its partitions or 
sales are the source of title of many thousands of acres of separate 
farms into which the original family holdings are now cut up. The 
development of the property was quite different from that of the two 
other families, Brett and Van Cortlandt, which owned the other two- 
thirds of the township. 

Owing to minorities in two successive generations none of the family 
seems to have come to live or build on that part of the patent set 
off to them, until about 1730, when Gulian, grandson of the patentee, 
having obtained by partition with his sisters one-third of the original 
third set off to himself and his cousins, that is to say one-ninth of 
the entire patent consisting of more than 10,000 acres, built the house 
subsequently knoT^n as Mount Gulian, which is still standing and now 
owned and occupied by WiUiam E. VjBrplapck. There is no record 
as to when the house was built. It ig hardly likely, however, that 
it was prior to 1730. That the house was in existence as early as 
1760 we know through the will of Gulian, which was proved in New 
York County in March, 1752, the year following his death, which oc- 
curred in his 54th year. 

The will provided: 

"I give, devise and bequeath to my son Samuel and his heirs forever All that 
farAi in dutches Ck>unty called Mount Gulian with all the Buildings thereon erected 
and all and every the slaves, stock, household furniture, farming utensils &c." 



To Samuel is also given all the testator's other lands in Dutchess 
County. Both devises to Samuel are on condition that he lives to the 
age of twenty-one or has lawful issue; failing which the two proper- 
ties shall go to the daughter, Aryentie, for life, and on her death to 
the heirs of her body. Several of the life-leases made by Gulian and 
his son Samuel of their lands in the Rombout Patent are still in ex- 
istence and in the possession of the writer. They were carefully drawn 
on printed blanks. For an illustration, the lease made by Gulian to 
"Henry Philips and his present wife Deborah," May 1, 1751, may be 
taken. The lot consisted of two hundred acres from which "£6 and 
two couples of fowles" were reserved as annual rent, to be paid May 
1st, besides the payment of all taxes. For the first six years, how- 
ever, there was to be no rent, and for this privilege the tenant agreed 
to build "one framed or stone dwelhng. house of at ieast eighteen foot 
square with a Lento on one end thereof, with one framed Barn, all to 
be well shingled." Within the first year, also, the tenant agreed "to 
set up stone land marks at the corners of the Lott," and to further, 
"once a year thereafter in Easter week carry his children (if he hath 
any, otherwise his white servants or four of his nearest Neighbours) 
and show them the land marks." The tenant also agreed to make "a 
nursery of fruit trees, to be some Apels, Pears, Cherries & Peaches 
* * * of forty foot square" and to set out an "orchard of at 
least One Hundred Aple Trees" and to prune them or graft the trees, 
"provided the grafts or inoculations be furnished by the landlord." 
The landlord was to have the fruit of three trees. The tenant agreed 
not to cut or dispose of the wood, timber, stone or dung made on the 
premises; also to "keep six acres in meadow for grass and hay," and 
to "stand Bound to work with a Team of cattle or Horses and wag- 
gon or Cart one day annually" * * * as required by the land- 

It was largely through such leases as these that the Verplanck 
property was developed. In other words their policy was quite diifer- 
ent from that of Madam Brett, who owned one-third of the Patent to 
the south, and from that of the Van Cortlandts, who owned the other 
one-third to the north. It was the policy of these latter to sell out- 
right to settlers; the result being that large industrial towns have 
grown up along the Fishkill and Wappinger Creeks, while the Ver- 
planck property still remains largely agricultural, owing to their 


reluctance to sell. This state of affairs continued until the death in 
1834 of Daniel C. Verplanck, who, as sole heir of Samuel above men- 
tioned, was the largest land owner in Dutchess County. He had been 
County Judge for several years prior to 1812 and subsequently was a 
Member of Congress for several terms. He was the first of the family 
to make his permanent home at Mount Guhan at Fishkill, and as he 
had a large family, he enlarged the house in 1804 by building an 
addition to the north. The Mount Gulian farm at that time con- 
sisted of upwards of three hundred acres extending along the river 
for nearly two miles and thence eastward to the homestead farm of 
Garret Brinckerhoff, who was another large land owner in the neigh- 
borhood. _ 

In addition to his homestead farm, Daniel Crommelin Verplanck had 
several thousand acres in the county, which were divided into farms of 
about two hundred and fifty acres each. After his death the land was 
"actually" partitioned. The Rev. John Brown, of St. George's 
Church, Newburgh, Robert Gill, and Dr. Bartow White, of Fishkill, 
were the commissioners. The notes of Dr. Brown are now in my pos- 
session by gift from John Brown Kerr, Esq., of New York, a grand- 
son of Dr. Brown. From these notes the following facts are gathered : 

The commissioners were chosen by the parties to make partition of 
all the Dutchess County property except that of Mount GuUan. The 
first "view" was made on the 10th of November, 1836. Soon after 
a heavy snowstorm interfered with the work, which the commissioners 
were not able to take up again, owing to the severity of the ensuing 
winter, until the 23d of May of the following year. The whole num- 
ber of farms viewed was thirty-five, besides two commons, in all, 
6,475 87-100 acres, which were appraised at $320,913.39, or $45,- 
844.77 for each of the seven heirs, after deducting the widow's dower 
and the value of the life leases which were running on most of the 
farms. On the 6th of July the commissioners completed their appraise- 
ments, and in August, 1836, the partition deeds were recorded. The 
names of the heirs were James deLancey, Elizabeth V. P. Knevels, 
William Walton, Gulian C, Samuel, Anne Louise and Mary Anna. 

Daniel C. Verplanck was one of the directors and a principal share- 
holder in the Middle District Bank of Poughkeepsie. In 1830 this 
bank failed, Daniel C. losing heavily. He deemed that the credit of 
the bank had been to a great extent dependent on his name, and he 


made good out of his own funds the losses sustained by the depositors 
and other creditors. He died suddenly March 29, 1834. 

His son, Gulian C, spent the greater part of his life in the city of 
New York where he was active in political life. He represented the 
city in Congress for several terms, and was influential in securing the 
enactment of copyright laws. As State Senator he sat in the old 
Court of Errors and Appeals, where he rendered several opinions in 
important commercial and financial disputes. He edited an edition 
of Shakespeare which took high rank with scholars. He died in New 
York at the age of eighty-four, and was buried in Trinity church- 
yard, Fishkill Village. 

James de Lancey and William S., son and grandson of Daniel C. 
Verplanck, continued to live on the family property until they died, 
the former in 1881, and the latter in 1885. 

Wilham S. Verplanck, though educated for the bar, soon dropped 
this calling to take up agriculture. About ten years after his mar- 
riage with Miss Anna Newlin, he built "New Place," overlooking the 
Hudson. He was one of the founders of the Mechanics Savings Bank, 
on its incorporation in 1866, and on the retirement of General How- 
land in 1868, he became president. He was also one of the incor- 
porators, and until his death in 1885, a director of the First National 
Bank of FishkiU Landing. 

Mount Gulian, owned by WiUiam E. Verplanck, is the only one 
now standing of three old homesteads^ built in the early part of the 
eighteenth century on the land set off to the heirs of Gulian Ver- 
planck. The old part is of stone, and stuccoed; over it is a curved 
roof with dormer windows. This house was for a time the head- 
quarters of Baron Steuben during the Revolution, and under its roof 
was instituted, in May, 1783, the Society of the Cmcmmati, of which 
Washington was the first president, an ofiice he retained until his death. 

A singular and interesting character who lived for many years in 
Fishkill, was James F. Brown, born a slave in Maryland in 1783. At 
the age of thirty years he escaped and came north, and from 1829 to 

1. The two others were the Lawrence Lawrence, and the John Van Voorheea houses. 
Lawrence was a nephew of Gulian Verplanck. His house stood on the river alwut a 
mile south of Low Point, and was later the home of Garrett Brinckerhoff. The Van 
Voorhees stood on the Poughkeepsie road, about two miles north of Fishkill Landing, on 
a tract of land of nearly 3000 acres, sold to him early In the eighteenth century by 
Philip Verplanck. 


1864 was the gardener at Mount GuiKan. During this period he kept 
a diary, in which he made a record not only of the weather, the con- 
dition of the garden, etc., but also of the visitors to the house, local 
news and items of more than family interests When his whereabouts 
were discovered by his southern master, his freedom was purchased, 
and he was soon joined by his wife Julia, whom he had married in 
Baltimore in 1826. Brown died in 1868, and Juha made her home 
in the village until her death in 1890. 

FisHKELL-ON-HuDsoN. This village has grown up around the 
original Five Corners, and become a place of importance within the 
last thirty years. In 1864! it was incorporated under the Act of 
1847, the first general act for the incorporation of villages through- 
out the State, and was given the name of Fishkill Landing. Samuel 
Bogardus was chosen its first president. In 1878 the village was 
reincorporated in accordance with the Act of 1870, under the pro- 
visions of which it still continues. 

In 1804 a postoffice was established imder the name of Fishkill Land- 
ing, and Egbert Bogardus appointed first postmaster. Five years 
later he was succeeded by Peter Folsom. During the Civil War, when 
Nehemiah Place was postmaster, the name of the postoffice was changed 
to FishkiU-on-the-Hudson. The early impetus of the village was 
largely due to the enterprises of John Peter DeWint,^ a man of great 
energy and activity. His operations were not confined to this side of 
the river alone, but he was a property owner and interested in the 
industries of Newburgh. He had a shipyard on the river bank just 
'south of the Long Dock, and was interested in the freighting business 
which for many years was conducted by sloops from the Long Dock, 
as well as from the Lower and Upper Landings. Towards the end 
of his life he was thought to be rather indifferent to the growth of 
the village, and was, as I think, unjustly criticised for standing in 
the way of further improvements in the village. He died in 1870, 
appointing for his executors the late William S. Verplanck, J. De- 
Wint Hook and James Mackin. Mr. Mackin was a prominent man in 
Fishkill; he was President of the National Bank from 1870 to 1886; 
chairman of the Railroad Committee of the Assembly for several terms, 
and State Treasurer. He was also a close friend of Mr. Tilden, and 

1. For biographical sketch of Mr. DeWlnt, see Fait II. 


had Tilden been inaugurated there is every reason to believe that Mr. 
Mackin would have received an appointment of distinction in the 
federal government. 

Under the direction of the will, Mr. DeWint's executors began to 
Settle the estate, and by judicious sales made throughout the village, 
which were mutually advantageous both to the estate and the pur- 
chasers, and largely through the co-operation of the late Lewis Tomp- 
kins,^ who built several hat factories and houses here, the village be- 
gan to grow rapidly. Mr. Tompkins not only built a fine residence 
for himself, but he also laid out that part of the village through which 
Dutchess Terrace and other streets and avenues now run, in a judi- 
cious and tasteful manner, making this part of the village both 
attractive and valuable. Spy Hill about the same J;ime had been laid 
out and several handsome houses built by the Hon. John T. Smith, 
Mr. W. A. Jones and others. In consequence of this the village was 
greatly improved in its general appearance, and ceased to have the 
somewhat squalid appearance which it had in former times. 

Before the advent of the railroad, the river was largely used as a 
means of reaching points north and south, sloops being employed for 
this purpose. Travel between Albany and New York by stagecoach, 
which passed through Fishkill, was wearisome. It took from ten to 
twelve hours to make the trip from Fishkill to New York. Much 
pleasanter was travel by sloops. They were fitted up as packets, and 
many of them had accommodations for twenty-five passengers. They 
made the run to or from New York and Fishkill inside of twelve hours, 
and now and then a great run was made. For instance, the sloop 
"Caroline," owned by John P. DeWint and named for his daughter, 
Mrs. Monell, sailed from the Battery to the Long Dock in five hours. 

After the introduction of steamboats by Fulton, a disaster which 
afFected Fishkill was the burning of the "Henry Clay" in 1852. She 
was racing with the "Armenia" and when a short distance north of 
Spuyten Duyvil she took fire. Several of the passengers who were in 
the stem were either burned or drowned. Among the number was the 
wife of John Peter Dewint, and his son-in-law, Andrew J. Dowjiing. 

From Mr. John Place, treasurer of the Fishkill Savings Bank, I 
learn that in 1857 he went into the freighting business with the late 

1. For biographical sketch of Mr. Tompkins, see Part II. 


Walter Brett and Joseph Cromwell. This firm had the barge "Inde- 
pendence," which was towed to New York by the Kingston steam- 
boats. At one time the steamboat "William Young" of which Charles 
Adriance, of Low Point, was captain called at the Long Dock 
and took its freight. This was the genial "Captain Charley," who 
succeeded to the old freighting business formerly done from Low 
Point by sloops. One of them was the famous "Matteawan," which 
was built on the shipyard at Low Point, belonging to Cornelius Car- 
man. Two trips a week were made. On the death of Joseph Crom- 
well, the firm of Brett & Matthews was formed, which ran the steamer 
"Walter Brett." Later the firm built the "River Queen." She was 
the old "Mary Benton," which was rebuilt at a cost of $60,000, being 
fitted up with staterooms, saloons, etc. She proved too expensive for 
the business and was sold at a great loss to Garner & Company of 
Wappingers Falls and Newburgh, who ran her in connection with 
their factories. At this time Captain Walter Brett retired, and the 
firm of Brundage & Place was organized. They made an arrange- 
ment with the late Homer Ramsdell of Newburgh to carry their 
freight on the steamboats owned by him, and for that purpose the 
firm employed a small barge to run between Dutchess Junction, the 
Long Dock and Newburgh, where the freight was transferred to the 
RamsdeU boats. Now all this freighting business has passed under 
the control of the Central Hudson Steamboat Company. 

The Hudson River Railroad in early days felt the competition of 
the steamboats, and made every effort to meet it, sharp rivalry exist- 
ing between the two enterprises for many years. After the com- 
pletion of the Hudson River Railroad in 1851, no other railroad enter- 
prises were started until after the Civil War. In 1866 the Dutchess & 
Columbia Railroad Company was organized for the purpose of build- 
ing a line from a point at the mouth of the Fishkill Creek northeasterly 
through the county to the village of Millerton on the Harlem Rail- 
road, in the town of Northeast. This company was largely promoted 
by the firm of Brown Brothers, bankers in New York, who had large 
interests in the town of Washington. Several towns along the pro- 
posed line, FishkiU among them, bonded themselves in aid of the con- 
struction of the railroad, and the road was accordingly built and fin- 
ished in 1868, Mr. Oliver W. Barnes being its chief engineer. It was 
unprofitable and soon passed into the hands of its bondholders. Ten 
years later the lower end of the road from Hopewell Junction to 




Dutchess Junction was purchased by the New York & New England 
Railroad Company, and has since been absorbed by the Central New 

The house now occupied by Dr. Kittridge, on Ferry street, was for- 
merly owned by A. King Chandler, who built the house and laid out 
the adjacent grounds, all in a somewhat pretentious style. It was a 
conspicuous object from the river, with peaks and gables and many 
outbuildings. All the land in front was open as far as Beekman 
street, then a mere country road, and generally called the Old Plank 
Road. Mr. Chandler kept a large dry goods and variety shop in 
Newburgh, somewhat on the order of the department store of to-day, 
and did a profitable business for many years. 

PiiANK Road. The certificate of the FishkiU ancj Beekman Plank 
Road Company was filed August 22, 1851. The company was or- 
ganized by about seventy-five persons, with a capital stock of $30,000, 
divided into shares of $50 each. The subscribers each took from 
Railroad Co., the successor of the original Boston, Hartford & Erie 


John S. Thayer 
John B. Rosa 
Samuel A. Hayt 
Jacob G. "Van Wyck 
Guernsey Smith 
Bartow White 
Lewis B. White 
H. F. Walcott 
James B. Brinckerhoff 
Walter Brett 
Catherine E. Kapalje 
James B. Vandervoort 
Chauncey DeLavan 
Richard B. Horton 
Wm. HasBrook 
Alfred Storm 
Isaac Sherwood 
Abraham Brinckerhoff 
Peter H. Schenck-^ 
D. S. Ackerman 
W. B. Sheldon 
Charles Davies 
Louis Meyer 
James E. Member 
S. A. Benson 

New York 
East FishkiU 


FishkiU Landing 






It was proposed to build a line from Fishkill Landing to Storm- 
viUe, via Matteawan, Fishkill ViUagey Johnsville, Gay Head and 
CourtlandviUe, a distance of fifteen miles. The two roads leading to 
the river through Fishkill Landing were considered too steep for such 
a line, and a new road was laid out over the lands of J. P. DeWint, 
Martin Wiltse, Louis Meyer, Russell Dart and others. This is now 
Beekman street. The company also occupied an extension of Main 
street by continuing it straight to Matteawan over the low and 
swampy lands of the Teller estate instead of following the Old Road 
to Fishkin Village, which still passes over the higher ground to the 
north, where now are St. John's Church and the Methodist cemetery. 
The company thereupon began building the road and extended the 
same for about seven miles eastward into the township, setting up toll- 
gates at certain intervals in pursuance of the charter, the most east- 
erly one being at BrinckerhoffviUe. The company failed, however, 
to complete the road and otherwise comply with the terms of its char- 
ter. The road, too, was never kept in good order or repair and the 
people became exasperated and annoyed at the condition of things. 
The people, too, were used to the free road laid out by Madam Brett 
over her property from the river eastward to the limits of her lands, 
that is the road now in use through Matteawan, Glenham and Fish- 
kill Village along the west side of the creek, and they looked upon the 
Plank Road Company as an attempt to pervert the ancient highway 
of Fishkill. 

Litigation ensued, and according to tradition, on one occasion a 
mob, made up of many of the respectable people of the neighborhood, 
assembled on a certain night and smashed the toUgates and otherwise 
put an end to the further exaction of toU along the road so far as the 
same was built. Thereafter the road again became free. 

When the electric railroad was being built over the line of Beekman 
street in Fishkill Landing many of the old planks were brought to the 
surface. The late Samuel A. Hayt of Fishkill was president of the 
Plank Road Company at one time and meetings were held at his store, 
and Augustus Hughson was secretary. Later A. J. Vandewater of 
Matteawan, who had been an original subscriber to the Stock, became 
president, and made unsuccessful attempts to revive the project. 

^Matteawan. The name of this village was originally restricted 
to the mills. It was incorporated in 1886,^ and now includes within 

1. WiUard H. Mase was the first president of the village. 


its limits Byrnesville, Wiccopee and Tioronda. Local names fot other 
neighborhoods were Glory Hill, where the Sargent Industrial School 
now stands, and Pancake HoUow on the east side of the creek oppo- 
site the railroad station. 

The first factory in Matteawan was established in 1814! by 
Philip Hone (at one time Mayor of New York), and Eetfer A. 
Schenck, who had married Margaret Brett, granddaughter of 
Matfam Brett. Hone and Schenck built the mill now belonging to the 
Matteawan Manufacturing Company. It was a cotton mill. Peter 
A. Schenck built the house now owned by the Green Fuel Economizer 
Co., formerly the Larch house and earlier the Joseph Blossom house. 
He left no children. His brother, UeMg^: -Schenck, married and lived 
in what is now known as the Teller house, built by Roger Brett in 
1709. Henry Schenck bought this house, together with a large tract 
of land adjacent, from his brother-in-law, Theodorus Brett. 

Joseph Blossom came to Matteawan from New York, and married 
Emerette, daughter of Henry .Schenck, and granddaughter of the 
Henry Schenck above mentioned. Joseph Blossom made a fortune 
in the lumber trade in the South before the war. Peter H. Schenck 
was a nephew of Peter A. Schenck, and succeeded his uncle to the 
ownership and management of the miU. Peter H. Schenck married a 
Miss Courtney of Philadelphia. Their son, the late John P. Schenck, 
M.D., built the house now occupied by the Sargent Industrial School. 
He was a famous physician of southern Dutchess, and his professional 
record appears in the Medical chapter in this book. 

Byrnesville. This district of Fishkill is now better known as 
Tioronda. From the county records it appears that William Byrnes 
bought a tract of land comprising 274 acres, from Isaac DePeyster 
Teller, in June, 1792, and soon after entered into a partner- 
ship as millers with Cyrus Newlin, to whom, in September of the same 
year, he conveyed an undivided half interest. The deed described the 
property as beginning at "Fishkill Bay, adjoining the land of William 
AUen" (who then lived on Denning's Point) and running up the Fish- 
kill on each side about half a mile, together with the mills and other 
water rights. In 1811, the partnership seems to have been dissolved, 
for in that year the property was partitioned between its two owners, 
Cyrus Newhn taking the lower mill property with fifty-one acres and 


other land adjoining consisting of forty-seven acres more, excepting 
a small lot of one-half an acre reserved by the Tellers for a burial 
place. Cyrus Newhn, in the deed, is described as "of the county of 
Newcastle and State of Delaware." He never lived in Fishldll, though 
he often came there to visit his son Robert, who was the manager of 
his interest in the partnership and succeeded him after Cyrus died 
in 1824.. 

Both WiUiam Byrnes and Cyrus Newlin were of the "Society of 
Friends," commonly known as Quakers. The house where Cyrus New- 
lin's sons Robert and Isaac made their home was built by Madam Brett 
for her sister who married a DePeyster. The Newlins enlarged the 
house, each brother with his family having separate apartments, and 
there they lived until Isaac died. Robert Newlin's daughter Anna 
married the late William S. Verplanck.. The Newlin homestead with 
the adjoining land passed temporarily into the possession of the Bos- 
ton, Hartford & Erie Railroad, a company which was organized soon 
after the Civil War. A deep cut was made across the property close 
to the house, making it undesirable for a residence. This company 
failed before rails were laid to Denning's Paint, and later was re- 
organized under the name of the New York & New England Railroad 
Co. and the terminus changed to Fishkill Landing. 

WiccoPEE is an adjoining neighborhood. The name was applied to 
the district along the creek between Wolcott bridge and Tioronda. 

Daniel Annan, a lieutenant in the War of the Revolution, bought a 
tract of land from the Brett estate. His purchase extended east of 
the creek from a point opposite the present Tioronda bridge, north- 
easterly along the creek to a point near the railroad station in Mat- 
teawan, thence it extended eastward into the mountains to "Solomon's 
Bergh" (North Beacon), thence southerly to a point in range with 
Tioronda — ^in all a tract of about 750 acres. The Daniel Annan home- 
stead stood on the road leading to Cold Spring, east of the residence 
of the late Joseph Howland. The house afterwards fell into ruin, and 
there was built on its site the house known as "Mountain Rest," where 
the Misses Wagner had a boarding school for girls for a number of 
years, and which was discontinued about twenty years ago. Daniel 
Annan was buried in the cemetery of the Presbyterian Church at 
Buinckerhoffville. Lieutenant Annan's first wife was a Miss Van 
Wyck. By his second wife. Miss Allen of Quaker Hill in the town of 


Pawling, he had a son, Daniel Annan, Jr., who married Margaret, 
daughter of Theodorus Brett. This Daniel Annan was a surgeon in 
the War of 1812, and he was buried in what is now St. Luke's ceme- 
tery, Matteawan. Their children were: Mrs. James W. Andrews, 
Mrs. Samson Adolphus Benson, and two sons,. William and Alexander, 
the latter a captain in the Civil War. 

The Oil Groimds. The district lying between the villages of Mat- 
teawan and Fishkill-on-Hudson known as the Oil Grounds takes its 
name from the circumstance that about 1865 petroleum oil was found 
flowing on the surface of the swampy land then quite extensive here. 
Oil and mining schemes were then rife all over the country, so it was 
not surprising that the people of Fishkill should become seized with 
the craze. An examination of the oil proved that it was the genuine 
article. The land was soon sold and a company Organized, and there- 
upon pumping operations begun. The result was a complete failure. 
Investigation showed that the genuine petroleum had been surrepti- 
tiously brought to the spot in cans and sunk into the ground. The 
result was such that when prospectors walked about or ran poles down 
here and there, oil would constantly rise to the surface. The person 
who actually did this became known as the "Swamp Angel." He con- 
fessed in order to secure exemption from prosecution. A few people 
of prominence were implicated and several reputations suffered, but 
no one seems to have been sent to prison. 

The house now occupied by Mr. Winthrop Sargent, known as 
Wodenethe, was begun by Robertson Rodgers of New York, who sold 
the property, before the house was fuUy completed, to Mr. Henry 
Elliott of New York. He had married a sister of Samuel Whittemore, 
mentioned below. In 1840 Mr. Elliott sold the property to the late 
Henry Winthrop Sargent, who enlarged the house and greatly em- 
bellished the grounds, which when he bought the property were a rough, 
somewhat sterile piece of land partially covered by a poor growth of 
trees. The opportunities of the place were obvious to a person of 
Mr. Sargent's discernment. Although an amateur, he may justly be 
called the originator of landscape architecture in the United States. 
He was a friend of Andrew J. Downing, who lived at Newburgh, where 
he wrote several books that made an impression in connection with the 
development of landscape gardening and horticulture in this country, 
and where he conducted numerous experiments in horticulture and 


floriculture. An ingenious feature of the laying out of Wodenethe 
is tlie concealment of the boundary line, thus giving the effect of 
much larger area. The river, too, although nearly a haK mile distant, 
seems to reach the grounds. Vistas were made through- the trees 
giving superb views of the Highlands and the river. 

A neighbor of the late Henry Winthrop Sargent, whose place, Rose- 
neath, also has superb views of mountain and river was the late Charles 
Moseley Wolcott, born 1816. He married first, Mary, daughter of 
Samuel C. Goodrich, who died without issue. He married second, 
Catharine, daughter of Henry A. Rankin, a merchant of New York. 

Mr. Wolcott had extensive real estate holdings in Fishkill, includ- 
ing farms and village property, as well as interests in rnanufacturing, 
in which he was at one time associated with Robert G. Raitkin, who 
also lived at Fishkill some years and built there. Mr. Wolcott, by 
his second marriage, had three children who lived to maturity. His 
son, Henry Goodrich, married Julia, daughter of the late Waldo 
HutchMns ; and his daughter, Katherine, married Samuel Verplanck 
and they now occupy Roseneath. This house was built by Lieutenant 
Ward of the United States Navy about seventy-five years ago. His 
wife was a sister of Samuel Whittemore, who married Louisa, daugh- 
ter of John Peter DeWint, and Hved in the Wren's Nest, a cottage 
with attractive grounds on the river a short distance south of the Long 
Dock. The place had two entrances, whence the name. 

Nearby were the homes of the brothers, Davies- — ^Henry E. at one 
time Judge of the Court of Appeals of this State, and Charles, a dis- 
tinguished professor of mathematics at West Point and iafteirwards at 
Columbia College. The houses built by them are both standing, Prof. 
Davies's house being now occupied by the Wilson School, and Judge 
Davies's house by Daniel W. Bumham. 

The house now occupied by Mrs. Douglass W. Burnham was for- 
merly the home of William Kent, many years Judge of the Supreme 
Court of this State. Jiidge Kent was the son of Chancellor Kent. 
He died in 1861 and is buried near his father in St. Luke's Cemetery. 
Other former residents of Fishkill were the preacher, Henry Ward 
Beecher, Dr. De LaMontague and Dr. James Sykes Rumsey. 

The Denning family occupied the old house on Denning's Point, 
built by WiUiam Allen about a century ago. He had married Maria, 
the daughter of Gulian Verplanck, who had purchased the property 



from the DePeyster family. This property wa» then known as the 
"Island in Fishkill Bay," as the records at Poughkeepaie attest. From 
this it can be inferred that ori^nally the Pwit had been an island. 
It is probable that it was the Denniags who built a causeway, thus 
converting the island into a point, for tli*ey gave it the name "Pres- 
quile" (almost an island). The Denmngs rem^tined nt the Point until 
the death of Miss Jane Denning atout fifteen years ago. 

Joseph Howland, who married Ehza N. Woolsey, came to Fishkill 
about 1855. He bought the Freeland property of over a hundred 
acres lying on the slope of the mountains east of the creek, where he 
built the house "Tioronda." On the breaking out of the Civil War 
Mr. Howland went to the frent, where he soon attained distinc- 
tion and rose to the r9,nk of General. He was much interested in the 
development and improvement of the two neighbering villages, par- 
ticularly Matteawan, where he established a library which bears his 
name. He also took an active part in the establishment of the 
National Bank at Fishkill-on-Hudson, as well as the Savings Bank. 

Smith T. Van Buren, a son of the President, lived at Fishkill for 
many years. Mr. Van Buren had been Secretary of Legation under 
Washington Irving when he was Minister to Spain. 

GiiENHAM takes its name from Rocky Glen, a wild and picturesque 
part of the creek between Matteawan and Fishkill Village, where the 
water rushes through a gorge. It was here that the factories were 
built about 1811, and a village sprang up which soon absorbed the 
little hamlet of Red Rock nearby. 

An interesting and well-known character of days past, who lived 
here, was Joe Tom, a coal black negro, a fish peddler through the 
week, and on Sunday a preacher. He had a stentorian voice, and 
possessed a fund of anecdotes, humorous as well as pathetic. Joe 
was an expert in smoking hams and herrings. 

The AUard Anthony house on the east side of the road between 
Glenham and Fishkill Village, now known as the Knapp house, was 
built by Heinrich Knapp in 1737. The initials "H. K." could at one 
time be deciphered on the gable of the house. This house and adjoin- 
ing farm afterwards came into the possession of the late Frederick 
Sc®field, the uncle of Mrs. Charles Bartow. Miles Scofield, one of 
three brothers, came from Stamford, Conn., soon after the Revolu- 
tionary War, and settled in the Highlands below Fishkill Village. 


Another brother, Lebeus, the ancestor of Mrs. Bartow, bought this 
land near Glenham. 

FisHKii,!, Village dates from a period long prior to the Revolu- 
tionary War, and it sprang up like many of the old villages of New 
England, from houses being built along a thoroughfare near a cross 
road. Though picturesque with its old churches and houses of past 
days, its two broad, slanting streets, shaded by overhanging trees, and 
uniting near the Dutch Church, it lacks the "Green" of a New Eng^ 
land town. But this want is more than offset by its proximity to 
the mountains, its situation at the north gate of the Highlands, 
through the narrow defiles of which the old turnpike passes between 
Albany and New York. This road was laid out two centuries ago and 
foUows the line of the old Indian trail. Along it the stage coaches 
rumbled in years long past, by the old mile stones, some of which are 
still standing. To the west is the "Green Fly" (Dutch Vly), a large 
swamp, although it is much reduced in size since the days of the early 
settlers. In former times the line of the Post Road to Albany, via 
Wappinger's Falls and Poughkeepsie, was carried over high ground, 
once known as Osbom's Hill, to avoid the swamp, and it is this hill 
which shelters the village from the westerly winds, — cold in winter, 
dry and hot in summer. 

Just beyond Trinity Church, the road through the village branches- 
in two, one eastward toward Brinckerhoff and Johnsville, passing sev- 
eral old homesteads, and the other, the Post Road, southward through 
the Highlands, past the Rapelje homestead, soon to cross the Put- 
nam County line. 

The village has always been quiet and secluded, the creek even lend- 
ing itself to such repose. Rapid and impetuous, above and below, 
yet so slow and placid is this stream as it passes through the village 
that it lacks the energy to turn the wheel for a mill. The coming of 
the Dutchess & Columbia Railroad forty years ago roused the old 
place from its slumbers and a few factories sprang up, but they soon 
languished and finally gave up the ghost. In 1876 a great fire rav- 
aged the town, destroying many of the old style wooden buildings, 
which have since been replaced by brick ones. Fifty years ago Ben- 
jamin Aymar, Judge Jackson and other families from the city of 
New York spent the summer months at the village. Later the Aymar 
plac* was occupied by the distinguished engineer, Oliver W. Barnes, 
until his death. 


Other residents of two or three generations back were : J. W. Oppie, 
counsellor-at-law, and Miss Oppie ; Mrs. Chatterton ; Hon. J. L. Jack- 
son, whose house was on the corner of the Post Road where it turns 
west ; C. A. Jackson lived further down the road leading to Matteawan 
and the river; I. E. Cotheal lived in the Rapelje house of his ances- 
tors, now owned by Mr. W. T. Blodgett. There was a boarding 
school for girls, and another for boys. Dr. Lewis H. White was prac- 
ticing medicine, and J. E. Van Steenburgh was cashier of the bank, 
then a prosperous concern. Samuel Hajrt was a wool dealer with a 
large county business, and Charles Burnham was a carriage maker. 

Baxtertown is a small hamlet on a by-road two miles to the west 
of Fishkill Village. It is mostly occupied by negroes, in whom flows 
blood of the Wappinger Indians, As the settlters came in and 
occupied the best of the land the Indians were relegated to the poorer 
land of the interior, for they did not take to agriculture, and inter- 
marrying with the negroes who were originally brought into the 
country as slaves they merged with them, and thus lost their identity. 
Many of the Fishkill negroes bear Indian features and some of them 
Indian traits. The Catskill family of Baxtertown is an illustration 
of this — old Harry was a well-built and handsome man with straight 
hair and almost no negro features. Harry would work on the farm 
for a few days in the "hay and harvest," then the blood of the old 
Wappinger would begin to stir, and he was off to stream and forest 
with rod and gun, leaving his wife Maria as the bread winner to do 
cooking in the kitchens of some of the old families. 

About two miles south of Fishkill Village on the old Post Road is 
a monument, erected October 14, 1897, by the Melzingah Chapter 
Daughters American Revolution, to mark the spot where were buried 
the soldiers who died in large numbers, of diseases, while in camp here 
during the Revolution. The tablet on the monument reads as follows : 






Washington expected that the British would force their way north- 
ward through the Highlands, so he reinforced himself strongly against 
them in this neighborhood. A short distance below, on the Post Road, 


where the valley is narrow, earth-works were thrown up against the 
enemy's advance. They, too, have been marked by an appropriate 
tablet, viz. : 







The "Battle of Fishkill" never took place, however, and other places 
reaped the glory in the achievement of our independence. 

West of this road, on the mountains, is the monument on North 
Beacon to commemorate the burning of signal fires on North and 
South Beacons during the War of the Revolution, erected by Melzin- 
gah Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution, July 4!ti[, 1900. 

Beinckeuhopf. About two miles northeast of Fishkill Village is 
the hamlet of Brinckerhoff, named from the family which had two 
homesteads in the neighborhood, that of Derrick being near the old 
Pitfesbyterian Church and the Star Mills, while John BrinckerhofF's 
was further up the Fishkill near its confluence with the Sprout. 

At the gate of the Derrick Brinckerhoff homestead, now owned by 
his descendant, Mr. Frank BrinckerhofF, formerly stood the Presby- 
terian Church, built in the eighteenth century. It was here that 
Chancellor Kent's father used to preach frequently on his way from 
his home in Putnam County to Poughkeepsie. The church in those 
days, and until it was destroyed by fire about forty years ago, had a 
considerable congregation, but with its destruction the congregation 
scattered among other churches in the neighborhood and no new build- 
ing was erected. The adjacent grJaveyard, now known as the Rom- 
bout cemetery, contains the old graves of early settlers of the neigh- 

In 1902 Melzingah Chapter, D. A. R., erected a tablet with an in- 
scription as follows: 

. BUILT 1747— RE-BUILT 1830— BURNED 1866. USED 



The same chapter of D. A. K.., in June, 1905, erected a tablet to 
preserve the story of the old mills, which reads : 






Near the graveyard is a monument erected May 30th, 1898, by the 
Lafayette Post, N. Y. G. A. R., to commemorate Lafayette's illness 
and sojourn during the Revolution when he was the guest of Colonel 
BrinckerhoflF. General Daniel Butterfield and Henry Tremain, Esq., 
made addresses on the occasion of the dedication. 


The Dutch Church, Fishkill Village. According to the late T. 
Van Wyck BrinckerhofF, the Dutch Church at Foughkeepsie was the 
first church that was built in Dutchess County. The exact year of 
building is not so apparent. Probably about 1720. The writer adds 
that the church at Fishkill was built in 1731. "The petition to his 
excellency, John Montgomery, Esq., states 'that the members of said 
congfej^ation have agreed amongst themselves to erect and Iniild a 
convenient church, to the public worship of God, nigh the said Fish- 
kill Creek.' The glebe land for the first church at Fishkill, which by 
the way was the first church built on the Romboudt Patent, was given 
by Madam Brett and by Johannis Terboss. For twenty years it was 
the only church in the Patent. It was attended on alternate Sabba,th 
mornings, by people living far in the interior beyond Hopewell and 
Hackensack. For, beside Poughkeepsie, there was no other church, 
at that day on the east side of the Hudson, above the Highlander unless 
in the vicinity of Albany. Whenever, therefore, the preacher lifted 
his voice at Fishkill, it was the only voice, the only open pulpit in all 
that land. Rev. Cornelius Van Schie was the first pastor of the 
churches of Fishkill and Poughkeepsie. He was duly iinstalkd over 
this field of labor on the 4th of October, 1781. He removed to Albany 
in 1788. He was succeeded by the Rev< Benjamin Meinema^ the sec- 
ond pastor of the two churches. * * * Mr. Meinema was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Mr. Van Nist, in November, 1758. But little is known 
of Mr. Van Nist. He only lived to retain his charge three years, and 


died in early manhood in 1761. He was buried in the ground adjoin- 
ing the church." Rev. Reginald Duffield is the present pastor. 

A dominie of the Dutch Church, FishkiU, of the eighteenth century, 
who should not be forgotten was Dr. Rysdyck (or Rysdike) ; he was 
pastor of the church there from 1772 to 1790. BrinckerhoiF says of 

"About this time Dr. Rysdike discontinued his charge over the Poughkeepsle 
congregation, devoting his tinie to Fishkill, Hopewell and New Hackensack. He 
died in 1790, and was buried under the spire of the church at New Hackensack, 
the floor being removed for that purpose. He was considered in his day one of 
the most accomplished preachers and scholars in America. The classics were as 
familiar to him as his own Holland tongue, and he was, also, a thorough Oriental 
Hebrew scholar. Educated in the best universities abroad, the accomplishments 
of the gentleman and the scholar were so blended as to be inseparable. His affa- 
bility and address are to this day spoken of, and his appearance is said to have 
been very • imposing. In person the Doctor was rather stoutly made, and, as was 
the custom of that day, rode through his charge on horseback. He always wore 
a cocked hat and wig, and invariably lifted his hat from his head in passing any- 
one, and gave them a friendly salutation. Upon Sabbath mornings he would ride 
to the church door and dismount, handing his horse to the sexton, who stood in 
readiness waiting his coming." 

From the tablet on the Dutch Church, placed on the occasion of the 
one hundred and sevienty-fifth anniversary, we learn that it was or- 
ganized in 1716 — Building erected in 1731 — Provincial Convention 
met here 1776' — Mihtary Prison during the Revolution — ^Enlarged 
1786— Remodeled 1806-'20-'54-'82. 

The graveyard of the Dutch Church contains many interesting 
tombstones. The inscription on the earHer ones are in old Dutch. 
They mark the graves of the families of Van Voorhis, Brinckerhoff 
and others. Here, too, lies the bodies of the Rapelje, Swartwout, 
Verplanck, DuBoiis and Mesier and other early settlers of the Town- 
ship. The late Elias Van Voorhis, in his family history, has written 
on this graveyard, and later Miss Laura Rosa of Fishkill also pub- 
lished a valuable article on the same subject. Many of the inscrip- 
tions on the early Brinckerhoff gravestones, tending to become ruinous 
were placed on the walls inside the church by the late Abram DuBois, 
a noted physician of New York. Dr. DuBois was a native of Fish- 
kiU *and much interested in its history and development. He was a 
libera] donor in aid of the Rural Cemetery. 


Trinity CHtrncH, Fishkill Village.^ To find the origin of this par- 
ish we must go back to the year 1756, when this State was a province 
under the sovereignty of Great Britain. At that time the Rev. Sam- 
uel Seabury was one of the Missionaries of the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel (a body estabhshed in this country by the Church 
of England). He had settled at Hempstead, Long Island, for more 
than ten years when he rode on horseback up into Dutchess County to 
found the church in this region. He had been a student at Yale, but 
ended by taking his degree at Harvard in 1724, and in August, 1780, 
he was ordained a priest by the Bishop of London. After staying in 
England two years he went by appointment to New London, Connecti- 
cut, his native place, there he remained ten years before taking up his 
charge at St. George's Church, Hempstead. Ow^g to the acrimony 
which existed on Long Island at that time between the various sects, 
in which Dr. Seabury took no part whatever, he decided to leave that 
part of the country and become a missionary. 

Dutchess County in 1756 had a population of 14!,157 people, and 
included within its boundaries all of Putnam and a good part of 
Columbia counties. On Dr. Seabury's arrival he was entertained 
for several days at the house of Judge Terbos, and afterwards by the 
courtesy of the Dutch minister and the deacons he held services in 
their church. As many as three hundred people attended, coming 
from many miles away, several of whom offered to aid Dr. Seabury 
in the purchase of a glebe and the erection of a church. An unfor- 
tunate dispute arose with the churchmen at Poughkeepsie over the 
right to use these subscriptions. It was settled, however, in favor of 
FishkiU, whereupon the building which is now standing was erected. 
The land on wMch the church stands was given in September, 1767, 
and pledges for the erection of a church were not fully completed 
until 1769. 

The tablet placed on Trinity Church on the occasion of the one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of its foundation tells us: Founded 
by Samuel Seabury in communion with the Church of England, 1756 
— Building erected about 1760— Rev. John Beardsley, first rector, 
October 26, 1776. Occupied by New York Provincial Convention 
which removed from White Plains, September 3, 1776.— Used as a 
Hospital by the Army of Washington until disbanded, June 2, 1783. 

1. Extracts from an historical address by Rev. Joaepli Ivle, a former rector. 


At a vestry meeting of Trinity Church, Fishkill, held November 2, 
1796, the following vestrymen were present: Jeremiah Green, Ben- 
jamin Snider, John F. Carman, John Southard, Greenlief Street, 
Francis Peyer, Daniel C. Verplanck. The present rector is the Rev. 
Clinton Durant Drumm. 

The Reformed Dutch Chubgh at Fishkill-on-Hudson, was estab- 
lished in 1813, as an offshoot of the present church at Fishkill Village, 
which the growth of population on the river warranted. Among the 
principal donors of land and money was John Peter DeWint, also the 
Wiltse, Brett, Van Vliet, Verplanck, CromweH, Bogardus, Crosby, 
Brinckerhoff, Purdy and other families. 

The name of the first pastor does not appear on the recordis, but the 
Rev. Cornelius Westbrook was in charge from 1819 to 1823. His 
successors were Rev. William S. Heyer, 1823-''51 ; Rev. J. Howard 
Suydam, 1852-'63; Rev. Joseph Kimball, 18e3-'65; Rev. Martin L. 
Berger, 1865-'70; Rev. Charles W. Fritts, 18Tl-'99; Rev. Edward A. 
MacCuUum, 1899 . 

In 1860 the old church was replaced by the present building, during 
the pastorate of the Rev. J. H. Suydam, who was very active during 
the Civil War in arousing the patriotism of the people of this neigh- 
borhood, and instrumental in organizing relief societies of various 

Within the past year a tablet has been placed in the church in mem- 
ory of Dr. Fritts, testifying to his long, useful and honored services 
both for his church and the community. 

Methodist Episcopal Churches. The following review of the 
Methodist Episcopal Society in Matteawan and Fishkill Landing was 
furnished by the Rev. Arthur Thompson, recently pastor at the for- 
mer place. 

In 1819 a surveyor, afterward editor of the Poughheepsie Eagle, 
found Methodist societies of considerable strength along the eastern 
border of Fishkill, and in the adjoining towns of Kent and Patterson 
in Putnam County. Already a large camp-meeting had been estab- 
lished in the vicinity. 

For several years prior to 1819, meetings were usually held in the 
Tillbtt and Ketchum neighborhood, a short distance from Matteawan, 
on the east side of the creek. An old stone house, formerly occupied 


by the family of John Tillott, was appropriated to that purpose. Ser- 
vices were held occasionally at the house or barn on the farm of Mr. 
Ketchum, now owned by Mr. John R. Maddock. 

In 1819 the usual meeting place was changed to the school house 
west of the creek, and located on the old road about midway between 
Matteawan aiid the Landing near the old Methodist cemetery. 

During the earlier years this field was included in the Dutchess 
Circuit, which required a six weeks' journey of its pastors in order to 
cover the field. In 1819 it was changed to a four weeks' appoint- 
ment. On the opening of the new road or Main street, a site was 
selected for a church edifice. 

On March 29th, 1824, a meeting was held in the school house, and 
a boai^d of trustees was elected for the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Fishkill, consisting of Gerardiiis De Forest, John Tillott, Henry 
McDonald, Jacob Cooper, and William Doughty. 

The building was erected and dedicated in the fall of 1824i. On the 
day of dedication sermons were preached by Rev. Mr. Washburn of 
Poughkeepsie ; Rev. Mr. Cochran, one of the circuit preachers, and 
Rev. William S. Hyer, pastor of the Reformed Church. The con- 
sistory of this society closed their own church for this occasion. 

In the spring of 1825 this appointment was made a station. Ser- 
vices were held in the Main street church until after the division of 
the society in 1860. The last service was held Sunday, February Srd, 
1861. The building was sold to Horatio N. Swift, and used as a 
public hall for many years. It was while occupied by the Roman 
Cathohcs and known as St. John's Church that it burned, February 
12, 1890. 

Previous to the division of the church in 1860, the society came to 
be known as the Matteawan Methodist Church. The Fishkill Land- 
ing portion of the divided society purchased a Presbyterian Church 
which was to be sold at foreclosure, and improved it for their church 
home. The Matteawan people secured a lot where the Newburgh, 
Dutchess & Connecticut station now stands. The corner stone was 
laid October 13, I860, and the building dedicated January 16, 1862. 
This was a brick structure seating four hundred persons in the audi- 
torium, having lecture and class rooms below, and cost $7,000. The 
new Matteawan society began with a rdll of 115 members. In 1869 
the building of the N. D. & C. railroad compelled the abandonment of 


the church building, which was sold to the company. St. Anna's 
Episcopal Church building was then purchased and torn down. 

The comer stone of the present structure was laid August 3, 1869. 
The building was completed at a cost of $37,000 and dedicated May 
7, 1870. Toward the cost of the property $10,000 net proceeds from 
the sale of the former church was apphed. Nearly $10,000 was 
pledged on the day of dedication. A substantial reduction was made 
in the indebtedness during the pastorate of Rev. Thomas Loge (1871- 
'72). There yet remained a mortgage of $12,000, when Rev. J. J. 
Dean began the securing of pledges October 16, 1878. The whole 
amount was finally secured and the mortgage was paid under the 
pastorate of Rev. C. R. North, August 18, 1880. 

The parsonage is located on North street, and is free of aU in- 
debtedness. The church building on Main street is one pf the finest 
specimens of semi-Gothic architecture along the Hudson river. The 
membership numbers about three hundred and seventy. 

The Pkesbyterian Chuech, Matteawan. In August, 1907, this 
church celebrated its "Diamond Jubilee." On this occasion a historic 
address was delivered by the Rev. Paul Stratton, and Mr. Joseph N. 
Badeau wrote a historic sketch, both of which were published in the 
Fishkill Standard soon afterwards. From these sources the following 
information is gathered: 

Seventy-five years ago the Presbyterian Church began when the 
"Presbytery of North River" met in the little schoolroom over the Mat- 
teawan store. The existence of the society goes back much further 
than this for it appears, according to the early records, that "a num- 
ber of the inhabitants of Matteawan and its vicinity met and formed 
a society by the name of the First Presbyterian Society at Mattea- 
wan." On this occasion twenty-four persons signed their names to 
the roll and these became charter members. They continued to meet 
in the upper part of the old Matteawan store and were first preached 
to by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. These quarters soon proving too 
small, "the Presbytery of North River" met on the 27th of August, 
1833, and organized the first Presbyterian Church in Mattewan, and 
thereupon, in response to a petition which was subscribed by a great 
number of people, a building was erected on the same ground on which 
the present building now stands — a building which stood for thirty- 
eight years thereafter. 


About 1870 it became evident that the old building was no longer 
large enough to suit the increased size of the congregation and steps 
were thereupon taken for the erection of another building. Plans were 
prepared by the celebrated architect, Richard M. Hunt, of New York. 
The committee to raise the funds consisted of Miss Violet Gordon, 
Messrs. James M. Taylor, Robert Gordon, William H. Laurens and 
Mrs. Thomas J. Way. The result was that on the 17th day of July, 
1872, the building was completed and dedicated. 

Among those who subscribed hberally to the fund were Gen. Joseph 
Rowland, Robert H. Halgin and WiUard H. Mase. The last pastor 
of the old church was the late Dr. F. R. Masters, who, however, to 
the regret of all was never able to preach in the new church. The first 
minister who officiated there was the Rev. J. L. Sgott. The Rev. Dr. 
Wickham was the first pastor ; Dr. Irenaeus Prime was pastor for one 
year, being followed by the Rev. Sylvester Eaton. Then came Dr. 
Van Zandt, who was followed by the Rev. James Harkness, D.D., and 
later Mr. Davies and Dr. Carver. 

Mr. Theodore Van Vliet was a trustee of the church for thirty-four 

On the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of the church the 
Rev. Thomas Reeves was then pastor, when the occasion was appro- 
priately recognized by services in the church. The Rev. Frank M. 
Carson succeeded Mr. Reeves, remaining for five years. The Rev. 
Plato T. Jones succeeded him, remaining for eleven years, and he in 
turn was succeeded by the Rev. Paul Stratton. 

The Rev. Mr. Carr has recently become pastor of the church- 
Si. Luke's Church, Matteawan. The church of the parish which 
is now known as St. Luke's was built in June, 1870, under the rector- 
ship of the Rev. Henry E. Duncan. The land consisting of twelve 
acres was given by Judge Henry E. Davies, in memory of his son. 
Colonel C. T. Davies, and the ground for the building was broken on 
the 10th of August, 1868. On the 17th of October of the same year 
a corner stone was laid by the Rev. Dr. J. J. Robertson, a former 
rector of the parish, when it was known as St. Anna's, and on the 16th 
of December of the following year the church bell was first rung. 

The architecture of the church and the laying out of the grounds 
were intrusted to the late Henry W. Sargent, to whose good taste and 
judgment the parishioners readily deferred. The late Frederick C. 


Withers, whose first wife was Miss Emily DeWint, was selected as the 
architect. Owing to the great cost of the church a large debt was 
carried for several years; but during the rectorship of Dr. Bartlett 
these incumbrances were discharged so that on the 17th of October, 
1879, the church was consecrated by Bishop Potter. 

On the completion of the church in 1870 the officers were: Rev. 
Henry E. Duncan, Rector; James S. Rumsfey and John B. Seaman, 
Wardens; Cornelius Van Tine, John J. Monell, John VanderBurgh, 
Adrian V. Knevels, Henry Slack, James Wade, Smith T. Van Buren 
and Winthrop Sargent, Vestrymen, During this year a school house 
and rectory also were built on the new grounds. In 1887 the new 
rectory was burned and the rector, Rev. Henry Bedinger, and his 
family barely escaped with their lives. A great part of the parish 
records and other property were lost in this fire. It followed imme- 
diately after the great affliction which the rector was compelled to 
suffer in the death of two of his children within a few days of each 

On the 9th day of June, 1895, the parish appropriately commemo- 
rated the twenty-fifth anniversary of completion of the church. As 
a matter of fact, however, the parish was then nearly sixty-three years 
old, for St. Luke's is but the successor to, or rather the same as, St. 
Anna's parish, for when the vestry of the latter church determined to 
move from the center of the village in Matteawan, owing to the build- 
ing of the Dutchess and Columbia Railroad, it seemed wise to give a 
new name to the parish. When St. Anna's was torn down and St. 
Luke's was built no other change took place in the parish or among 
the communicants. St. Anna's stood on the site of the present Metho- 
(Kst Church. It was built of brick and about sixty-five feet long and 
thirty-six feet wide. It was in the Grecian temple style of archi- 
tecture, with six white coliimns on the front, and faced north. 

The new parish of St. Anna's was one of the daughters of old Trin- 
ity, at Fishkill Village, and the work of establishing this parish was 
begun before 1832 by Miss Hannah Teller and her sister Margaret, 
who afterwards married Robert Van Kleeck, the first rector. These 
good women lived in tlieir ancestral home, the Brett house, and there 
had a Sunday-school, which afterwards assembled over the Matteawan 
st^re. Services were soon held there. Mr. Robert Van Kleeck was 
the lay reader for the new parish and he continued with them until 



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October, 1832. During the succeeding winter Professor Hackley, of 
West Point, took his place. Mr, Van Kleeck was afterwards ordained 
and became the first rector. The present rector is the Rev. George 
Herbert Toop. 

St. Andeew's Church, Fishkill-on-Hudson. "The beginning of 
the movement which resulted in the establishment of this church," says 
Rev. Mr. George A. Green, the present rector, "takes one back to the 
year 1870, when the Rev. Henry E. Duncan, rector of St. Luke's 
Church, Matteawan, held a service over the First National Bank, on 
January 6th. May 15th, 1870, saw the formation of a Sunday-school 
which became incorporated under the name of the 'Teachers' Associ- 
ation of Fishkill Landing.' This organization developed into a self 
supporting parish. The Sunday-school, under the direction of the 
late George A. Seaman, was most successful, the books at times con- 
taining the names of 170 scholars and 16 teachers. The Sunday- 
school removed from the bank building in October of 1875, to what 
became known as the DeWint street chapel. Nineteen years later the 
property on South avenue between Main and Beacon streets, with a 
building thereon, was purchased for $3,500, and the first service held 
December 2, 1894. During the occupancy of both these buildings 
the work (of a 'mission' sort) was conducted under the oversight of 
the rectors of St. Luke's." 

"In 1898 definite efforts were made to organize an independent 
parish, and in the spring of 1899, St. Andrew's Church obtained its 
charter from the State. July 3rd its first vestry was elected. Church 
Wardens, James M. DeGarmo, George H. Williams, M.D. ; Vestry- 
men, John P. Rider, Ralph S. Tompkins, John F. VanTine, Charles 
H. Seaman, Ferris C. Shahan, Andrew Bleakley. Its first rector. 
Rev. Joseph Cameron, entered upon his duties September 21st of the 
same year. Almost immediately steps were taken looking to the erec- 
tion of a church, and May 4th, 1900, the first sod for its foundation 
was turned. January 6th, 1901, the new church was opened for 
divine service. Through the kindness of Mr. John P. Rider, a rec- 
tory became possible and was built in 1903, adjoining the church. 
The whole property represents an outlay of $27,000." 

An historical sketch of the CathoUc churches wiU be found in an- 
other chapter. 



Mention has already been made passim of the various enterprises 
of the town since the days of Madam Brett, who may justly be called 
the founder of them. It is now proposed to give a brief history of 
the other and later industries, banks, etc., that have tended to develop 
the town. 

Matteawan and Fishkill Landing are now supplied by water from 
the mountains, the ponds, dams, pipes and plant generally, having 
been purchased by the village of Matteawan about five or six years 
ago, when the private enterprise failed. This was the Fishkill and 
Matteawan Water Company, which about fifteen years ago began 
operations in the vaUey south of the North Beacon, by building reser- 
voirs on the stream which passes into the river over the beautiful cas- 
cade and glen known as Melzingah. A few years afterwards, the 
company acquired land on the mountains on the north slope of the 
North Beacon and there impounded a considerable body of water on 
the stream which passes through Matteawan under the name of Dry 
Brook. When the village of Matteawan took over both these prop- 
erties, an arrangement was made with the village of Fishkill Landing 
to take part of the water and purvey it to the inhabitants at cost. 
On the whole the scheme has worked well, and when the contemplated 
improvements are made to the entire plant there wiU be a satisfactory 
solution of the water question, and a most important one it has be- 
come, owing to the system of sewers which the two villages have re- 
cently installed. Events of this kind are tending to bring them to- 
gether, and many years will not elapse before they are consolidated 
into one municipality. 

The gas and electric light works are operated by private capital. 
Principally through the enterprise and activity of the Hon. John T. 
Smith an electric railroad was opened about ten years ago, connecting 
the ferry at Fishkill-on-the-Hudson with Matteawan and Fishkill Vil- 
lage. The power is taken from the creek, supplemented by steam. 
The electric light plant, which is also largely due to Mr. Smith, has 
since been consolidated with the electric railway and the combined 
companies furnish power to several of the industries of the neighbor- 

The historic beacons of the Fishkill mountains have recently been 
made easily accessible by the building of an inclined railway, such as 


has been in successful operation on the Catskill mountains for several 
years past. The construction of commodious buildings for a summer 
pleasure resort has brought large numbers of tourists to the moun- 
tains and also enabled them to be readily enjoyed by the inhabitants 
of the town, and the increase in the number of tourists has warranted 
the opening of a firstclass hotel within the past year. For the incep- 
tion and successful operation of this enterprise the town is indebted 
to Mr. Weldon F. Weston, his brother, the late W. H. Weston of 
Newburgh, and to Mr. Eugene S. Whitney and some others from New 

The following historical review of the industries, banks and trans- 
portation is from the pen of Mr. Theodore Brinck&rhoff, president of 
the Matteawan National Bank. 

The first mill was erected by Madam Brett near the mouth of the 
Fishkill Creek. This mill served not only all the inhabitants of the 
Rombout Patent, but also a portion of Orange County, grain being 
brought across the river in boats to be ground at that mill. 

The next mill was erected on the BrinckerhofF lands a few miles east 
of Fishkill Village. Two brothers of that name came from Long 
Island in 1718, and purchased two thousand acres of land of Madam 
Brett. During the Revolutionary W^r this mill was owned and oper- 
ated by Derick BrinckerhofF, who was very prominent in organizing 
and supplying the Continental troops with provisions and forage. 
Washington, in passing to and from the department of the east, made 
his house his stopping place, and LaFayette was confined to his hos- 
pitable mansion by illness for six weeks. The room which he occupied 
was kept intact when the rest of the house was torn down to make 
room for a more commodious mansion. This incident has been com- 
memorated by the erection of a monument on the lawn by Lafayette 
Post, G. A. R., of New York, who dedicated it with appropriate cere- 
monies on Decoration Day, 1898. 

It is said that Colonel Derick became somewhat inquisitive in regard 
to the movements of the troops, when Washington asked him "if he 
could keep a secret." On being assured that he could, Washington 
repKed that he also could. This mill was burned during the war and 
tradition relates it was rebuilt by the soldiers stationed near Fishkill, 


for the purpose of supplying flour for the troops. This mill is stiD 
in esistence, and is owned and occupied by Alexander Dudley. 

Colonel Derick Brinckerhoff, like all others of the name in America, 
was a descendant of Joris Brinckerhoff and Susannah, his wife, who 
came from Flushing, Holland, and settled at Newton, L. I., in 1638. 
Five hundred acres of this purchase of the Brinckerhoffs still remain 
in the family, being owned and occupied by Frank Brinckerhoff'. 
Another of the old Brinckerhoff houses was the homestead of Colonel 
John Brinckerhoff, now owned and occupied by Myers Brownell. Its 
date of erection as indicated by large iron letters inserted in a stone 
inj3i6 wall, was 1738. 

r^ The ;iext mill was the Schenck mill, erected by Abraham H. Schesack 
in the year 1800.) This mill did a large business grinding grain, and 
much of its product in early days was shipped to New York. It is 
still, in existence, near the railroad station. 

Later, Joseph Byrnes and Robert Newlin erected a mill on the navi- 
gable waters of the Fishkill Creek. They dug a canal from the old 
Madam Brett dam, nearly a quarter of a mile, to convey water to their 
wheel. This mill burned in the late thirties. Messrs. Byrnes and 
Newlin dissolved partnership and each built a brick structure, Mr. 
Newlin continuing in the milling business and Mr. Byrnes' miU being 
used for the manufacture of white lead. 

The presidential campaign of 1840 was carried on with great zeal 
and earnestness, the principal dividing hne being the tariff, the Whigs 
advocating a. high protective tariff and the Democrats one for revenue 
only. The Whigs had nominated General William Henry Harrison 
for President, mainly on account of his popularity as an Indian 
fighter. He had subdued Tecumseh, the ablest Indian of his genera- 
tion, at the battle of Tippecanoe, and for that reason the admirers of 
Harrison had given him the name of that battle. The country rang 
with the plaudits of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," and from the fact 
that General Harrison was bom or supposed to have been born in a 
log cabin, that was made the emblem of the party. The Whigs of 
Fishkill had erected their log cabin and had met to dedicate it. Speak- 
ers and music (and it was said hard cider too) were provided in 
abundance, but a little incident occurred that placed a damper on 
thfir enthusiasm. Some one, supposed to be of the opposite political 
party, had procured the bladder of a skunk and placed it in the cabin, 


and whea it was stepped on, aAyane acquainted with the pungency, 
aril perTadingism and pePsisteiicy of that perfume caU imagine the deep 
disgust and indignation of the partisans in and aroUnd that cabin. 

The Whigs won that election, and as they had been for twelve long 
years outside the breastworks, they hastened to carry out their prin- 

A high tariff was soon enacted and then came a wild tush to get 
into manufacturing, largely the spinning and weaving of cotton 
goodtS. New mills were erected wherever water power could be pTo- 
cured, as steam had not as yet been used to any extent oU lafld as a 
source of power. Flouring mills were dismantled and cotton machin- 
ery installed. Both the Newlin and Byrnes mills underwent this ti^ari'S- 
formation, George Pine and associates in the one, and John BroWn 
and Epenetus Crosby in the other. They had hardly got in opera- 
tion when the Democrats came into power in 1844 and with them the 
reduction of the rates of duty. This fact, together with the over- 
production, drove many of these new ventures to the wall and among 
them the Pine and Brown mills. They were again stripped of their 
machinery and laid idle for a number of years, when Mr. Sleight 
fitted them up as fliouring mills. He brought his Wheat frtoi the West 
in canal boats and elevated it directly into the mills, as the raising 
of wheat had been largely discontinued in the Hudson Valley, having 
followed the Star of Empire, and Rochester was the largest producer 
of flour in the United States, the magnificent water poWer of the 
Genesee River being used for this purpose. Mr. Sleight's enterprise 
did not prove a success and he was succeeded by Mr. Coleman. Dur- 
ing his occupancy, which was not a long one, the mills burned, Sep- 
tember 9th, 1862, and have never been rebuilt. 

During the cotton craze of 1841 and '42 Robert G. Rankin and Mr. 
Freeland, his brother-in-law, erected a dam and factory at Wiccopee, 
about a quarter of a mile south of the Matteawan Works. During 
the' collapse of the cotton spinning business this factory was turned 
over to Charles M. Wolcott. He sold it in 1858 to the New York 
Rubber Company. This coftcern was organized in 1852 for the pur- 
pose of making rubber belting and toys, under the Goodyear patents, 
and removed to this point from Staten Island. It has been excellently 
managed, has paid good dividends to its stockholders, and been very 
liberal to its employees. Mr. John P. Rider is president of the com- 


The Glenham mill was organized by Peter H. Schenck, John Jacob 
Astor, Philip Hone, Dr. Bartow White and others in the year 1822. 

They built a factory for the manufacture of woolen goods. Mr. 
Schenck was its first president and was succeeded by his son-in-law, 
Russell Dart, Sr., and he in turn was succeeded by his son, Russell 
Dart, Jr. The company operated their factory with varied success 
until the breaking out of the Civil War, when the demand for indigo 
blue goods to clothe the army became so great that the company were 
compelled to enlarge their mill to many times its former capacity. In 
addition many tenements were built during the inflated period. Be- 
tween 1862-18T3 or soon after the latter date, the company having 
expended a large share of their profits in brick and mortar and costly 
machinery, was unable to stand the shock of the financial panic and 
the general drop of prices in rough material and finished goods and 
was compelled to make an assignment September 29th, 1873, with 
liabihties of $700,000, assets $300,000 in stock and material. B. 
Piatt Carpenter, a lawyer of Poughkeepsie, was the asignee, but sub- 
sequently a commissioner in bankruptcy was appointed, and under his 
direction the property was sold to A. T. Stewart, the noted New York 
dry goods man, for $190,000 — only a portion of its cost. This sale 
included not only the original Glenham factory, about one hundred 
tenements and a farm on the east side of the creek, but also the site 
of the former Rocky Glen Cotton Mills which had been acquired from 
Gamer & Co. by the Glenham Company, and also several smaller fac- 
tories at GroveviUe. Mr. Stewart kept the mills in operation and also 
built at GroveviUe in 1876 large and costly factories for the manu- 
facture of carpets. 

These buildings were equipped with the best and most modem ma- 
chinery that money could buy. They had hardly got in successful 
operation when by the death of Mr. Stewart the property by some 
means came into the possession of Judge Hilton & Sons. Soon after the 
Hilton blight fell on, all this property, the original factory at Glen- 
ham was allowed to fall into ruins, the machinery sold for junk, and 
where was once heard the whirl of the looms and the voices of hun- 
dreds of operatives earning their daily bread, is now heard nothing 
but the crash of falling ruins and the roar of the waters of the creek 
as ihey pass on unused and unutilized. 

The GroveviUe mills, owing to their newness and strength, have sO' 



far escaped a similar fate. They ceased operations in the fall of 1893 
and have never resumed; the machinery for the most part has been 
sold for junk. How long, O men, how long is this Dog in the Manger 
policy to be continued? How long are these natural resources of the 
town to be wasted and the splendid property which A. T. Stewart 
built up allowed to go to decay and ruin? 

The Matteawan Company, organized in 1812 by Peter H. Schenck, 
J. J. Astor, Philip Hone and others, erected the stone cotton mill in 
1814, as attested by the inscription in the wall. The company was 
reorganized in 1826, and shortly thereafter they built the machine 
shop and foundry on the east side of the creek, devoted largely to the 
production of cotton machinery. In 1848 and '49 they built two 
locomotives for the Hudson River Railroad Company. The company 
made an assignment to Robert G. Rankin and Robert Carver. The 
property and assets were sold in the same year by John A. C. Gray, 
the receiver, to the Matteawan Manufacturing and Machine Co., of 
which Samuel B. Schenck was president and manager. The property 
on the east side of the creek was sold under a mortgage held by 
Charles M. Wolcott, and purchased by him. This sale was set aside 
by the court in justice to the creditors. At a second sale Mr. Wol- 
cott purchased the stone cotton mill and the property known as the 
Clay mill farther up the creek, together with several outbuildings. 
Mr. Wolcott disposed of the property to John Falconer, who operated 
it under the name of the Seamless Clothing Manufacturing Co., in 
which he was associated with Mr. William Carroll. The company 
failed in 1876, and the concern subsequently resumed business under 
the name of William Carroll & Co. Mr. Carroll was obliged to sus- 
pend payment in 1883, but a few years later liquidated all claims at 
one hundred cents on the dollar, and has since continued successfully 
in the manufacture of wool and straw hats. 

The Rothery File Works was established in 1835 by John Rothery, 
who came from Yorkshire, England. Mr. Rothery was the first to 
manufacture new files in America. After the business had outgrown 
several shops, Mr. Rothery, in company with his sons John and Wil- 
liam, purchased property in Tioronda avenue, and erected a commo- 
dious plant. In 1873 they erected another large building, which was 
destroyed by fire October 28, 1886. It was rebuilt and leased by the 
Rotherys to Messrs. Rockwell & Son for a silk factory. The Roth- 


erys had no faith in machine-made files, and refused tp thus equip 
their plant. They were eventug,Ily compelled to give up the business, 
as they could not compete in price with the machine-made file. 

The Fishkill Landing Machine Co. was incorporated February 17, 
1853, to engage in the manufacture of stationary and marine engines, 
and a general machine business. The original capital was $25,000. 
The company was composed of some seventeen individuals, mostly resi- 
dents of Matteawan, who had been employed by the Matteawan Co. as 
irpn workers. 

The Matteawan Manufacturing Co. was organized in 1864!, with a 
capital of $150,000, for the manufacture of fine wool hats. This in- 
dustry is one of the largest of its kind in the State, and is fully 
described in Part II of this work, together with various other indusT 
tries of the town, including the New York Rubber Co., the Green 
Fuel Economizer Co., the Fishkill Landing Machine Co., the Dutchess 
Hat Works, the Dutchess Tool Works, and the A. V. Rockwell Silk 

The Fishkill and Matteawan Water Works was organized in 1885, 
the late Wm. H. Van Vliet being its promoter, and Taintor & Holt, 
bankers of New York City, its financial agents. They purchased 
twenty acres of land of Catherine and Theodore Brinckerhofi^, and 
built a dam across the Melzingah stream nearly four hundred feet 
above tidewater, laid mains to the villages and two years later con- 
structed another dam farther up the stream. These two reservoirs 
not being sufficient to meet the growing necessities of the villages, 
another one was constructed on the east side of Mt. Beacon with an 
independent outlet. Qn the morning of the 14th day of July, 1897, 
about 2 A. M., after several days of rain, a cloudburst struck the upper 
dam at Melzingah and tore a great hole in it. The imprisoned 
waters rushed down the gorge, breaking through the lower dam and 
carrying everything before it — rocks weighing ten tons that had laid 
iq the ravine since the glacial period were hurled like pebbles before 
the rush of waters to a distance of five hundred feet. Bridges were 
carried away, and at TimoneyviUe tenements were wrecked and seven 
persons drowned. This disaster crippled the company, and after re- 
pairing the lower dam they pfi'ered it for sale, and it was purchased 
fey ,4a syndicate in the name of Eugene Whitney, and was subsequently 
turned over to the villages. 



In the late thirties of the nineteenth century John Gillies and Henry 
Churchill of Breakneck, Isaac Brinckerhoff of what is now Dutchess 
Junction, and John Gowdy on the Wiltse property at Fishkill Land- 
ing, established brick yards. These men were the pioneers in a busi- 
ness which has since grown to great proportions and has been a source 
of employment for many and of great profit to the town. They used 
the circular pit and wheel for mixing the materials and a hand press 
for moulding the brick. Previous to that time the clay and sand 
were mixed by driving oxen through it and moulding it by hand—a 
slow and laborious process. In the early forties Mr. Adams invented 
a machine, that bore his name, which was used in connection with the 
circular pit and wheel for many years, and which mixed and moulded 
the brick in one operation. On the advent of the Hudson River Rail- 
road in 1847 the Gillies, Churchill and Brinckerhoff yards were dis- 
continued, the railroad running through them. Mr. Gowdy continued 
to operate his yard and on his retirement was succeeded by Mr. 
Joseph Lomas, who, in connection with Stephen Saunters, rented and 
afterwards purchased the property from a concern who had acquired 
it for the purpose of installing a Chambers machine. This machine 
mixed the materials and ran it through a die in a continuous stream 
and the brick was cut off the right length by a knife on a large wheel. 
During the hard times succeeding the panic of 1873 Mr. Lomas be- 
came financially involved and the property was acquired by Mr. Wel- 
ler of Newburgh, who sold it to the New York & New England Rail- 
road Company and the plant was discontinued. In 1852 Thomas 
Aldridge, a shrewd and successful manufacturer, purchased of John 
Van Vliet and Isaac Brinckerhoff forty-six acres of clay property and 
established a small yard thereon. This has been gradually enlarged 
and now has a daily capacity of four hundred and eighty thousand 
brick. The property is all operated under leaseholds under control 
of the Aldridge Brothers Company. 

About 18S5 Joshua Jones, of the noted insurance family of that 
name, purchased of Peter C. DuBois forty acres of what was known 
as Plum Point. Mr. Jones estabhshed a yard and at his death it was 


acquired by Daniel R. Weed and was afterwards purchased by George 
H. Brown for a terminal for the Dutchess & Columbia Railroad. That 
part of the property not used by the railroad was rented and after- 
wards purchased by W. D. Budd, and at his death the property de- 
scended to his two daughters, who have successfully operated and 
enlarged it. It has a daily capacity of about one hundred and ten 
thousand brick. The Misses Budd were the first to introduce elec- 
tricity as a mode of conveying power from the engine to the machines. 

About 1856 Daniel Gurnee and relatives purchased of Isaac Brinck- 
erhoff thirty-six acres of clay adjoining the Aldridge property and 
built a yard. This plant has been run by different tenants with varied 
success and is now operated by William K. Hammond, with a daily 
capacity of ninety-six thousand. This was one of the properties 
purchased by the American Brick Company and on the failure of 
that scheme reverted to its original owners to their large profit. 

About 1870 George Wade and the Van Amburgh family built a 
yard on their premises adjoining the Gurnee yard, and after operat- 
ing a year or two, sold it to a syndicate of New Yorkers who had a 
contract for furnishing brick for the Fourth Avenue Tunnel. In 
consequence of the depreciation in the price of brick and by mis- 
management the company failed and it was acquired by Samuel R. 
Piatt, of the Buckeye Mowing Machine Company of Poughkeepsie, which 
had large claims on the company. At his death the property was 
purchased by Francis Timoney, whose heirs stiU own it. The daily 
capacity is about two hundred and twenty thousand. 

In the late fifties William H. Van Vliet started a small brick plant 
in connection with his saw miU on the tide water of the Fishldll Creek. 
Mr. Van Vliet was one, if not the very first, to attempt drying brick 
by artificial heat. He used hot air. It was not a success, and owing 
to the distance from the main channel of the Hudson River and the 
absence of harbor tugs, the yard was discontinued. Mr. Van Vliet 
was the first to use wheel trucks for conveying brick from the machines 
to the drying yard. By this means one man carried from thirty to 
forty brick, while by the old way one boy or man carried only five. 

In the late fifties Benjamin Gardner built a yard on the Rumsey 
property at Fishkill Landing. This yard was run by different ten- 
ante until the New York & New England Railroad was built in front 
of it, when it was discontinued. 







In the early eighties Alexander McLane built for Mr. Homer Rams- 
dell a yard on the John Wiltse property near Denning's Point. This 
property, together with a part of Denning's Point, the Newlin Mills 
and the Newlin homestead, had been acquired by Mr. Ramsdell by 
virtue of a mortgage which the Boston, Hartford & Erie Railroad 
Company had given him to secure the purchase price of his ferry and 
some Newburgh property. On the failure of the company, Mr. Rams- 
dell came into possession of the whole. This yard has been enlarged 
at different times and now has a capacity of about two hundred and 
fifty thousand per day. 

In the late nineties Messrs. Hammond & Freeman established a yard 
next south of the Timoney plant, with a daily capacity of about ninety 
thousand brick. « 

In the late fifties Mr. Gilbert CoUins built a yard on his property 
near Chelsea, then known as Low Point. At his death it was pur- 
chased by Thomas Aldridge, who afterwards sold the property to 
James V. Mead, who operated it until the clay at a workable distance 
from the surface was exhausted, when the yard was abandoned. 

In the eighties Charles Griggs built a yard on the Hunt property 
at Chelsea. It has since been run by different tenants. It has a 
capacity of about seventy thousand. 

The Brockway Brick Company, about half way between Chelsea 
and Fishkill Landing, occupies the site of the seventy-acre property 
formerly the country seat of the late William Y. Mortimer, from 
whom Edwin Brockway bought it in 1886. By extensive filling in 
along the front the yard has become the largest in output on the 
east bank of Newburgh Bay. 

The death of William S. Verplanck in 1885 brought several addi- 
tional yards into existence which have been operated under leases and 
are adjacent to the Brockway Brick Company. Among the tenants 
were O'Brien & Vaughey, William Lahey, Clayton C. Bourne, Thomas 
Dinan, WiUiam H. Aldridge and John Paye. Part of these clay prop- 
erties were incorporated under the name of the Verplanck Brick Com- 
pany. All together they have a daily capacity of over 400,000 bricks. 


The First National Bank of Fishkill Landing was organized August 
10, 1863, with a capital of $50,000, which was increased in 1864 to 


$100,000, and in 1872 to $150,000. July 1, 1876, the capital was 
reduced to $100,000, at which figure it has since remained. This 
hank was among the very earliest to organize under the National Bank 
Act, as evidenced by its charter number, 35. Captain Walter Brett 
was its first president, and Conrad N. Jordan its first cashier. Janu- 
ary 1, 1870, Mr. Brett was succeeded by James Mackin, who con- 
tinued at the head of this institution until 1886, when the Hon. John 
T. Smith was chosen president and has held that office to the present 
time. Mr. Thomas Aldridge, for many years paying teller, has re^ 
cently become cashier, through the death of Mr. Milton E. Curtiss, 
wlio had been cashier for upwards of thirty-five years. 

The Mechanics' Savings Bank of Fishkill Landing, of which the 
Hon. John T. Smith has been president since 1883, was chartered 
March 5, 1866. Joseph Howland was elected its first president, and 
was succeeded in 1868 by WiUiam S. Verplanck. Silas G. Smith 
accepted the presidency in 1873, holding the office until his death in 

The Matteawan Savings Bank was chartered March 21, 1871, with 
twenty-one trustees. It opened for business in April of that year in 
the office of the National Felt Works. David Davis was its first 
president and was succeeded by Willard H. Mase. For the past 
fifteen years the Hon. Samuel K. Phillips has been at the head of 
this institution. 

The Matteawan National Bank was organized in 1893, with eapi-' 
tal of $100,000. It opened its doors for business on the 23d of 
May of that year. Mr. Theodore BrinckerholF was chosen president, 
and Mr. David Graham cashier, both of whom still hold these positions. 

The Bank of Fishkill was incorporated June 1, 1850, with a capi- 
tal of $120,000. Samuel A. Hayt was its principal promoter, and 
for several years its president. April 1, 1863, it was converted to 
a national bank and the capital was increased to $200,000. In 1877 
the bank was obliged to close its doors on account of extravagant 
loans made to unscrupulous business adventurers. The failure in- 
volved the Itoss of the capital, $200,000, and an assessment of seventy 
per cent on each share. 

Fishkill Institute for Savings was incorporated February 25, 1857. 
The "first officers were: Alexander Hasbrouck, president; James E. 
Van Steenbergh, treasurer; Samuel H. Mead, secretary. Mr. Has- 


brouck removed to Poughkeepsie in 1861, in which year he resigned 
from the office of president, and was succeeded by T. V. W. Brincker- 
hoff. In 1869 James E. Dean was elected president, aild held the 
office twenty-two years, when he resigned and was chosen treasurer, 
resigning the latter office in 1904. During the period of litigation 
with the receiver of the National Bank of Fishkill the business of the 
Savings Institute suffered considerably from loss of confidence, but 
passed through the crisis triumphantly, and now stands on a firm foun- 
dation. Its present officers are: Franklin R. Benjamin, president, 
and Charles R. Montfort, treasurer. 


Martin Wiltse & Son succeeded the Frankfort Association at the 
lower Fishkill lan<&g. They ran a line of sloops to New York, carry- 
ing freight and passengers. Sometimes these vessels would make the 
trip in less than twenty-four hours ; at other times with high adverse 
winds they might be nearly a week on the passage. The passengers 
furnished their own bedding and provisions. One of these vessels, 
the "Hope," Captain George Wiltse, being struck with a sudden 
squall at the mouth of the Highlands, capsized, a-nd some of the pas- 
sengers were drowned. This accident created a profound sensation 
in that rural community, who were not yet satiated by the daily press 
with steamboat, railroad and automobile accidents throughout the 
civilized world. 

The Wiltses, in addition to the New York route, conducted a ferry 
to Newburgh by means of a row boat and a piragua, a two-masted 
vessel without a jib. Quam, a negro slave, was the ferry man. The 
darkey loved his New England rum and was deathly afraid of being 
kidnapped and sent south, so when he ventured to the village after 
nightfall in pursuit of his favorite tipple, the practical jokers of that 
time were sure to bring up the doings of the kidnappers, and, to im- 
press it on his mind, would pursue him in a lonely piece of road be- 
tween the village and the landing. The tracks that darkey would 
make made the sprinters of that day turn green with envy. 

A few years later, after the Matteawan factory was started, Mar- 
tin Wiltse, the son of the first Martin, started a freighting establish^ 
ment at the Upper Landing, and being a brother-in-law of Peter H. 
Schenck, the principal man in the Matteawan enterprise, he received 


all their freight, which had become of considerable importance. Both 
of these concerns were in operation until John Peter DeWindt had 
completed the long wharf to the main channel of the Hudson, in 
1816. Peter Brett, Epenetus Crosby and John MacKinnon placed 
the steamboat "Norfolk" on the New York route. This boat was 
very staunch and very slow, and it was a common joke among the 
boatmen that with a head wind and tide the Norfolk would race for 
hours with Pollipel's Island. 

Messrs. Brett & Crosby were succeeded by James Rankin, W. H. 
Van Wagenen and John McKinnon. They made improvements on 
the Norfolk by placing staterooms on the upper deck, as previously 
most of the sleeping accommodations were below deck the same as on 
the sloops. After a year or two Mr. Rankin assumed the whole busi- 
ness and carried it on for a time alone, when the troubles in the 
Matteawan factory and the competition of the railroad and the con- 
sequent loss of freight compelled him to suspend. The Norfolk was 
sold and went to that graveyard of steamboats, Rondout Creek. He 
was succeeded by Walter Brett and Joseph Cromwell, under the name 
of Brett & Cromwell. They ran the barge "Independence," and Mr. 
Cromwell having died, Captain Brett associated with him Mr. 
Matthews. They purchased the steamboat "Ansonia," renamed her 
the William Kent, and soon after, the war having broken out, re- 
ceived a very lucrative charter and afterwards sold her to the govern- 
ment at a greatly increased price. This boat, under another name, 
is still running to an up-river port. 

Mr. Matthews having retired, Captain Brett associated with him 
Captain C. W. Brundage and John Place, under the firm name of 
Walter Brett & Co. They purchased the steamboat "Mary Benton" 
from the government, the war having closed, renamed her the "Walter 
Brett," enlarged her and placed her on the New York route. This 
venture was not a success and the boat was sold. Captain Brett hav- 
ing retired, Messrs. Brundage and Place carried on the business by 
means of a transfer barge by which their freight was carried to New- 
burgh and placed on the Ramsdell line of barges and steamers. This 
arrangement continued for several years, when Mr. Place retired and 
Captain Brundage carried on the business alone. Mr. Ramsdell in the 
mealitime had purchased the Long Dock, and on the death of Captain 
Brundage his concern assumed the whole control. On the completion 


of the Long Wharf, Messrs. Carpenter, Lawrence and DeWindt built a 
horse boat for the Newburgh ferry from that point. This boat was 
sixty-two feet long and forty-two feet wide, probably a catamaran, as 
that was the usual style of ferry boat of the period, that is, two hulls 
joined together at their decks with a wheel between the hulls. This 
boat was named the Moses Rogers, in honor of the Captain who took 
the first steamship — the Savannah — across the Atlantic. The ferry- 
boat was propelled by eight horses on "sweeps" and was said to have 
been capable of carrying ten loaded teams and made the distance of 
one mile in ten or twelve minutes. 

It was soon after the advent of the horse boat in 1828, that 
Thomas Powell, a successful and energetic steamboat man of New- 
burgh, bought up all the ferry rights of the Wiltsies and DeWindts 
and placed a steam ferry boat on the route. The first boat of which 
the writer has any knowledge was named the Goldhunter. She ran 
many years and the business becoming so great on account of the 
Newburgh ferry and the Cochecton Turnpike being the favorite route 
to the southern tier of counties of New York and Northern Pennsyl- 
vania, the Erie Railroad and Delaware & Hudson Canal not yet being 
constructed, Mr. Powell was compelled to get a larger boat to accom- 
modate the traffic. The Williamsburgh was placed on the route, and 
after her the Union, which was burned, and the Fishkill-on-Hudson 
and City of Newburgh. This ferry has always been the most impor- 
tant one between New York and Albany and has been a mint of money 
to its owners, the Ramsdell family, Mr. Ramsdell, Sr., being a son-in- 
law of its original proprietor, Thomas Powell. 

During the early days vast droves of cattle and sheep were driven 
down the Cochecton Turnpike and across this ferry to be fattened 
on the rich pastures of Dutchess and Westchester Counties, and the 
valleys of the Housatonic and Connecticut rivers. 

In the fall of 1849 the Hudson River Railroad was completed. It 
was considered by most of the inhabitants of the Hudson River towns 
a wild and chimerical project, and prognostications of its fibtiancial 
failure were abundant. It was thought to be the height of madness to 
lay rails along the shore of the magnificent Hudson, the only river 
which penetrated the Appalachian chain of mountains on the whole 
Atlantic Coast with tide water from the sea. 

Previous to the completion of the railroad an efi'ort was made to 


keep na^'igation open during the winter months. The steamer Utiea 
was furnished with a false bow, which enabled her to fun upon and 
erush the ice with her weight. This was partially successful, and 
a year or two later the Highlander of Newburgh and Norwich of 
Rondout were fitted out in a similar manner. They were successful 
in keeping the river open as far as Newburgh, where they connected 
with stages on both sides of the river. By this arrangement a pas- 
senger could leave New York in the morning and be in Albally the 
following morning. The Norwich at this time gained a reputation as 
an ice breaker, which she has ever since retained. 

The Dutchess & Columbia Railroad, opened for traffic between Pine 
Plains and Dutchess Junction in 1869, was operated for a time by the 
Boston, Hartford & Erie Railroad. On the failure of that company, the 
Dutchess & Columbia Company used its own rolling stock and operated 
the road themselves. It placed a ferry boat on the route to Newburgh 
in 1871, and also car floats to the same place. The Dutchess & Colum- 
bia was reorganized in 1877 as the Newburgh, Dutchess & Connecticut 
Railroad. It was sold to the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road July 1, 1905, for one million dollars. 

The New York & New England Railroad, the successor of Boston, 
Hartford & Erie, opened from Waterbury, Conn., to Hopewell Junc- 
tion December 12, 1881, leased trackage from the Newburgh, Dutchess 
& Connecticut to Wiccopee and built a spur from that point to Fish- 
kill Landing. It established a car ferry from that point to New- 
burgh, and carried large quantities of freight from the Erie, Ontario 
& Western and West Shore Railroads. Later it was absorbed by the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the car ferry was discon- 


The New York Packet, the initial number of which was issued at 
Fishkill Village, October 1, 1776, was the first newspaper pubhshed 
in Dutchess County. Samuel Louden, its editor, came out boldly as 
an uncompromising patriot. He fled from New York with his press 
and material when that city came into the possession of the British. 
While in Fishkill he printed the journals of the Legislature, and also 
the erders for the army while it lay at Newburgh, In 1777 he was 
instructed to print three thousand copies of the State Constitution. 
Shortly after the close of the war he returned to New York. 



The first distinctly local newsjmper was the Free Ftess, established 
in 1841 at Fishkill Village by Fred W, Ritter. A year later it was 
removed to Poughkeepsie. The next paper published at the village 
was the Fishkill Journal, started in 1863 by H. A. Guild, and dis- 
CQutiniied in 1855. It was followed in 1857 by the Dutchess Covmty 
Timea, of which J. Carpenter Milfe was editoir. Alfred W. Lomas 
soon succeeded Mr, MiUs, and changed the name of the paper to the 
FishhUl Journal. In 1860 it passed into the hands of Caleb M. Hotal- 
ing, and in 1862 into thoise of Charles S. Wilber, who s«)ld it that 
year to James E. Dean and Milton A. Fowler. In August, 1865, 
George W. Owen became its publisher, and continued the paper in the 
village until 1882, when he removed the plant to Matteawan. In 
November of the same year the Fishkill Weekly Times was established 
by the Fishkill Printing Association, which was subsequently absorbed 
by James E. Dean. His son, Herman Dean, has edited the paper 
since 1888. It is a hve, four-page, eight-column sheet, independent 
in politics. 

The Fishkill Standard. This paper was started at Fishkill Land- 
ing about the time the Free Press was discontinued at Fishkill Village. 
It is the oldest paper in the town, and although it has frequently 
changed ownership, its title remains the same. The first number was 
issued August 2, 1842, by William R. Addington, who published it 
imtil 1860. A Vanderwerker & Co. and Reed & Vanderwerker con- 
ducted it until 1862, when it passed into the hands of John W. 
Spaight, who continued it until 1907. It is now published by his son, 
Charles E. Spaight. 

The Matteawan Evening Journal is a live, democratic paper, edited 
by Morgan H. Hoyt. There have been frequent changes in the press 
of Matteawan since the time of the Daily Herald, which was started in 
1869 by Charles G. Coutant. It was soon changed to a weekly, and 
in 1872 was succeeded by the Matteawan Enterprise, published by 
James H. Woolhiser. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1875. The 
Matteawan Observer was started in the fall of 1876 by Peter H. Vos- 
burgh, who sold it in '77 to George W. Owen. Mr. Owen conducted 
the plant as a job printing office in connection with the Journal, which 
he published at Fishkill Village. He combined the two establishments 
at Matteawan in 1882, and in 1885 started the Daily Journal. 

The Fishkill Daily Herald was established at Fishkill Landing in 



1892, by Adams & Still. In less than a year it was sold to Thomas 
Pendell, who continued the paper until July 1, 1897. It was then 
bought by George F. Donoghue, the present editor. 

Records of the meetings of precinct and town boards were de- 
stroyed by fire in 1876. A list of the Supervisors of the South Ward 
and of Rombout Precinct from 1720 to 1787 will be found in Chapter 
VI. The following is the succession of town Supervisors from 1848: 

1848— '49 

Alexander Hasbrook 


Lyman Robinson 

1850— 'S3 

Henry Mesier 


Charles W. Tompkins 


John Jaycox 

1878— '79 

Sylvester H. Mase 


John R. Phillips 


John F. Gerow 


James Markin 


Thomas S. Judson 


John R. Phillips 

1883— '85 

John T. Smith 


John Rothery 

1886— '87 

John P. Rider 

1865— '66 

Augustus Hughson 


William H. Wood 

186T— '68 

James E. Shurter 


Samuel H. Sanford 


James Mapkin 


Samuel B. Rogers 

1870— '71 

Edward M. Goring 


Frank G. Rikert 

1873— '73 

Lyman Robinson 

1893— '01 

James E. Mtmger 


Henry H. Hustis 

1903— '09 

B. Frank Greene 




By Rev. Amos T. Ashton, D.D. 

THE Town of Hyde Park occupies a central position upon the 
west border of the county. It is bounded on the north by 
town of Rhinebeck; east, by Clinton and Pleasant Valley; 
south, by the town of Poughkeepsie, and west by^the Hudson river. 
It has an area of 22,295 acres, principally rolling and hilly upland, 
the highest point being Lloyd Hill in the northeast part of the town, 
which has an elevation of 608 feet above tide. 

Crum Elbow and Fallkill creeks flow through the town in a south- 
westerly direction. The former reaches the Hudson near the village 
of Hyde Park, where it makes a sudden beiid between rocky bluffs 
and in a narrow channel. On this account the Dutch called the stream 
Krom Elebogue, — ^crooked elbow. 

The town was formed from the western section of Clinton, by an 
act passed January 26, 1821, which after defining the boundaries, 
states that it "shall be known and distinguished as a separate town 
by the name of Hyde Park, arid that the fitst town meeting * * * 
shall be held at the house of Philip Bogardus on the first Tuesday of 
April next." 

Title to a portion of the soil dates back to a gra:nt made "by cer- 
tain letters patent bearing dsite of April 18th, 1705, to Jacob Re- 
quier, Peter Faueonier, Benjamin Ask, Bame Cousens and John Per- 
sons." Peter Faueonier who was one of the Little Nine Partner 
patentees, became sole Owner of this grant. The names of the others 
were doubtless added to evade the law prohibiting grants of more than 
one thousand acres to one person. 

Faueonier was a Frenchman who left France on account of religious 
persecution. He became the private secretary of Sir Edward Hyde, 
Governor of the Province of New York at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century. He named his patent "Hyde Pafk," which was 


bounded on the north by the Pauling or Staatsburg patent, the line 
corresponding with the present north boundary of Mr. F. G. Lan- 
don's property ; on the east and south by Crum Elbow creek, and west 
by the Hudson river. 

About 17S5, Jacob Stoutenburgh, a Hollander and trader from 
Westchester, became interested in lands now comprised within the 
bounds of this town. He purchased the ninth "water lot" of the Nine 
Partners patent, on which the village of Hyde Park is now situated. 
This land he gave to his son Luke in 1758. 

Dr. John Bard,^ the earliest physician in this locality, bought out 
the heirs of Fauconier, of whom his wife was a descendant. Crum 
Elbow creek formed a natural division between the property of the 
Bards on the north, and the Stoutenburghs on the south. In early 
times there was much trouble over water privileges, and June 4th, 
1789, Dr. Samuel Bard deeded four small parcels of land to Richard 
de Cantillon and James Stoutenburgh, which may have settled the 

At this time the familiar designations of the settlements were the 
Upper and Lower Comers, of which the latter had more business. 
The Stoutenburgh store was the pioneer trading place, built on the 
site now occupied by Hopkins's drug store. Another store stood at 
the south comer of the road leading east (north of Albert Jones' 
house) kept by Ambrose Cook a Quaker, who carried on a large busi- 
ness in pork. He was succeeded by Ephriam Stevens and John Cas- 
well. Other early merchants in the south part of the town were Henry 
Gale and Hiram Nelson. Here were situated the houses of Luke and 
John Stoutenburgh. On the east side of the post road, on a ledge of 
rocks, was built a district school house. Nearly opposite was the 
house of Andrew Phillipe, built early in the century. Of the buildings 
mentioned there alone remain to-day the one owned by Mr. Dickenson. 
The old Red Reformed Dutch Church stood just south of the grave- 
yard. Northward were the houses of Henry Bush, wagon-maker, and 
Samuel Upton, who carried on a carding mill, while a fulling mill was 
conducted by Henry Dusenbury at the Mill pond. Flax dressing was 
also carried on here. 

On the northwest corner of the post road and the road crossing it 

1. Biographical sketches of Dr. John Bard and his son, Samuel Bard, M.D., appear- 
In the chapter devoted to the medical profession of the County. 


from the Upper Landing, stood the village inn. Joseph Carpenter 
was the first landlord. His successor was an Englishman named 
Miller, who put up a sign which read "Hyde Park Hotel." It was 
probably the first time the name of Hyde Tark was used south of Crum 
Elbow creek, and it incurred the displeasure of Dr. Bard, who wished 
the name to be applied to his country seat only. He remonstrated 
and offered to buy the sign, but Miller was obdurate. When a post- 
office was established. Miller was the means of having it called Hyde 
Park. A few years later when the town of Clinton was divided, the 
name was given, in 1821, to the new town. Philip Bogardus was then 
the landlord, and the first town election was held in this building, April 
24th of that year, which resulted as follows: James Duane Livings- 
ton, Supervisor; Reuben Spencer, Town Clerk; Tobias L. Stouten- 
burgh, Peter A. Schryver, Christopher Hughes, Assessors ; Isaac Beld- 
ing. Collector. 

At a meeting of the town officers May 19th, 1821, Charles A. Shaw 
was appointed "a discreet and proper person" to take the census. He 
returned the following statistics : Population, 2,300 ; electors, 431 ; 
taxable property, $547,106. 

An extensive freighting business was done at the Lower Landing 
(near the present freight house of the Hudson River Railroad) about 
the close of the eighteenth century. Jonathan Owen operated two 
sloops between this point and New York ; one sailed by Captain David 
Braman, and the other by Captain David Wickes. After 1807 James 
Wilson succeeded Owen in this business. 

Richard de Cantillon gave his name to the Upper Landing. His 
sloops sailed as far south as the West Indies, to which he shipped 
great quantities of corn in exchange for sugar and rum. In 1770 
he married Mary, daughter of Tobias, the eldest son of the first 
Jacobus Stoutenburgh. 

Peter de Reimer and his son-in-law, Robert Gilbert Livingston, suc- 
ceeded de Cantillon in business at the Upper Landing. Later William 
Ellsworth and Miles Fletcher operated the line. The barge "Lex- 
ington," made weekly trips to New York, from 1840 until the rail- 
road was built. 

The eastern part of the town adjoining Pleasant Valley and Clin- 
ton was settled at an early day by Quakers from New England and 
Long Island. Among them were the Marshalls, Bakers, Briggs, 


Hoags, Halsteads, Moshers, Stringhams, Waiters, Lamorees, Nel- 
sons and Williams. The Friends' house of worship here was for many 
years called the "Crom Elbow Meeting House," erected about the 
year 1774. The early members have long since passed away, leaving 
their descendants to unite with and to conform to the manners and 
discipline of other sects. 

On the west border of the town, overlooking the Hudson, are sev- 
eral magnificent country seats of families prominent in the social and 
business world. The most southern of these is the residence of John 

A. Roosevelt, a descendant of James Roosevelt, who owned Mount 
Hope, now the property of the Hudson River State Hospital. Near 
Teller HiU was the house of Moses S. Beach, now owned by Mr. Weben- 
dorfer. Further north are the estates of Mrs. James Roosevelt and 
J. R. Roosevelt, the latter also a descendant of James Roosevelt of 
Mount Hope. 

"Belfield," now the home of Hon. Thomas Newbold, originally be- 
longed to the Crook family, descendants of one of the original Nine 
Partners. It was subsequently in possession of the Kneelands, Judge 
Johnston, and his grandson. Dr. F. U. Johnston. North of "Belfield" 
is an estate which has been in the possession of Mr. Archibald Rogers 
for the past twenty years. In 1842 it was owned by Elias Butler 
who gave the place the name of "Crumwold." The houses of Dudley 

B. FuUer and General James J. Jones now form part of this immense 
estate. The Miller and HoflFman families also lived on this property. 

Adjoining Hyde Park village on the north is the country seat of 
Mr. F. W. Vanderbilt, who purchased this property in 1895. This is 
the estate to which the name of "Hyde Park" originally applied, and 
which was^for many years the home of Dr. John Bard and his son 
Samuel, both of whom erected dwellings on the premises. In 1827 
the estate of Hyde Park was purchased by Dr. David Hosack, an 
eminent New York physician, who greatly improved the property, 
planting many rare and beautiful trees. He built the "Farm House," 
long the home of John A. De GrafF; also the bridge on the drive from 
the south entrance to the place. Dr. Hosack died in 1835, and the 
estate was sold to Walter Langdon, Sr. His wife, Dorothea, was a 
daughter of John Jacob Astor. Their son Walter inherited and occu- 
pied "the estate to the time of his death, September 17, 1894). Mr. 
Vanderbilt, the present owner, removed the Langdon house, and built 


a stone mansion, considered the finest example of Italian renaissance 
in this country. 

Nathaniel Pendleton, a native of Virginia, married Susan, daughter 
of John Bard, and built a residence north of the Bard place, known as 
"Placentia." Their eldest son, Edward H., inherited the property. 
He was elected to Congress, and was County Judge. "Placentia" 
was long the home of James K. Paulding, a name intimately associated 
with that of Washington Irving. It was also the home of N. Pendle- 
ton Rogers. It is now owned by J. S. Huyler. 

Cyrus Braman bought lots 2 and 3 of the Hyde Park patent. The 
estate was known as "Belgrove." This property was subsequently 
conveyed to William Ellsworth, who married Ruth, daughter of Cyrus 
Braman. After the death of Mr. Ellsworth, it passed into the hands 
of Mr. N. P. Rogers. 

The Rymph family have been landowners in this section for a longer 
period than any other except the Bards. November 10th, 1768, John 
Bard sold to George Rymph lot No. 5 of the Hyde Park patent, con- 
taining 215 acres. It is now the property of James Rymph, grand- 
son of George ; the latter died in 1791, leaving a wife and ten children. 

The Broughtons were the original settlers of the Inwood property. 
The will of Francis Broughton, dated October 22, 1790, leaves the 
place to his son Joseph. In 1809 Joseph Broughton sold that part of 
his farm west of the post road to Rev. John McVickar. The Mc- 
Vickars sold "Inwood" to Alfred L. Pell, who in turn sold it to Rob- 
ert M. Livingston. The place finally passed into the hands of Alex- 
ander H. Wickes. It is now owned by Hon. Francis G. Landon. 

Staatsbtjrgh, a village in the northern part of the town, derives its 
name from the Staats family, who settled here about 1720. Other 
early settlers were the Hughes, Mulford and Russell families. Here 
was the residence of General Morgan Lewis, the second son of Francis 
Lewis, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was born in New York city in 1754, and graduated from Princeton 
in '73. During the Revolutionary War young Lewis was Major of 
a company of volunteers which entered the Continental service as the 
Second New York. He was appointed Quarter-master General of the 
Northern Department of the Army, and was mentioned in reports for 
bravery at Bemis Heights. In 1778 and '80 he was with General Clin- 
ton. At the close of the war he was admitted to the bar. He repre- 


sented New York City in the Assembly, and soon after Dutchess Coun- 
ty, to which he had removed. He was next elected Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas, and in 1791 was appointed Attorney General of the 
State. In 1792 he was raised to the Bench of the Supreme Court, 
and next year became Chief Justice. In 1804 he was elected Gover- 
nor of the State of New York. During the War of 1812 he was made 
a Major General and served throughout the campaign on the Canadian 

General Morgan Lewis, in 1779, married Gertrude, daughter of 
Robert Livingston. He died in 1844! in the ninetieth year of his age. 
For many years he was one of the wardens of St. James' Church, Hyde 
Park, and is buried in the churchyard. His estate at Staatsburgh is 
now owned by his great-granddaughter, Mrs. Ogden MiUs. Among 
his descendants still resident at Staatsburgh is the family of the late 
Lydig M. Hoyt. 

North, of this property is "The Locusts," the estate of the late Wil- 
liam B. Dinsmore, now owned by his widow and children. Since 1857 
this estate has been under the general supervision of Timothy Herrick, 
who at diffierent times has served the town as Supervisor. 

In the village of Staatsburgh is situated St. Margaret's Church. 
This was formerly a mission, or rather a part of the Parish of St. 
James, and not until the rectorship of Dr. Cady did it become an 
independent parish. A Methodist Church and St. Paul's Roman 
Catholic Church are also situated here. 

In 1858 Mr. J. H. Bodenstein established in Staatsburgh a shop 
for the manufacture of ice cutting implements. The plant has been 
enlarged at different times, and is now conducted by his son, John G. 

ScHOpxSy In 1806 Captain David Braman taught school in the 
stone h(We opposite the gateway of D. S. Miller. The first district 
school was built soon after this time, nearly opposite the house of 
Andrew Phillips. The teacher was WiUiam Prince Williams. A 
larger building was erected in 1829 on the corner of Albany and Al- 
bertson streets. In 1869 a two-story brick school house was built in 
front of the old one. 

Benjamin Allen, LL.D., was long at the head of a classical school 
at this place which he opened about 1815. A few years later Miss 
AletBa Gibbs opened a boarding and day school for girls, which was 



considered as being one of the best of that day, and with Dr. Allen's 
nearby, gave Hyde Park an enviable reputation for educational ad- 

Others who had private schools here in later years were Miss Emily 
Nelson, Joel Nelson, Evan T. Griffiths, Wesley Doughty, Miss Anna 
Phillips, Miss Ellen Wallace, Miss Catharine A. Cooly. 

The Bard Infant School was founded according to the provisions 
of the will of Miss Susan Mary Bard, dated August 4th, 1831. She left 
the interest of $4,000 in trust for its maintenance. The trustees 
bought a lot from the heirs of Joshua Laurence, and erected a frame 
building, and the school was conducted successfully for many years, 
the income being sufficient inducement for a competent teacher. After 
the school was discontinued the room was used foj St. James' Guild. 
A public reading room and library was established by the Guild and 
is now supported by the parish. 

Chueches. In 1780 there was formed in Hyde Park the Stouts- 
burgh Religious Association. Its members were composed of ad- 
herents of the Church of England, and of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church. An agreement was made to this effect, that any min- 
ister of any orthodox church whose services could be procured should 
be allowed to preach before the association and friends, and that when- 
ever either Dutch or Enghsh felt that they alone could support a 
minister of their own persuasion, that party was to receive the church 
building and all other property belonging to the association, and a 
church should be established and worship continued according to the 
rites and forms of the prevailing party. 

The old Reformed Dutch Church stood south of the graveyard where 
now stands the chapel of the Reformed Church. It was a frame 
building painted red, and looked very much like a bam. A great 
sounding board was over the pulpit. There were no buildings between 
the church and the East Road. Among Dutchess County deeds is 
found this record: "Monday, December 21st, 1789, Election at the 
Church of Stoutsburgh in the County of Dutchess of Trustees for the 
Society called the Stoutsburgh Religious Society, — ^Elected: John 
Stoutenburgh, Sr., Isaac Conklin, Thomas Banker, Joshua Nelson, 
Jacob Schryver, John A. Lee." The Society continued until the 
early part of the nineteenth century, when the Dutch organized a 
church and received, as per agreement, the church edifice and all other 


church property. The present building was erected in 1826. The 
list of pastors is as follows : Cornelius Brower, of Poughkeepsie, sup- 
plied the church from 1794-1812, and was in full charge from 1812- 
1815. Peter S. Wynkoop officiated from 1817-'20, and had charge 
of Hyde Park, and Pleasant Plains 1820-'22. Ferdinand H. Van Der 
Veer, 1823-'29. William Cahoone, 1829-'3S. Simon D. Westfall, 
1834-'37. He was the first one to Uve in the present parsonage, 
which was built in 1833. Next came John C. Cruikshank, 1837-'43. 
Anthony Ehnendorf, 1843-'48. William H. Ten Eyck, 1848-'53. 
Henry Dater, 1853-'77. George R. Garrettson was installed Feb- 
ruary 19, 1878, and was succeeded by Rev. Cornelius R. Blauvelt, 
1880-'83. Rev. Frank E. Kavanagh, September 26, 1883-'84. He 
was of Irish extraction and was at first intended for the priesthood. 
He married a niece of Bishop Niles and became a member of the Epis- 
copal Church, then a Presbyterian minister, and then Reformed Dutch. 
His ministry here, owing to his eccentricities, was very brief. Rev. 
John F. Shaw was installed November 11, 1885. He resigned Feb- 
ruary 1st, 1893. Rev. John F. Harris was installed June 27, 1893, 
and served imtil 1898. Soon after he died. The Rev. Mr. Hamlin 
served from 1898 to 1908, and was succeeded by the present pastor, 
the Rev. Mr. Ficken. 

In 1811 there were some fifty members of the Episcopal Church 
living in Hyde Park. It was decided to build a house of worship. 
Dr. Samuel Bard gave the central part of the present churchyard for 
the purpose. The church was erected in 1811 by subscription. The 
Bard family were the largest contributors. Other contributors were 
the following: Gov. Morgan Lewis, who contributed, besides money, 
a "Pew" in St. Paul's Church, New York; John McVicker, William 
Bard, John Johnston, Sarah Barton, Magdalen Murisson, T. de Can- 
tillon, Jacob Bush, Jotham Post, Samuel Mead, Hunting Sherrill, 
Richard de Cantillon, Tobias Stoutenburgh, L. Ring, Timothy Steven- 
son, Titus Dutton, Reuben Spencer, N. Pendleton, Baron S. Hutchins, 
Isaac Russell, Cyrus Braman, George Gillespie, James Duane Livings- 
ton, Christopher Hughes, David Mulford, Lemuel Hyde and others. 
The edifice was built of brick and stone. It had a short, square tower 
at the west end. Inside, the ceiling, walls and woodwork were white. 
On^the wall was a tablet to the memory of Dr. John Bard. Later 
were added tablets to the memory of Dr. Samuel and Mrs. Mary Bard, 
and Nathaniel Pendleton. 


At a meeting of the congregation held on the 30th day of March, 
1812, the rector, Rev. John McVicker, presiding, the following per- 
sons were unanimously elected as wardens and vestrymen of the par- 
ish: Wardens, Dr. Samuel Bard and Morgan Lewis; vestrymen, 
Joha Johnston, Nathaniel Pendleton, WilUam Broome, William Bard, 
Christopher Hughes, James D. Liviiigston, Titus Dutton, William 
Duer. At this meeting it was resolved that St. James' Church at 
Hyde Park, should be the name by which the church should be known. 

About 184)3 it was found that the church needed a new roof, and 
that other repairs were necessary. A committee appointed advised 
taking down the church and rebuilding it. This plan was adopted and 
in 1844 a new church, but substantially the old chujch, was rebuilt on 
the same site. During the time that changes ware made services were 
held in the rectory, on the north side of the church, which had been 
built in 1836. The mural tablets were replaced, and two others, to 
the memory of Morgan Lewis and William Bard, were added. Dr. 
Daniel Hosack increased the churchyard by giving land on the south 
end. In 1873 Mr. Walter Langdon gave a large addition on the 

The rectors of St. James' Church from its organization in 1811, 
when the parish was received into union with the diocese of New York, 
have been as follows : Rev. John McVicker, D.D., Rev. David Brown, 
Rev. Samuel Roosevelt Johnson, Rev. Reuben Sherwood, D.D., Rev. 
Horace Stringfellow, D.D., Rev. James S. Purdy, D.D., Rev. Phi- 
lander K. Cady, D.D., Rev. R. H. Gesner, Rev. A. T. Ashton, D.D. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was built in 1833, upon ground 
given by John Albertson, Sr. The first Board of Trustees was com- 
posed of Joseph Williams John Giles, WiUiam Armstrong, Alonzo F. 
Selleck and Henry S. Backus. Mr. A. F. Selleck, a local preacher, 
held services here in 1829, and continued until 1834. He afterward 
became a useful member of the New York Conference. In 1835 Rev. 
Denton Keeler occupied the pulpit of this church. In 1840 John Al- 
bertson, Jr., presented the trustees of the church a lot adjoining it, 
for a parsonage. The building which cost $2,200 was not erected 
until 1856, at which time Rev. A. C. Fields was pastor. In 1896, 
during the pastorate of Rev. E. Miles, the old church was removed 
and the present edifice built. 

A sketch of the Roman Catholic Church, which is in charge of Rev. 
J. P. Lonergan, will be found in a subsequent chapter. 



The Baptist Chuech was organized at the house of Garret P. 
Lansing, April 18, 1844, and the church built in 1846. Mrs. Susan 
Van Wagner was a large contributor. Rev. David Morris was the 
first pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. Charles Van Loon of the 
First Baptist Church of Poughkeepsie, who officiated as "a supply." 
Services were held very unfrequently, as many of the active members 
moved away. Some years ago Mr. John S. Huyler purchased the 
building and fitted it up as a gymnasium under the auspices of the 
Methodist Church. 

The following is the list of Supervisors elected In the town and the 
date of serving: 

1891— '2S 

James D. Livingston 

1861— '62 

John M. Friss 

1826— '28 

John Johnston 


Elias Tompkins 


James D. Livingston 


John Russell, Jr. 

1830— '31 

Elijah Baker 

1865— '66 

Joel N. De Graff 


James D. Livingston 


Elias Tompkins 


David Barnes 


David H. Mulford 


Luke S. Stoutenburgh 

1869— '70 

Albert S. Schryver 


William W. Woodworth 

1871— '72 

James Roosevelt 

1839— '40 

James Russell 

1873— '74 

Timothy Herrick 


William W. Woodvcorth 

1876— '76 

John A. Marshall 

1842— '43 

Nelson Andrews 

1877— '79 

Henry K. WUber 


James Russell 

1880— '81 

Edward H. Marshall 


Elias Tompldns 
David CollinA 


Edgar A. Briggs 

1846— '47 


Henry K. Wilber 


TsRac Mosher 


Casper Westervdt 

1849— 'SO 

Louis T. Mosher 

1886— '87 

Timothy Herrick 


Henry Green 

1888— '92 

David E. Howatt 

1852— '53 

Elias Tompkins 


Lount Lattin 

1854— '55 

David H. Mulford 

1894— '97 

Henry M. Barker 


Brooks Hughes 

1898— '99 

Henry K. Wilber 

1857— '58 

Morris G. Lloyd 

1900— '03 

H. Fremont Vandewater 


A. V. W. Tompkins 

1904— '05 

Fred Bodenstein 


Morris G. Lloyd 

1906— '09 

Harry Arnold 


S .A..MbtiAieu ^uif/isJit/jr. 



THE territory comprising the town of La Grange was formed 
from portions of the towns of Fishkill and Beekman, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1821, under the name of Freedom. A strip of about 
five thousand acres was taken from it March 1, 1827, to form part of 
the town of Union Vale. 

. The town is bounded on the north by Pleasant Valley ; east by Union 
Vale and Beekman; south by Wappinger and East Fishkill, and on 
the west by the town of Poughkeepsie, from which it is separated by 
Wappinger Creek. The area thus embraced comprises 25,443 acres, 
mainly devoted to agriculture. The original description of the bounds 
reads as follows: 

"That part of the town of Fishkill, lying north of a line commencing at the 
fording place on the Wappingers Creek, nigh the honse of the late Samuel Thome, 
deceased, from thence rvmning easterly to the division line between Fishkill and 

Beekman towns, ten chains southerly of the house formerly owned by Palmer 

and now in part occupied by John Arthur; and all that part of the town of 
Beekman lying west of a Une commencing at the point on the division line between 
Fishkill and Beekman, where the east and west line aforesaid in Fishkill will inter- 
sect said division line of Beekman and Fishkill, rvmning from thence north- 
easterly to a point two chains distance due east from the northeast corner of the 
house of Seneca Vail, built by Dr. Soffin (provided it includes the house of Blisha 
C. Barlow, if not, thence commencing at the point aforesaid, and running from 
thence to and including the house of Nicholas Tyce; from thence to the point 
aforesaid, two chains distance, due east from the northeast corner of the house of 
the said Seneca Vail), from thence on either of the courses last aforesaid, as may 
be determined by actual survey, to the Washington town line." 

The act authorizing the erection of the town, directed that the first 
town meeting be held at the house of William Wolven, on the first 
Tuesday in April, 1821, at which the following ofiicers were elected: 
John Wilkinson, Supervisor; John Clapp, Clerk; Isaac B. Clapp, 
Silas Pettit, Reuben Tanner, Israel Fowler, and John Van de Belt, 
Assessors ; Leonard Nelson, Collector ; John Billings, Mynard B. Velie, 


Overseers of the Poor; Baltus Velie, Elias Vale and Henry Dates, 
Commissioners of Highways; Ezekiel Velie, John D. Brown and John 
G. Dunkin, Commissioners of Schools ; James Congdon, John G. Dun- 
kin, Samuel Petit, Henry D. Sleight, Thomas H. Potter, and Avery 
L. Herrick, Inspectors of Common Schools; Jacob Culver, Daniel 
StiUweU, James Coles and Peter Hageman, Constables. 

The name of Freedom was given to the town by Enoch Dorland, a 
Quaker preacher. As this name caused confusion in the delivery of 
mail, it was changed in 1829, by the Board of Supervisors, to La 
Grange, after the ancestral estate in France of the Marquis d' La- 

Settlement in the southern part of the town began as early as 1754!, 
and the names of Shear, Clapp, Brundage, Swade, Dean, Weeks, and 
Townsend are recorded among the pioneers. Arthursburg and 
"Morey's Comers," now La Grangeville, were early neighborhoods. 
The families of Ver VaUn, De Groff, Sleight, Nelson and Cornell set- 
tled in the western part of the town previous to the Revolution. 

The following is the inscription on a field stone in La Grange 
Rural Cemetery, near Manchester: "I. V. Died Dbr. 12, 1762." This 
is the earliest known grave in this cemetery, and is supposed to mark 
the burial place of Isaack Ver VaKn, as other members of the family 
are buried nearby. A mile north of the cemetery stands the Sleight 
homestead, built in 1798 by James Sleight, son of Abram and Ariantj 
(Ehnendorf) Sleight, and now occupied by their descendants. James 
Sleight was a soldier in the Revolution, served through three cam- 
paigns, and took part in several of the battles of that struggle. Reu- 
ben Nelson, Jr., was an innkeeper at Manchester. His hotel was 
located on the property now owned by the Van Wyck family, de- 
scendants of Theodorus Van Wyck, of FishkiU, an active patriot in 
the Revolution, and prominent in the oiEcial afiFairs of the county at 
that period. 

Grist mills and fuUing mills were in operation within the present 
town limits before the close of the eighteenth century. Moses De Groff 
owned the miU at Manchester ; Stephen Moore operated one at Moore's 
Mills, and John and Daniel Hosier built another at Morey's Corners. 
Jacob Morey, from whom the hamlet received its name, was a black- 
smith by trade; he also conducted a tavern for several years. Upon 
the meadow just south of Morey's Comers, during the Revolution, 



was an encampment of a Tory band, which took part in the raid upon 
Washington Hollow in the summer of 1777. This field has since been 
known as the "Camp lot." 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century, Jonah Coshire and 
his squaw, Lydia, two pure blooded Schaghticoke Indians, a branch 
of the once powerful Pequod tribe, settled on a ridge in the north 
part of the town. This couple and their children, Steve and Han- 
nah, became known as "the Jonahs," and their few acres of rough land 
was termed "Jonah's Manor." 

Last of the Schaghticoke Indians in Dutchess County. 


Steve lived here until his death, after which Hannah lived many 
years, having a home with one of the families of the neighborhood, her 
services being much in demand as a nurse in sickness throughout the 
surrounding country. The Jonahs possessed, or claimed to possess, 
knowledge of an herb that was a certain antidote to the poison from 
the fangs of the copperhead and rattlesnake, but nothing could ever 
induce them to divulge the secret, which was carried to the grave 
about thirty years ago, with the remains of Hannah Jonah, the last 
of the Schaghticokes of Dutchess County. 

We are indebted to Mrs. Sarah Chatterton, of Newburgh, N. Y., 
for the accompanying portrait of Hannah Jonah. Mrs. Chatterton 
had knowledge of Hannah for many years, and can vouch for the 
photograph as being authentic. 

The oldest religious organization in the town is that of the Society 
of Friends of Arthursburg. At this place was built a Friends meet- 
ing house, and Oswego monthly meetings were held here as early as 
1761. Samuel Dorland and wife, Allen Moore and wife and Andrew 
Moore are recorded as being present at this meeting. Several Quaker 
families resided in this vicinity. Following the division in the Society 
in 1828 the Hicksites built a meeting house at Moore's Mills, where 
meetings are regularly held. 

The Methodists were next in the field in missionary work, but the 
Presbyterians were first in organizing a church, which they did at 
Freedom Plains in 1828. 

The records of the Presbyterian Church of Freedom Plains state 
that "On the 26th of July, 1827, sundry persons of Freedom did meet 
at the house of Mary Nelson and chose the following trustees: Ben- 
jamin H. Conklin, Baltus Overacker, Eleazer Taylor, Baltus Velie, 
Rickertson Collins, John D. Brown, Abram S. Storm, Isaac B. Clapp 
and John Clapp." 

The church was regularly organized on the 14th of May, 1828, by 
the following committee, appointed by the Presbytery of the North 
River, viz. : Messrs. John Clark, James P. Ostrom and Alonzo Welton. 
The organization took place in the barn of Baltus Overacker, with 
thirty-nine members. Benjamin H. Conklin, Baltus Overacker, Abram 
S. Storm and Samuel Thurston were elected elders, and Eleazer Tay- 
lor and Henry Disbrow, deacons. Services were held in the barn dur- 
ing the most of that year, and the church edifice was completed in the 



latter part of 1828, and dedicated on New Year's Day, 1829, the 
original cost of which was $2,169.38. In 1831, twelve acres of land 
were purchased from Baltus Velie, for $650, and a parsonage erected 

The church has been the recipient of several bequests including 
$500.00 from Mrs. Celia Taylor in 1842, and $200.00 from Adrian 
Montfort in 1871. 

The first pastor was the Rev. Milton Buttolph. He was succeeded 
in 1838 by the Rev. Sumner MandeviUe, who continued in his pastoral 
office twenty-three years. At present there is no settled pastor, ser- 
vices being conducted by a supply. 

The organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church of La Grange 
was eflFected July 14, 1849. Previous to this date meetings were held 
occasionally in different neighborhoods by "circuit riders," and the 
inhabitants of the Morey vicinity attended chiefly at Potter's Hollow, 
where the first church edifice was built, and from which it was removed 
to Morey 's in 1866, and called the "Trinity Church of La Grange." 
The minutes of the society contain no records of the early pastors, 
except for the year 1851, when Rev. Loren Clarke officiated. 

Union Chapel at Manchester Bridge was originally situated at 
TitusviUe, and moved to its present location in 1884. Services are 
conducted regularly by ministers of various denominations. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War several meetings were held in the 
town to stimulate interest in enlistments. Addresses were made by 
Albert Emans and Gilbert Dean. The town furnished seventy-seven 
men for the army, and thirty-five men enlisted in the navy. Most of 
the volunteers joined the 128th Regiment of Infantry, and did ser- 
vice in Louisiana. 

The following has been the succession of Supervisors since the or- 
ganization of the town : 

1821— '23 

John Wilkinson 


William Storm 


John Clapp 

1836— '37 

Treadwell Townsend 

1824— '25 

Jonathan Lockwood 

1838— '39 

E. T. Van Benschoten 


John Wilkinson 

1840— '42 

Gideon Van Valin 


John Clapp 


Tunis BrinckerhofF 

182&— '29 

Jonathan Lockwood 

1844— '45 

Joseph Wicks 


B. T. "Van Benschoten 

1846— '47 

Silas Sweet 


Jonathan Lockwood 

1848— '49 

Treadwell Townsend 

1832— '33 

E. T. Van Benschoten 

1850— '51 

Albert Emans 



18S2— '63 

John G. Pells 

1877— '78 

John W. Storm 


James Howard 

1879— '80 

Stephen H. Moore 

1855— '56 

Jacob Velie 


John D. Howard 

1857— '58 

Abraham W. Storm 


Charles Cole 


James Howard 

^^83— '84 

Alexander W. Sleight 


Hemy Van Benschoten 


Henry R. Hoyt 


John S. Brown 

1886— '87 

Albert Emans 

1863— '63 

Albert Emans 

1888— '90 

William H. Austin 

1864— '67 

John W. Storm 

1891— '93 

Towsend Cole 


George Ayrault 


Alexander W. Sleight 

4869— '70 

Alexander W. Sleight 

1896— '97 

Joseph Van Wycfc 

1871— '72 

James A. Stringham 

1898— '03 

John E. Townsend 

1873— '74 

John D. Howard 


Alexander W. Sleight 

1875— '76 

Alexander W. Sleight 

1906— '09 

Clark Barmore 






ILAN was formed from the town of Northeast, March 6, 1818. 
Stissing Mountain was a barrier to any communication east 
by highways, and it was reasonable and right that Milan 
should be set off from the parent town. The division seems to have 
been anticipated for two years or more, and hSghway work mean- 
while came to a comparative standstill. 

The town lies on the northern border of Dutchess County, and 
comprises the western portion of that tract of land originally em- 
braced in the Little Nine Partner' patent. It is bounded northerly 
by Columbia County; east by Pine Plains; south by Clinton and 
Stanford; and west by Red Hook and Rhinebeck. It covers an area 
of 22,452 acres, with an assessed valuation of real and personal prop- 
erty placed by the Board of Supervisors in 1907 at $369,324. La- 
fayetteviUe, Milan and Rock City are hamlets. 

In the year 1760, Johannes Rowe, a German by birth, located in 
this town north of what is now LafayetteviUe, on nine hundred and 
eleven acres of land which he purchased of Chancellor Robert R. 
Livingston. For this land he paid £750, on which, in 1766, he built 
a stone homestead. Much of the land is still in possession of the 
Rowe family. Johannes Rowe died in 1771, and was buried in the 
family ground across the road from the church which bears the family 
name. He had four sons — John, Sebastian, Philip and Mark, who 
settled around on the land of their father's purchase, and to each 
of whom he gave a farm. The sons built the Methodist Church there, 
and were generous supporters of local enterprises. Philip had a son, 
William P. Rowe, who served as a soldier in the war of 1812. 

Other early settlers at LafayetteviUe were Maltiah and Macy Bow- 
man (Bowerman) who came from Connecticut to Dover in 1780, and 
to Milan in 1790. Maltiah is the ancestor of the Milan families of 
that name. He had three sons — Joseph, Otis E., and Sands. Otis 


E. was a surveyor, and for twenty years a lawyer of some note. The 
Wilburs, Briggs, Whites, Pells, Hicks, Martins and Motts settled 
near the east part, while the Links, Holsopples, Rhyfenburghs, KiU- 
mans, Fultons, Stalls, Fellers, Hopemans, Philips, Teats and Fra- 
ziers took up land in the north part of the town. A description of the 
town and some statistics pubUshed in Spaffords Gazetteer of 1824!, 
six years ^fter the division from Northeast, says in part: 

"It is a good Township of land, though considerably uneven, but with rich arable 
sweUs, hills and ridges, and some flats. The soil is principally a warm productive 
loam. The inhabitants are principally farmers, and there are no villages, as yet, 
to demand the application of a, microscope, or tire a topographer's patience. Its 
streams are some small head branches of Wappingers creek, and a, short distance 
of Ancram creek, with a branch that puts into it, but the town is well supplied 
with miUs. There are plenty of roads. The centre, always meant, when I speak 
of distances in this way, is about 8 miles E. of the Hudson, at Red Hook. Popu- 
lation, 1797: 358 farmers, 77 mechanics, 3 traders, 49 free blacks, 18 slaves; tax- 
able property, $370,794; 11 schools; 15,392 acres of improved land; 1834 cattle, 
679 horses, 3618 sheep, 17,866 yards of cloth made in the household way; 7 grist 
mills, 4 saw mills; 1 JFuUing mill, 1 carding machine; 1 trip hammer, and one dis- 

The oldest miU in the town was built by Robert Thorne some two 
miles west of LafayetteviUe. This hamlet was on the post road from 
Northeast to Rhinebeck, and before the birth of railroads in northern 
Dutchess was a place of some business importance. Wilham Walter- 
mier conceived the idea of building a hotel here for the accommodation 
of the travelKng public. He conducted it successfully for ten years, 
when he disposed of the property to Jacob Knickerbacker. 

The hamlet of Milan, also on the old post route near the center of 
the town, was originally called "West Northeast." In the Dutchess 
Observer of September 2, 1818, this notice appears: "The name of 
the postoffice heretofore called 'West Northeast' in this county, of 
which Stephen Thorne, Esq., is Post Master, has been changed to 
Milan. Persons directing that office will notice alterations for the 

The first town meeting for Milan was held at the house of Stephen 
Thome on the first Tuesday in April, 1818. Apart from the election 
of the following officers, the proceedings of this meeting relate to the 
raising of money for the support of the poor, and for building and 
repairing bridges. 


Supervisor, Stephen Thorne; Town Clerk, John F. Bartlett; Asses- 
sors, Jonas Wildey, John Fulton, Jr., John Stall; Commissioners of 
Highways, Everet N. Van Trogner, Daniel Morehouse, James Tur- 
ner; Commissioners of Schools, Henry Peck, John Thome, Jr., Jeptha 
Wilbur; Overseers of Poor, Jacob Shook, James I. Stewart; Inspec- 
tors of Common Schools, Joshua CoUeres, John Darling, James Adams, 
John R. Heermance, Peter Snyder; Constable and Collector, Philip 
Rider; Constable, Henry Witherwax; Fence Viewers, Tobias Green, 
in the southern neighborhood, Obediah Quimby in the northeast, and 
Jacob Bachman in the northwest. 

The poor was the principal matter in common to the two towns to 
be settled. Northeast took ten persons, Milan twelve, and three were 
left to be supported by both towns jointly in prdportion to the tax 
list. Northeast to pay at the ratio of seven to five. The next year a 
general settlement was made. 

In the summer of 1818 new bridges were built over a stream at 
Mount Ross and at Hoffman's Mill, which cost $195 and $185 re- 

In the War of the Rebellion the town of Milan not only responded 
generously to the call for volunteers, but kept a complete and interest- 
ing record of its proceedings, relating to enhstments, in a manner 
greatly above the average towns. 

At the first meeting to raise a war fund held at the house of Nelson 
Motts, November 29, 1862, it was 

"Resolved, That the sum of $3,265.66 be levied on the town, and the same be 
assumed as a debt upon the town and the taxable property therein. 

"Resolved, That the sum of $900.00 be levied on said town, to be paid to the 
volunteers who enlisted previous to the 36th of August, 1862, the said $900.00 to 
be paid to John Ferris, Alonzo CarroU and Philo Sherwood, to be kept by them 
for the benefit of the volunteers who enlisted previous as above stated." 

August 9, 1864, a special town meeting was held at the house of 
Ambrose L. Smith at which it was 

"Resolved, That the Supervisor of the town shall have the power to borrow 
money on the credit of the said town sufBcient to pay volunteers to fill the quota 
of the town under the call of the President for 500,000 men. 

"Resolved, That to every man who shall volunteer and be mustered into the 
United States service for the term of three years shall be paid as a town bounty 
the sum of $500.00, and to every man that is drafted under the present call shall 
be paid, as a bounty from this town, the sum of $400.00." 



A further resolution appointed Supervisor Lewis M. Smith and H. 
B. Sherwood to procure volunteers, for which they were allowed three 
dollars per day and expenses. 

The town voted a bounty of $600.00 for one-year men, $700.00 for 
two-years' men, and $800.00 for those who entered the service for 
three years, following the call of the President December 19, 1864, 
for 300,000 men. 

In the record of enhstments seventeen men served in the 128th 
Regiment; twelve in the 150th; seven in the 20th; five in the 91st; 
three in the 159th; three in the 4i7th; two each in the 32nd and 87th 
Regiments, with a scattering of seven others. 

The Methodist Society here was organized mainly through the 
efforts of the Rowes, who built the first house of worship on their farm 
near LafayetteviUe about the year 1800. This was succeeded in 1838 
by a substantial structure near the site of the old building, and was 
erected chiefly through the generosity of John Rowe, who also built 
the parsonage. His home had been the stopping place of all the 
itinerant Methodist preachers. 

The "Christian Denomination" originated from three of the more 
popular sects, the Methodists, Presbyterians and Baptists, about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. Among the first to break this 
denominational ground in the town were Levi Hathaway and Daniel 
Call, who organized the First Christian Church in Milan in the autumn 
of 1820. Elder John L. Peavey of New England was called to the 
oversight of the church. His circuit of labor embraced this and three 
other congregations, located in Stanford, Union Vale and Beekman. 
His friends assisted him in purchasing a home near Rock City, and 
Elder Peavey divided his time between pastoral work and itinerant 
labors. He was not only a talented man, but a kind and successful 
pastor. Other early pastors of the Christian Church were Dr. Abner 
Jones, Rev. Joseph Marsh and Rev. John N. Spoor. 

The following has been the succession of Supervisors since the or- 
ganization of the town: 

1818— '30 

Stephen Thome 


Stephen Thorne 

1821— '33 

Jacob Shook 


Ephraim Fulton 

1824— '35 

Richard Thorne 


Stephen Thorne 

1886— '37 

Stephen Thorne 

1833— '34 

Ephraim Herrick, Jr. 


Henry Pulton 

1835— '36 

Leonard Rowe 





John Thome 




John P. Teats 




George White 




Stephen Thorne 




Clinton W. Conger 



Otis E. Bowman 



Leonard Rowe 

1877— '78 


John Ferris 

1879— '80 

1850— 'SI 

Rensselaer Case 

1881— '83 



Benjamin S. Thorne 


18S4— '55 

William Ferris 

1884— '85 



John Teats, Jr. 

1896— '87 


Rensselear Case 

1888— '89 



Alexander Best 




Herrick Thorne 



Peter Rissebbrack 

1893— '93 


Lewis M. Smith 



John W. Stickle 



Alexander Best 

1896— '97 


Herrick Thome 

1898— '01 


Heniy A. Fellers 

1903— '07 



Harmon B. Sherwood 

1908— '09 

Horatio Rowe 
Albert Bowman 
Nicholas PhUlips 
Ezra L. Morehouse 
William E. Shoemaker 
James Herrick 
Uriah Teator 
Horatio Rowe 
John W. Stickle 
Adelbert Husted 
James Herrick 
Adelbert Husted 
John W. Stickle 
Cyrus F. Morehouse 
Irving B. Crouse 
Cyrus ^. Morehouse 
Irving B. Crouse 
Uriah Teator 
Cyrus F. Morehouse 
George A. Boice 
Cyrus F. Morehouse 
Charles B. Simmons 




By Philip H. Smith. 

THE Little Nine Partner Patent granted in 1706, the North- 
east Precinct, constituted in 1746, and Northeast Town, 
erected in 1788, and the present towns of Northeast, Pine 
Plains and Milan, taken collectively, comprised approximately the 
same territorial limits. Huntting says that this section of the county, 
originally embraced in a single town, was by creation separated into 
three geographical divisions before a surveyor was thought of or 
needed. The Winchell Mountain is a barrier between the Harlem 
Valley and Stissing Basin, while Stissing Mountain divides the latter 
from the valley of Milan. Thus are situate the three towns side by 
side, each occupying a natural basin, with mountain ridges for boun- 

In 1818 Milan was set off by itself. Until 1823 letters addressed 
to Northeast were received at what is now Pine Plains. Some of the 
pioneers who settled in Salisbury, Conn., died in the State of New 
York on the same farms they cleared. A man from Westchester 
bought a farm in the town of Northeast. His brother some years 
later visited him on this identical farm in the town of Milan. 

These paradoxical statements are made possible by reason of the 
changes in the town and state boundaries. The Harlem Railroad, 
when first built, ran through a corner of Massachusetts. Now the 
trains pass a half mile west of the state line — Massachusetts having 
receded that distance — ^but this will be told of more fully elsewhere. 

In 1823, Northeast was shorn of Pine Plains, but had annexed a 
liberal slice of Amenia to its southern border at the same time, thus 
preserving its equilibrium among its sister towns by this compensa- 
tion in wealth and population. 

Before the town of Northeast was divided, all Northeast and Milan, 
as towns now stand, went to the Stissing House in Pine Plains to vote. 


The town records of the present Northeast previous to 1823 were 
kept in the Town Clerk's office at Pine Plains. Under these circum- 
stances it is not always easy to make historical statements clear to 
the reader. 

Northeast received its name from its geographical position in the 
county. A tongue of land approximately two miles in width, extends 
along the Connecticut border into the town of Ancram, Columbia 
County, about four miles beyond the remaining portion of the town. 
Northeast is bounded on the north by Columbia County, east by 
Litchfield County in Connecticut, south by Amenia and west by Stan- 
ford and Pine Plains. 

A lofty range of the Taconic Mountains extends along the eastern 
border, with the Winchell Mountain on the west. Rudd Pond and 
Indian Pond are the principal bodies of water, 'the latter lying for 
the most part, in the State of Connecticut. The "Ten Mile" River, 
some eighteen miles in length, runs south through the eastern part 
of the town, through Amenia and into Dover, where it forms a con- 
fluence with the Housatonic. The Shekomeko runs in a northerly di- 
rection through its western portion. 

The first town meeting in Northeast as at present constituted was 
held at Northeast Center. The following is the earliest record: Pur- 
suant to an act of the Legislature of the State of New York, passed 
March 9,6, 182S, for dividing the towns of Amenia and Northeast in 
the County of Dutchess, and erecting a new town therefrom by the 
name of Northeast, and directing the first town meeting to be held at 
the house of Alexander Neeley in said town. 

A town meeting was held at the house of the aforesaid Alexander 
Neeley, on the first day of April, 1823; the above act was read; Enos 
Hopkins was chosen Moderator, Charles Perry and Alanson Pulver, 
Clerks. Among the regulations, or town laws, passed for the town 
of Northeast at this meeting are these: Voted, that a fence, to be 
considered lawful, shall be four feet and a half high ; that the materi- 
als shall be laid no more than five inches apart for two feet above the 
ground. Voted, that no hogs shall be suffered to roam in the high- 
ways after three months old without a ring in their nose. Voted, that 
proper persons shall be employed to run the line between the towns of 
Amenia and Northeast. 

At the annual town meeting of Northeast on the 6th of April, 1824, 


John H. Wilson, Alexander Colver and Eli Mills were elected Com- 
missioners of Common Schools; Charles Perry, Peter Mills and John 
Buttolph, Inspectors of Schools. Each town, by this system, was the 
supreme judge of the requisite qualities of the teachers, and the sole 
arbiter of the curriculum of the schools. 

At the annual town meeting in 1824, Voted, that the town raise 
the sum of six hundred dollars for the support of the poor. In con- 
nection with the preceding, the following entry explains itself: "We, 
Joel Benton, Supervisor and Solomon Cook and Joel Brown, Over- 
seers of the Poor of the town of Amenia, and Philo M. Winchell, Super- 
visor, and Eben Wheeler and Enos Howkins, Overseers of the town 
of Northeast, being convened for the purpose of dividing the poor 
and money of the town of Amenia." 

It will be recollected that Northeast had just annexed a part of 
Amenia, and the territory annexed carried with it its quota of the 
poor of the entire town. Those early legislatures could not agree 
as to what would be a proper division, and public feeling was aroused 
to such an extent that the matter was taken to the Court of General 
Sessions at Poughkeepsie for adjudication. By direction of the court 
eighteen persons (named in the record) were by these town officials, 
assigned to Amenia and twelve others allotted to Northeast. 

At this time each town was required to take care of its own poor, 
and the officials sometimes were not proof against the temptation to 
be rid of objectionable citizens at the expense of other towns. The 
question was a continual source of bitter jealousy and wrangling until 
the state passed a law which mitigated the condition. The follow- 
ing is among the entries: "We have set to the town of Pine Plains 
(naming fifteen persons), and set to the town of Northeast (naming 
six persons), and there are still six persons that are not divided, and 
are a subject of future arrangement." 

There were other sources of friction, owing to the changes in town 
lines, such as the division of school and highway moneys, and the 
settlement of quit rents, the latter having reluctantly been permitted 
to survive until about 1823, when this vestige of English manorial 
customs was banished from American soil. 

The earliest settlements in Northeast were made in the Oblong tract. 
One jeason for this was that better titles could be given to the prop- 
erty, which were guaranteed by the state; and, being contiguous to 


New England where most of the early settlers came from, these prob- 
ably located at the first desirable place they came to; the iron mines 
were another and perhaps stronger attraction. 

Spencers Corners or "Clearing" was among the oldest settled parts 
of the Oblong. The history of the Baptist Church built here in 1777, 
during the Revolutionary War, is given on other pages. Their church 
edifice in Northeast stood near the present cemetery, opposite the 
brick house now occupied by Walter Wilcoxson. The well used by 
those early Baptist worshipers still supplies the sweetest and purest 
water for miles, and is located in the Wilcoxson yard. This well was 
originally partially enclosed in a "well house," and was provided with 
seats around the sides. The farmers came from distance, on Sunday 
mornings, with their families in wagons drawn hy oxen, remaining all 
day and listening to the sermons, and adjourning to the "well house" 
for their noonday repast. 

North of Spencers Corners a short mile, stands the old-fashioned, 
rambhng, small-windowed, many-roomed dwelling house of the Dakins. 
Orville Dakin, the ancestor of the Dakins, and owner of the mine and 
furnace adjacent, built this house when the country was a wilderness. 
There was a line of ore beds from here to Boston Corners and beyond, 
of which the Dakins were either sole or part owners. To the west of 
this line, at Irondale, are the buildings of the Millerton Iron Com- 
pany, now sadly fallen to ruin. This was once a busy hamlet, having 
a mill employing over one hundred hands, with grist mill, store and 
postofllce. Now nothing but a school and a few families remain. 

In fact the digging and smelting of ore constituted the leading in- 
dustry of this part of Northeast for the better part of a century. 
During this early period other lines of business occupied their neigh- 
bors over the mountain, in the southwest part of the town. The fol- 
lowing advertisement shows the nature of the business referred to, and 
tells of its decadence: 

"MILL FOR SALE.— The subscriber offers for sale his mills, situate in Amenia 
(now Northeast), four miles north from the Federal Store. The neighborhood 
consists of wealthy farmers, and the surrounding country very productive of wheat. 
The machinery of the grist mill and fulling mills are in tolerable good order, and 
the stream which supplies them very durable. There is adjoining fourteen acres 
of good wheat land, and a comfortable dwelling house, garden, &. The terms of 
payment will be made easy. A good title and possession given inmiediately by 
applying to the subscriber living near the premises. 

May 4, 1807. Matthias Row." 


At one time the "Federal Store" referred to was a busy place. Some 
years previously a stock company had made this point a nucleus for 
general exchange and merchandising in this vicinity, their shipping 
point being Poughkeepsie. This Association was called the Federal 
Company, and the store the Federal Store. There was also a grist 
mill, a carding machine and fulling mill; also a factory for the manu- 
facture of farm implements. The store ceased as a place of business 
before 1850. 

The invasion of the Harlem Railroad into the vicinity about 1852 
wrought a great change in the town. Carding machines, fulling miUs 
and family looms are things of the past, and the shipping of milk to 
the New York markets has become the great industry of Northeast. 

In the early years of our local history the system of carrying the 
mails was very inadequate and unsatisfactory. Oftentimes letters 
would be trusted to a friend, who happened to be traveling to the 
vicinity of the letter's destination. Important messages usually were 
sent by special carrier. In old documents the person who is deputed 
to be the bearer of the communication is frequently mentioned by 
name. Some fifteen or twenty years after the close of the Revolution, 
private parties undertook the carrying of letters and papers on their 
own account, the sender or receiver of the letter paying the carrier 
therefor. In 1796 Alexander Neeley, of Northeast Center, started a 
post route in the upper part of the county, and it is said that for 
several years after the war of 1812 with England, he carried the gov- 
ernment mails from Pine Plains to Sharon. At first the postman 
took for his own all the income of the business; later, after the route 
was established, the government assumed its control, reimbursing the 
carrier for his interest. Spencers Corners was early a postofEce; an- 
other was Northeast Center, where, in 1823, Alexander Neeley was 
both postmaster and merchant. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution there was a great demand for 
lead for bullets. An Indian used to bring quantities of lead to Ezra 
Clark at about this time; he said he got it on Indian Mountain, but 
would not teU where. No one was ever able to find the place. The 
requirements of the new governments also called for sulphur and flint. 
Near the present hamlet of Shekomeko, in the southwestern part of 
th»town, one John McDonald, a miner from Scotland, under instruc- 
tions from the Provincial Congress, began to excavate where a mine 


had been worked some quarter of a century before by some Hollanders. 
McDonald was directed to open the pits or shafts which Van Hook 
and Tiebout formerly worked, doing the labor with only four assist- 
ants, and await further orders from Congress, at whose expense the 
mining was to be done. In the first pit a small quantity of lead was 
discovered in three places, but not in a continued vein. The second 
pit contained lead in several places, but not in an unbroken vein. The 
bottom was void of the appearance of ore. He next cleared a pit 
about fifty feet in depth. These pits were on the hill or knoll near the 
present railroad depot. 

Ezra Thompson, who then resided at the "Federal Square," was 
superintendent, and furnished the necessary tools to McDonald, and 
also advanced money to prospect the mining ojperations. Not meet- 
ing with ore deposits in paying quantities they abandoned working in 
pits and commenced at the northeast end of the 'hill near the highway 
bridge, where they dug a trench "eighteen foot length and about three 
foot deep." Making further excavations, during which they "opened 
thirty feet in length and in some place digged three feet deep, and in 
other places have sunk six foot, in there discovered a vein about two 
or three inches in breadth, and raised about fifteen hundred weight of 

October 16, 1776, McDonald entered into a further contract with 
the Committee of the Provincial Congress to sink the lead mine which 
he had lately opened, "twelve feet in depth from its present state, and 
extend the same thirty feet in length in such direction as he shall think 
best, and deliver the ore to the order of this convention." He was to 
furnish everything, and was to receive ten pounds for every six feet 
in depth, six feet in length and three feet in breadth, which he should 
sink in said mine. At the final settlement it was found that McDonald 
had dug six hundred and ninety cubic feet, which at the rate of ten 
pounds for every one hundred and eight, amounted to sixty-three 
pounds, seven shillings and nine pence, which the Provincial Congress 
paid, and discontinued the mining operations. 

That the McDonalds were a wealthy and important family is evi- 
dent, as there is a spacious burial ground north of Shekomeko, oppo- 
site the schoolhouse, where many of that name are buried. The 
grounds have been walled in at considerable expense, the stones com- 
posing the fence having been hauled from the vicinity of The Square. 


The McDonalds were slave owners, but would not consent to their 
slaves being buried inside the enclosure where there was ample room, 
but were content to have them placed in graves contiguous to the 
tombs of their masters, so long as they were outside the walls. 

For a period of nearly three-fourths of a century the lead mines at 
Shekomeko were unmolested, but in 1853 attention was again drawn 
in their direction. On the 29th of August of that year W. H. Hughes 
of New York secured a mineral lease of the mine hill, and mining was 
again resumed. The lease was given by Ward W. Bryan (grand- 
father of the present owner of the farm), and was to remain in force 
for a period of twelve years with the privilege of renewal. It read 
in part: "If no mineral or fossil substance be mined within the period 
of eight months from the present, or any time afterwards in eight 
months, then these presents and everything contained therein shall 
cease and be free." 

Hughes for a time worked the mines under this lease and then sud- 
denly left. The reason of his action was subsequently explained. Hughes 
had been operating as agent for a company, and he struck a vein 
of ore of uncommon richness. The lease terminated by its own con- 
ditions, for eight months elapsed during which no mineral was raised. 
At the expiration of that time Hughes put in an appearance and made 
application for a new lease from Bryan in his own name; but he died 
suddenly before the business was consummated. The rich "find" was 
not disclosed until after his death, and its location, if such there was, 
is not now known. Experts claim that indications point to a rich 
vein of ore somewhere in this range of mountains. 

In 1862 the Bryan farm was again leased, this time to Gust. A. 
Sacchi, who represented a mining company in New York with a capi- 
tal of $600,000. Heretofore the work had been done by hand labor, 
drainage of the pits being affected by drifts or tunnels from the loca- 
tion. But this new company did the work of pumping and hoisting 
by steam. The company bought a farm nearby, on which was wood 
for fuel and a building for a boarding house. At one place a shaft 
was sunk seventy-five feet with lateral tunnels at the bottom. After 
some $300,000 of stock was sold work was stopped and the farm re- 
verted back to the owners, Calvin C. and Ehhu W. Bryan, father and 
uncl9 of the present owner. 

Ezra Bryan emigrated to Shekomeko from the Connecticut or New 


Haven Colony. The family came from the same branch as did Hon. 
William Jennings Bryan, to whom the early Shekomeko emigrants 
bear a family resemblance, it is said. The Bryans for three-fourths 
of a century furnished Dutchess County and adjacent territory with 
fanning mills ; a part of their factory is still in existence, and is now 
a wagon house in the hamlet of Shekomeko. 

The history of the Baptist Church of Northeast dates back to the 
first day of May, 1773, when the first covenant meeting in this Pre- 
cinct was held at Brother Dakin's house near Spencers Clearing; and 
in 1777, on land in the vicinity of the old graveyard at Spencers Cor- 
ners, their house of worship was erected. 

A dissension having arisen in relation to some matters of church 
government, a council was called, composed of Elders Waldo, Drake, 
Gano, Moss, Kellogg and Ferris, who advised the release of the dis- 
senting members. Then successively follow the names of Eastman, 
Hopkins, Allerton, Winchell, Buttolph, Thompson, La Grange and 
others, beloved and consecrated elders of the church, serving well and 
faithfully their pastorships while the church grew and prospered. 

In 1829 a new and commodious house of worship was dedicated. 
It was of brick, and cost about $5,000, of which James Winchell con- 
tributed $1,700. Rev. Thomas Winter preached the dedicatory ser- 
mon. Dr. Rufus Babcock assisting at the services. 

About the close of the Civil War the society voted to sell the old 
brick church at Spencers Corners, purchase a new site in the growing 
village of Millerton, and build another house of worship nearer the 
business center of the town. In pursuance of this decision, on the 
4th of November, 1867, the church met to lay the cornerstone of its 
new house of worship. 

The edifice is situated at the head of the main village street, and 
the church is prospering under the pastoral care of Rev. George C. 

Congregational Chuech, Northeast. The first meeting to con- 
sider the question of building a Congregational House of Worship in 
the town of Northeast was held at the house of Nicholas Holbrook at 
Northeast Center, October 17, 1827. A resolution was adopted in 
favor of building such a house, and a committee of five was appointed 
to solicit subscriptions. December 2nd, a building committee was 
named to proceed with the work. During the summer of 1828 the 


house was built, and on December 2Srd was formally delivered to the 
society by the committee. The cost of the building in money, aside 
from the labor contributed and the site given by Mr. Holbrook, was 

January 15th, 1829, the house was dedicated and the church con- 
stituted. There were nine members, as follows: Ehhu Payne, Ezra L. 
Barrett, Rhode Barrett, Philip J. Jenks, Julia Ann Jenks, John I. 
Douglass, Elizabeth Clark, Mary Hotchkiss and Myra Coleman. The 
society was incorporated in June, 1829. 

The first pastor to minister to this church was Rev. Thomas Fletcher, 
who was installed January 14, 1830. At the end of his pastorate 
three years later, the church had on its roUs about one hundred mem- 

In 1873 this church was affiliated vdth the Presbyterian denomina- 

In 1866, $4000 was subscribed to tear down the church building at 
Northeast Center and rebuild at Millerton. The second house of wor- 
ship was dedicated February 17th, 1867. The entire cost of this 
building was $10,473.79. 

November 8, 1904, a meeting was held to consider the remodelling 
of the church or the building of a new one. After repeated sessions, 
the trustees in September, 1905, voted to build a new church, award- 
ing the contract to the local builders, Beers and TrafFord, for the 
sum of $7,800, not including the leaded glass windows, seats, light, 
heat, or any of the furniture. An oflFer of $500 for the old church 
building was accepted, and a subscription list of about $7,200 re- 

The cornerstone of this, the third house of worship of the society, 
was laid on Thanksgiving Day, November 30, 1905, the pastors of 
sister churches. Revs. H. Y. Murklaiid and E. F. Charles, participat- 
ing in the service. 

Methodist Episcopal Church or Northeast. The Methodists 
were the first to hold religious services here after the departure of the 
Moravian Missionaries, but records of the church are very meagre. 
The first record of which anything is known bears date of 1842, in 
part as follows: "The subscribers, being appointed judges by a 
majority of the members present do find that Daniel Lee, John I. 
Hull and Nathaniel Gridley were elected by a plurality of voice to 


serve as trustees of the Northeast Center Methodist Church in the town 
of Northeast, Dutchess County, N. Y., in witness whereof we have 
hereunto set our hands and sedls this seventh day of February, 1842. 

Daniel Lee, Jr., (L, S.) 
LoBEN^o Gilbert, (L. S.) 

The second quarterly meeting for the conference year 1847, for 
Salisbury and Northeast, was held at the church at Northeast Center, 
February 23. Presiding Elder, Denton Keeler; Preacher in Charge, 
D. C. Benjamin; Clerk, J. S. Caulkins. At a quarterly meeting in 
1850, Rev. Phineas Rice, Presiding Elder, a committee having been 
appointed to estimate the table expenses of the preacher for North- 
east, Rev. J. L. Dickerson, they allowed him $100 and his fuel. At 
a quarterly conference held at the M. E. Churcn, Northeast Center, 
Rev. J. Z. Nichols, Presiding Elder, the subject of a district associa- 
tion was proposed. In 1855 Rev. P. C. Oakley is mentioned as Pre- 
siding Elder, and Rev. A. H. Ferguson as Preacher in Charge. 

An important change in the society was made about this time. 
At a meeting of the male members of the Methodist Church and society 
of Northeast, held at the hall at Millerton, that being the regular 
place of worship of said society, March 2nd, 1857, for the purpose of 
electing sworn trustees for the incorporating of said society, the 
meeting was called to order by Rev. W. G. Browning, when the follow- 
ing trustees were elected: Nathaniel Gridley, Alexander W. Trow- 
bridge, Nicholas D. Eggleston, John S. Caulkins, Horace S. Kelsey, 
Douglass Clark, Jr., and Perry Vroman. A certifiaate was duly 
signed and recorded in the County Clerk's office, and thus a second 
Methodist Society was constituted and located at the growing village 
of Millerton. The preacher in charge at the later place also held ser- 
vices at the Center for a time, but these were finally discontinued. 

Under date of April 2nd, 1859, is found the following : "The trus- 
tees of Millerton beg leave to report that they have purchased a lot 
on which they have erected a church edifice which costs, with the said 
lot, the sum of $4,500. That they have paid $3,700. That there is 
now in subscriptions $450." 

March 23rd, 1861, conference was held at Northeast Center, and 
again in July of that year at Millerton, indicating that both com- 
munities were enjoying church privileges. 

The society is now meeting in a commodious house of worship, of 


an attractive and modem design, and are enjoying the ministrations 
of Rev. Angelo Ostrander. 

The village of Millerton^ was incorporated June 30, 1875, with N. 
C. Beach, President; O. Wakeman, H. B. Eggleston, W. B. Grey, 
Trustees; J. M. Benedict, Treasurer. 

At a public meeting held at the Nickel Plate Rink, January 19, 
1891, it was voted to raise money to procure a water supply for the 
village of Millerton, authorizing the bonding of the village for a sum 
not to exceed $15,000. Previous to this the Village Board had met 
and organized a Board of Water Commissioners as follows: E. H. 
Thompson, President; J. W. Pulver, P. N. Paine and Nicholas Best, 
Trustees. In the following year the village was bonded for $18,000, 
and a fire department was organized, with spacious quarters and 
adequate apparatus. 

The Millerton Telegraph, a weekly publication, was started Novem- 
ber 1, 1876, by Cooley James, who sold it to Van Scriver and Deacon 
after conducting it about three months ; subsequently Colvin Card pur- 
chased Van Scriver's interest, later assuming the sole proprietorship, 
continuing its publication until his death. Its present proprietor is 
W. L. Loupe. 

The Millerton National Bank was organized in 1882. G. S. Frink 
was its first President, and W. M. Dales its first Cashier. The pres- 
ent bank building was erected in 1903, and is equipped with modern 
vault and safe deposit boxes. The Bank has a capital stock of $50,- 
000, with individual deposits according to the statement of February 
14, 1908, of over $299,000. Its present officers are Frank A. Hotch- 
kiss, President, and W. C. Denny, Vice President and Cashier. 

There is a natural phenomenon connected with the lofty range of 
the Taconic Mountains, forming the border line between Northeast 
and the State of Connecticut, that has aroused the wonder of scientific 
minds, and the inhabitants who spend their lives in the valley at its 
foot are by this strange happening often put to their wits end. 

High up among the crags, says Landon, is the hatching place of 
great wiads. With this high mountain range lying along the east 
side for miles, the valley would seem to be the best protected region 

1., This Tillage derived Its name from Sidney G. Miller, one of the contractors and 
builders of the extension of the New Tork & Harlem Railroad from Dover Plains to 


from easterly gales that could be imagined. There are more east 
winds of typhoon power right here than in any other place this side 
the Rocky Mountains — and that is what puzzles those who are ever 
trying to explain the weather. 

Hours before the gales reach the vaUey their roar is heard on the 
mountain top, not unlike the moan of the ocean heard at a distance. 
Gradually they work down the mountain side, their voice becoming 
more menacing as they gather momentum in their descent; then 
the beholder notes the forest trees bending and swaying before an 
unseen force upon the mountain side, while at its foot the leaves hang 
motionless. And when the winds at the moment of their greatest fury 
reach the mountain's base, and rush howling and screaming across 
the narrow valley, it behooves man and beast Jo seek shelter. In- 
stances have been recorded of passenger trains, with their load of 
human freight, being lifted from the rails. 

When the survey of the Massachusetts State boundaries were made, 
a comer of that commonwealth extended over the Taconic range to 
the west. This corner comprised about four hundred acres of arable 
land, and some fifteen hundred of mountain land, and was completely 
isolated from the rest of the state by a practicably impassable moun- 
tain. By traversing a roundabout way some twelve to fifteen miles in 
another state one might get from this fragment of nowhere into Mas- 

Here for years lived and prospered a little community, a virtual 
Republic. They paid no taxes to the State, went to no polling place 
to vote, but governed themselves, supported a school, kept up religious 
services, and had they been left to themselves, there had been no blot 
on their escutcheon. 

One day an enterprising Yankee came and opened an inn. Then 
a stranger came and took lodgings, and soon went away. Soon 
others appeared, were entertained, and presently departed, without 
making their business known. Then the people of Boston Corners be- 
gan to open their eyes. These transient guests were refugees from 
the constables of the three commonwealths, whose territory joined 
near this point, who were wanted for chicken stealing, or some other 
local offenses. 

Also the eyes of law-breakers from the outside world were drawn 
to this haven of criminals. In 1811 John Armstrong fought a duel 


here, where he was immune from the enforcement of the laws of either 
state against dueling. While a Massachusetts constable might have 
made an arrest, the moment he stepped into New York or Connecticut 
with his prisoner he would lose jurisdiction, and there was neither 
judge nor jail at Boston Comers, 

For half a century things went on, when an event occurred which 
led to concerted action being taken by New York, Massachusetts, and 
the National Government. 

October 12, 1852, a heavily loaded train from New York City dis- 
charged its load at Boston Comers, a station on the newly completed 
railroad. Other train loads from Albany and Troy were dumped off 
at the same point, as rough a set of rowdies as ever set foot on any 
soil. People from the country came in wagons, until the crowd was 

Two men seemed to be the center of attraction. One was forty-one 
years of age, and looked old enough to be the father of the other who 
was twenty-two, but was three inches taller, looking hke a giant be- 
side the older man. The latter was Yankee Sullivan, long the cham- 
pion prize-fighter of America, while the giant was John Morrisey, 
just then on the threshold of his world-wide notoriety. Morrisey's 
seconds were Tom O'Donnell and "Awful" Gardiner ; Sullivan was es- 
corted by Billy Wilson and another friend. The purse was $2,000 a 

Forcibly pre-empting the first convenient dwelling house, the prin- 
cipals were quickly dressed for the battle. In an adjacent field was 
an abandoned brickyard. In a large level plot, that had been care- 
fully prepared for the drying of the bricks years before, the grounds 
were selected, and the ropes of the arena drawn, while hundreds of 
spectators looked on from points of vantage. 

Thirty-seven bloody rounds were fought with bare fists. Sullivan 
seemed to have the better of his opponent all through the fight until 
the last round, when he was thrown violently against the ropes, and 
failed to recover before time was called. Morrisey, who had never 
left his place, was proclaimed victor. But the point of interest for 
the people of Northeast, and one reason for the introduction of the 
event in this chapter, is the raid of the hungry hordes on Millerton 
after the battle was over. This was then a mere hamlet, and was 
tight-shut when the invasion came. But locks were nothing; the pri- 



vacy of pantries was not respected; nothing was respected that came 
between the invaders and anything that could be eaten. Hogs were 
killed and roasted in the highway. MiUerton never forgot that prize 
fight at Boston Corners. 

This event broke the independent spirit of the Boston Corners "Re- 
public." The people clamored to be annexed to some civil authority 
able to cope with the powers of evil, to the end that never should such 
scenes be repeated. Massachusetts, in May of the year following the 
fight, ceded the triangle to New York; the concession was accepted 
by New York July 21, 1853; the transfer was confirmed by Act of 
Congress January 3d, 1855. The soil of Boston Corners has been 
respected ever since. 

The following has been the succession of Supervisors from 1775 to 
1908: * 

177S— '76 

Israel Thompson 



Douglass Clark 

1777— '78 

Hugh Rea 


Alanson Colver 

1779— '81 

Lewis Graham 

1833— '34 

Eli Mills 


Hugh Rea 

1835— '36 

David Seldon 


Uriah Lawrence 



John H. Conklin 


Lewis Graham 



Moses Clark 

1785— '87 

John White 



Eben Wheeler 

1788— '93 

Josiah Holly 


Jeduthan Roe 


Ebenezer Dibblee 

1844— '45 

Hiram Wheeler 

1794— '96 

Josiah HoUy 


Abraham Bockee 

1797— '98 

Ebenezer Dibblee 


James Hammond 

1799— '00 

Peter Husted 


Abner Brown 


(No record of this year.) 


George Douglass 

1802— '03 

Isaac Sherwood 


Geo. R. Winchell 

1804— '05 

Martin B. Winchell 


Gerard Pitcher 


Jonathan Deuel 


John Winchell 


Benj. R. Bostwick 


Edgar Clark 

1808— '09 

Jonathan Deuel 


Jeremiah W. Paine 

1810— '11 

Enos Hopkins 


Piatt A. Paine 

1812— '13 

Isaac Sherwood 


Hiram Rogers 

1814— 'IS 

Uri Judd 


Edw'd W. Simmons 

1816— '17 

Martin Lawrence 


John F. Wheeler 

1818— '19 

Fyler Dibblee 


Phoenix Bodiee 

1820— '21 

Philo M. Winchell 


Greorge Clark 


Israel Harri? 


David Bryan 


Philo M. WincheU 


John Campbell 

1834— '35 

David Seldon 


George F. More 


Amos Bryan 

1864— '67 

Edw'd W. Simmons 

1827— '28 

Abraham Booker 


William H. Barton 




WilUam L. Pratt 


Wm. Angevine 


James Collins 

1886— '87 

John Scutt 

1871— '72 

James Collins 

1888— '89 

John W. Pulver 


George Dakin 


John Scutt 

1874— '75 

Daniel McElwell 


Hoffman Sweet 


Michael Rowe 


Edward H. Thompson 


Jeremiah W. Paine 


Daniel B. McElwee 


Hiram Rogers 

1894— '97 

Charles A. Cline 


James M. Winchell 

1898— '99 

Frank A. Hotchkiss 


George E. Crane 

1900— '01 

Charles A. Cline 

1881— '83 

Wheeler Rowe 

1903— '07 

Lorin J. Eggleston 

1883— '84 

George WiUiams 

1908— '09 

Gideon M. Slee 




By Philip H. Smith. 

THE Town of Pawling is universally described as the southeast 
corner town in Dutchess County. A range of high hiUs, which 
range is locally known as Quaker Hill, ^tends along the east 
border. Another range known as the West Mountain occupies the 
west part. A broad and fertile valley runs through the central por- 
tion. Swamp and Croton Rivers take their rise here, the former 
flowing north into the Housatonic, the latter south into the Hudson. 

Pawling is bounded north by Dover, east by the town of Sherman 
in Connecticut, south by Patterson in Putnam County, and west by 
the town of Beekman. Pawling Precinct was taken from Beekman 
Precinct by an act passed December 31, 1768, and erected into a 
town in 1788, when the State government was subjected to general 
revision in many of its details ; the town limits were then greater than 
at present, as Dover was taken off and made into a separate town- 
ship in 1807. The ancient Pawling town records, which covered a 
period previous to the division of the town, were destroyed by the 
fire of 1869. 

There are four considerable natural bodies of water in the town, 
the dimensions of most of them having been considerably increased 
by artificial means. These are known as Whaley Pond, Lake Nor- 
ton, Green Mountain Lake and Lake Hammersley. All these lakes 
aff'ord excellent fishing, having been stocked from various hatcheries, 
and provided with boats and fishing appliances. In summer the 
islands and shores of these picturesque inland water basins are dotted 
with the tents of city campers. 

Many authorities have described the limits of the town as being 
included in the patent granted to Henry Beekman June 26, 1703. 
This is only partly true, as the south line of the Beekman Patent was 


approximately that which was afterwards known as the Willis Line, 
or the line advocated by some for the division line when Putnam 
County was taken off in 1812. This hne was run through what is 
now the incorporated limits of the village of Pawling, and is thus 
described: "Beginning on the Oblong line at a large heap of stones 
set up which bears north 25 degrees, west 38 links from a large rock 
on which are cut the letters H. B., B. B,-, and P. P. ; a new house 
built by Adam Chase bears the same course that the rock does. From 
thence due west, the hne runs about 12 feet south of WiUiam Hunt's 
spring, where Col. Henry Beekman made the letters H. B. on the 
rock out of which) the water of the spring runs. Said hne also crosses 
a pretty large pond in the mountains a Httle south of the middle. On 
the east shore a monument is set up about two chains south of one 
Baker's house situated in a hoUow." Now as to the location of these 
monuments. The large rock, with the letters cut in, may be seen in 
the meadow north of Martin Leach's residence as described in the 
colonial records, with the exception that the initials "B. R." have 
been torn away by a blast set off by some workmen who did not 
know the rock was a monument of the ancient patent line divisions. 
The house built by Adam Chase referred to was the one destroyed by 
fire one winter's night many years ago, and occupied the present site 
of Martin Leach's dwelling. William Hunt owned land on which 
PawHng village stands, and "Hunt's Spring" is the one in rear of 
H. S. Wanger's residence. 

The large pond in the mountains is Whaley Pond. This line can 
be traced by the remains of an old wall leading over the south end 
of Purgatory, and also by the stone and rail fence extending along 
the southern declivity of Mount Tom. 

This rock at Martin Leach's was the southeast corner of the Beek- 
man Patent, and this monument until 1731 was in the boundary line 
between Connecticut and New York, at which time the Oblong strip 
was taken off, and the New York State hne established nearly two 
miles further to the eastward. 

The territory comprised in Putnam County was by some styled 
Philipsburgh Manor from the fact that its proprietor, Adolph Philipse, 
was granted certain manorial rights and privileges. It bounds the 
town'bf Pawling on the south. 

Thus we have a wedge-shaped piece of land extending from the 


Beekman Patent line to the Patterson line, the head of the wedge, 
nearly three miles across, abutting against the Connecticut line, with 
the point marked by a clump of bushes on the Hudson, known as 
"Plum Point." This wedge comprised a mere bagatell of territory, 
say fifteen thousand acres, more or less, that had been overlooked in 
the allottment of lands to the original patentees. Starting from the 
same point on the Hudson, the lines were run, without chain or com- 
pass, "four hours' going into the woods," diverging more and more 
the further the lines were extended. 

The Beekman and the Philipse heirs both laid claim to territory 
within this "gore," which lay outside their lines; and its division was 
the subject of bitter controversy for many years. The dispute was 
finally settled in 1771, and two ancient deeds of land in this town 
bear that date, given by the Philipse heirs, one to Reed Ferris and 
one to William Prendergast — the Dodge- Arnold farm and the Arnold 

Fredericksburgh was at the time of the Revolution a village, after- 
wards called "The City," located near the present residence of Dr. 
Banks in Patterson. The appellation of this village gave the name 
to a large extent of territory, the residence of John Kane being within 
it. Among the old documents. Pawling is referred to by the name of 

The road leading south from Pawling village, now called the State 
Road, was originally laid out in 1745, and is described as running 
from Beekman's Patent into Westchester. The road running diag- 
onally up the hill toward Mr. Conger's was first built as a turnpike, 
and known as the Philipstown turnpike. The road from Patterson 
through Reynoldsville was called the FIshkill turnpike. 

Spafford's Gazateer, published in 1813, gave the number of looms 
for the weaving of cloth in private families in Pawling as one hundred 
and two. In fact, at a much later date, nearly everything used by 
the farmers was made in town. Abram Thomas made the nails that 
went into the construction of the Hicksite Meeting House. Hiram 
Sherman made coffins and wagons. John Hays was a tailor. Isaac 
Ingersoll carried on the tannery business. Jeptha Sabin was a sad- 
dler and harness maker; and that the most essential needs of the 
ladies should have due recognition, Peter Field, the silversmith, opened 
a shop. John TofFey and Joseph Seely were hatters, while Amos 


Osborn made jugs. Stephen Briggs was a shoemaker, and there is 
the tradition of a forge on the glen stream on Quaker Hill. Miss 
Alicia H. Taber, in "Glimpses of the Past," from which some of the 
foregoing are quotations, says revolving hay rakes were first made 
in this town. There were two carding machines, one at Cole's MiUs 
and the other at the Cyrus Tweedy mill. The Lattimer Iron Foun- 
dry was built later, but was washed away in a freshet. It stood on 
the stream north of Cole's Mill. 

The population of the town in 1810 was 1756. Outside of the vil- 
lages it must have been more thickly inhabited than now. About 
20,000 yards of cloth were produced from the family looms in the 
town that year. Patterson had a fuUing mill, two carding machines 
and a distillery of grain and fruit spirits. 

The fattening of cattle, says Miss Taber, constituted the chief 
business of most farmers in this vicinity. Live cattle were the only 
produce that did not have to go to the river to reach the market. 
The road through Pawling was the main thoroughfare from points 
as far north as Vermont. Monday was the market day in the city, 
and all started in time to reach their destination by Saturday. The 
cattle were started from Pawling on Thursday, taking the better part 
of three days to reach the city. It used to be remarked by cattle 
dealers that they could teU what the Monday's market would be by 
taking note of the droves that passed through Pawling on Thursday. 
The cattle were purchased by drovers, and by them disposed of in the 
city. The drover was something of a personage in those days. Inns 
or taverns were kept, located every few miles along the route, for the 
cattle required feeding every few miles. There was John Preston's, 
near Dover plains ; the Morehouse tavern at South Dover ; there was 
a stopping place at Hurds Comers; next the hostelry at Gideon Slo- 
cum's in Pawling; next an inn at Akins Comers, and another at 
Benjamin V. Haviland's, and so on to the city. The books of the 
latter tavern show that in one year there had been kept 27,784 cattle, 
30,000 sheep and 700 mules; and it is said there would at times be 
as many as 2,000 head between this and the tavern at John Preston's. 

It is many years since public whippings were practiced in this 
vicinity, although in one instance the post itself remains. This par- 
ticular post is the Sycamore tree near the residence of Charles Rob- 
erts, on the John Kane place. This was the one used by Washington 


for military punishments, and was probably used for the civil as well. 
It was the army custom to administer one-half the number of blows 
ordered, say fifty or so, then wait two or three days until the wounds 
had festered, and then deUver the remainder. Some economic writers 
aver that public whipping was the best antidote for petty thieving of 
any invention of man; but pubHc sentiment could no longer brook 
the cruelty of the practice, even if chicken roosts were the oftener 

Another custom, the "Putting out of the Poor," is happily dis- 
continued. This was no less than selling the unfortunate indigent 
into slavery, at times as abject as ever fell to the lot of the negro 
on a southern plantation. The poor people would be delivered into 
the custody of the lowest bidder, and he in turn would compensate 
himself by getting the most work out of his subjects with the least 
outlay of food and clothing. It is intimated that the officials of the 
different towns were not above ridding themselves of their own poor 
at the expense of their neighbor. At any rate a state law was passed 
forbidding the renting of a house to any person from another town 
without the consent of the Overseers of the Poor. 

The first attempt to provide public transportation was the survey- 
ing of a route for a canal through the Harlem Valley; it is said the 
project was abandoned because some of its professed friends mis- 
appropriated the funds. The section of the Harlem railroad from 
Croton Falls to Dover Plains was opened December 31, 1849, teams 
being used to haul the train over a short stretch of road to its des- 
tination in order to meet the requirements of the charter. 

Wilson, in his "Quaker Hill," has given some curious items culled 
from the ledger of the John TofFey store. The principal goods kept 
in stock in those primitive times were cloth, indigo, thread, cambric, 
penknives, "nittenneedles," plaster, fine salt, rum, molasses, tea, apple 
trees, nutmegs and shad. There was hardly an entry of goods sold 
without the item of "rum" was included. During the years 1814!-'16, 
owing to war prices, molasses sold for $2 a gallon ; "tobago" at $2.75 
the pound; flour $18, boots $9, and tea at $2.75 per pound. Ten 
years later molasses sold at 35 cents a gallon, and tobacco at 63 cents 
the pound. 

Pawling has suffered from many conflagrations. Two church edi- 
fices have been burned, and the corner now occupied by the Ferris 


Block has twice been devastated. The first fire on the corner occurred 
in 1859, when E. I. Hurd kept a general store there ; the next took 
place in October of 1&92, when the feed store, of Ehnore Ferris, the 
Pawhng Journal printing office, and six other buildings were de- 

The principal industry of Pawling now is that of the milk business. 
There are three milk factories, so-called, — ^the Sheffield Farms, Woody- 
crest and the Mutual, — at each of which the milk is received from 
the farmers, bottled for shipment or sent in cans to the metropohs. 
The normal output of the three institutions is about five hundred cans 
daily. Pawling lays claim to being the largest milk receiving station 
in the county. As the commodity is brought into the town in the 
early morning, the streets present a busy appearance with the multi- 
tude of loaded wagons from the country and the groups of happy 
children going to school. 

Pawling village, incorporated in 1893, has about 800 inhabitants. 
Quaker Hill, Reynoldsville or Holmes, and West Pawling are hamlets. 

The high elevations of Quaker HiU and the West Mountain were 
probably settled long before the lands in the valley between were 
occupied. The "Swamp fevers" were greatly feared by the pioneer 
settlers, and they avoided setthng on the low grounds. Three brothers 
named Moshier emigrated to America long before the Revolution; 
one died soon after; another ran a mill in the town of Stanford, while 
a third settled somewhere on the West Mountain. That the west 
part of the town was at one time thickly inhabited is evident from 
the numbers of old cellars that one meets with here, during a day's ramble, 
each with tumble-down chinmey, its old well, remains of garden walls 
and beds of "tansy" to fortify against the Swamp fever. Not unfre- 
quently one comes unexpectedly upon neglected burial places in the 
forest, and there is not a tradition of the people buried there. On the 
other hand it is said there was no house on the post road between 
Alfred Wing's and the Taber homestead; thus Pawling and Hurds 
Corners were not even in embryo. Among the settlers on the east 
side we find the names of Sherman, Merrit, Birdsall, Irish, Akin, 
Craft, Chase and Osborn. Of the valley there occur Shaw, Cary, 
Hunt, Sabin, Salmon, Pearce and Slocum. On the west there once 
dwelt the ancestors of the families by the name of Worden, Moshier, 
Dentory, Dibble, Davis and Turner. It is said there was quite an 


influx into the town, about 1740. As these who immigrated here were 
not of the "Standing Order," rehgiously speaking, that is to say, 
they were Baptists and Methodists, and came from the east, it may be 
presumed they were attracted here by the promise of freedom of church 
worship. This however, hardly accords with tradition which says 
these early settlers were addicted to drinking, gaming, horse racing, 
cockfighting and wrestling. 

As the military history of the town is embodied in the general his- 
tory of the county, more than a few local incidents of that time would 
be out of place here. 

The official Headquarters of General Washington during his so- 
journ with his army in Pawling in 1778, were at the house of John 
Kane, now the site of the Roberts residence. In September, 1905, a 
copper tablet with an historical inscription was affixed to a large 
sycamore tree near by the house, and was unveiled with interesting 
and appropriate ceremonies. Mr. L. S. Patrick, of Marinette, Wis., 
delivered the historical address. The tablet was draped in the folds 
of a Union Jack intermingled with the Stars and Stripes, and Mrs. 
Laura Sherwood, 97 years of age, officiated at the ceremony of un- 
veiling. Mrs. Van Rensseleer Schuyler, of Sharon, Conn., a descend- 
ant of John Kane, was present by invitation to represent the former 
owner of the soil. Mr. Wilson followed Mr. Patrick's address in some 
remarks on the life and character of John Kane. This gentleman 
was a man owning considerable landed property in this vicinity. His 
sympathies were decidedly in favor of the patriots; but, having little 
faith in the ultimate success of their cause, was moved by considera- 
tions of self interest to side with the loyalists. He, however, took 
occasion to speak favorably of the Whigs on all public occasions, 
which greatly incensed the friends of the King. So when his estate 
was confiscated by the patriot authorities, he petitioned the King to 
reimburse him for his loss, but was met with the charge, "You talked 
too well of the King's rebellious subjects to receive favors at 'his 
hands." Disowned by both sides he was dispossessed of all his prop- 
erty, — ^the officers even stripping the pillows and blankets from a 
cradle in which his youngest child lay critically iU with pneumonia, 
and was drummed out of town. The shock and exposure proved fatal 
to the sick child, while the family suffered all the indignities that could 
be inflicted on the bitterest Tory. The good words he had spoken 


for them had been forgotten by the patriots, so inflamed they were 
by passion. The Arctic explorer of that name was a descendant of 
this same John Kane. The following is the inscription on the tablet: 










The residence of a Quaker by the name of Birch in the south end 
of Quaker Hill was robbed during the Autumn of 1778, by some sol- 
diers. On his promise not to follow them that night, they offered him 
no bodily harm. This promise, though made under duress, he kept 
on the honor of a Quaker, but at the hour the time hmit expired he 
was on their track with a posse. He traced them to the army lines, 
where he recognized the villains, and identified his property on the 
person of one of them. The evidence was so conclusive, that the cul- 
prit was convicted before court-martial, and hung despite the pro- 
tests of Birch, who had no desire to push the matter to that extremity. 

Nathan Pearce, Jun., who lived in the house standing, at the time 
of the Revolution, but since razed, on the bank nearly opposite the 
residence of O. A. Dykeman, was collector of military fines, — an 
office that was as distasteful to the public as could well be imagined. 
One night some robbers broke into the house, struck him with the 
butt of a musket, beat and kicked him into insensibihty, and finally 
suspended him, lacerated and bleeding, by his thumbs to the chamber 
floor. Then after rummaging the house, they left him to be rescued 
by the family. He never saw a well moment thereafter, and survived 
the ordeal but six weeks. Some nights subsequent to this, his brother, 
Capt. William Pearce, with some followers, surprised this robber gang 
at their rendezvous in a cave on Quaker Hill. The robber chief, 
Vaughn by name, had on his person the clothes taken from his brother 
Nathan, and William had the satisfaction of running a sword through 
the body of his enemy in revenge for the murder of his brother. 

Benjamin Sherman came from Massachusetts to Pawling in 1764!, 


and probably lived in the tenant house on the Dodge- Arnold farm at 
the foot of Quaker Hill. The Shermans were proverbially wagon 
makers and drovers as well as farmers. The "Sherman wagon, the 
box of which was rounded up at both ends, with paneled side boards, 
and half as high again in rear as in front," as I well remember, was 
built by Benjamin. This tenant house has somehow escaped the 
notice of local antiquarians, which is the more singular as it has a 
"room with six doors and one window," lacking only a single door to 
be on a par with its illustrious rival at Newburgh. In this house 
some of Sherman's children were born. No taint of Toryism, or even 
neutrality, ever attached to Sherman or his sons, three of whom were 
in the Continental service. I am inclined to the opinion that Benja- 
min Sherman was Magistrate Sherman of whom, Dr. Fallon speaks 
of so highly in his letter to Governor Chnton. It is a tradition that 
Vaughn and his night riders on one occasion, under cover of dark- 
ness, paid this family a visit, but found the old gentleman and his 
sons so well prepared to receive them that they were glad to depart 
after exchanging a few shots. The Shermans had a keg of gun- 
powder arranged with a train, in readiness to be fired in case they 
were overpowered, with the view to launch friend and foe alike into 
eternity, preferring death to falling into the hands of these "minions 
of the moon." 

The money then in circulation was mostly gold sovereigns. As a 
place of security Sherman bored holes in the bottom of his bedposts, 
into which the sovereigns were dropped until the holes were nearly 
full, then a plug would be nicely fitted into each hole, and the bedr 
stead returned to its place. 

The family afterwards removed to the farm at present owned by 
Mr. Georgfe Ketchum. On a rising knoll to the north of the house is 
a monument marking the last resting place of Benjamin Sherman and 
Deborah his wife, erected to their memory by their appreciative grand- 
son, David H. Sherman. 

Pawling Baptist Church. There is a tradition of a log church 
once standing near the Camp Meeting woods. There are evidences of a 
burial place on the west side of the road at the point, and a marble 
slab with the name, "Sarah, wife of Nathan Cary," may yet be seen 
on the farm. This confirms the supposition that Elder Henry Cary 
preached in this log structure, and that the dead of this community 
were buried in the graveyard contiguous to it. From the record of a 


marriage ceremony solemnized by Elder Gary in 1766, it is presumable 
this was the period of his residence in this vicinity. 

Elder John Lawrence began preaching here in 1770, and was pas- 
tor of a church organized before the Revolution. In 1775 he was 
succeeded by Elder Phineas Clark. One of Elder Lawrence's con- 
verts was Nehemiah Johnson ; the latter was ordain&l and commenced 
preaching when Elder Clark left, and served the Pawling church as 
its minister fifty-three consecutive years. The pastorate of Elder 
Johnson is not more remarkable for its length than for the peace 
and harmony that prevailed over the entire period. The writer of 
this chapter remembers the deep veneration with which the people of 
this vicinity regarded this sainted man. He had never enjoyed the 
advantages of a hberal education, and his language might not have 
been always grammatical, as measured by modem rules, but "he could 
remember nothing he said after announcing his text, and at the close 
of the sermon his audience Was frequently found in tears." During 
the period of his ministry he labored with his own hands for his tem- 
poral support while administering to the spiritual needs of his people. 

The earliest meeting house of this society was at the top of the 
West Mountain, where the Dug Way road intersects the Penny road 
that follows the crest of the mountain into the town of Dover. This 
was always known as the Johnson Meeting House, and is still remem- 
bered by some of our oldest citizens. Large congregations were ac- 
customed to gather there, and "they found it easy breathing in prayer 
on that high ground where they worshiped." The church at this 
time had a membership of ninety. Azariah CrandeU was chosen deacon 
at its formation, holding the office until his death in 1808. In 1842 
Benjamin Burr and Elijah Booth were deacons. In August, 1841, 
Elders Johnson and Kirby were required to revise the church records 
up to that date, and ascertain how many of those whose names were 
on the church books ought to be considered under the care of the 
church. Unfortunately those records cannot now be found. 

At this period the society were holding meetings half the time in 
the Union Meeting House (the church "over the swamp" as spoken 
of in the Methodist records), that edifice having been completed about 
the year 1839. July 10th, 1841, at a service in this building. Elder 
Johnson gave a summary of his ministerial labors and asked the society 
to relieve him and appoint Elder Seth Higby as his successor. 

The minutes of this church record that meetings were held in two 


neighborhoods in the spring of 1842 "with evident token of Divine 
Approbation." The first in the Reynolds school house in March; 
the next a month later "near Elder Higby's." The Elder at this time 
lived on the Daniel Dodge "home farm," in the big yellow house after- 
ward torn down. The meetings were held in the upper part of a 
wagon house on the premises. I well remember the seats of rough 
planks supported on pieces of logs sawed to the right length, and 
stood on end. A large accession to the church was made during these 
meetings, the baptisms taking place in the mill-pond near Willet 
Ferris, who, together with his wife and daughter, were among those 

In the Spring of 1852i Elder J. W. Jones began to preach in the 
Temperance Hall (now the residence of Mrs. ^aulding) over the 
store of Robert Wetts, a hotel being conducted in the other end of 
the building. That same year a second church in Pawling was or- 
ganized, to be known as the Central Baptist Church of Pawling. 
Elder Jones agreed to preach for the term of one year on the stipu- 
lated guarantee of Richard Haynes of $50, with use of house as a 
parsonage. That same year Daniel Dodge, Alex Allen, Jr., and 
Orwin Theall were appointed a building committee to buijd a house 
of worship. In the foEowing year the church edifice was dedicated. 

Jones served as pastor two years in the new church; he was suc- 
ceeded by Reverends A. W. Valentine," S. L. Holman, G. W. Barnes, 
and D. T. Hill; Elder Hill began his pastorate in 1870. In the fol- 
lowing year the second Son, David J. Hill (now U. S. Minister to 
Berlin), was licensed to preach the gospel. In 1876 the church edi- 
fice was removed to a central location within the village, and re- 
dedicated. In 1879 this meeting house was destroyed by fire, and in 
1880 the present beautiful edifice was completed on the site of the 
former church. At the present time the society is prosperous and 
enjoying the ministry of Rev. W. W. Barker, formerly of New York. 

Methodist Episcopal, Chuech. The first entry on the minutes is 
of a Quarterly Conference on Pawlingville Circuit held at the church 
in New Fairfield, July 7, 1838. Here the names of Sanford and 
Reynolds first appear. Pawlingville Circuit had recently been taken 
off the Courtlandt Circuit, which included Carmel, and other "classes" 
below. That there was a constant change in boundaries and jurisdic- 
tions is evident from the fact that Archibald Campbell was at one 
time chosen to attend a District Steward's Meeting at Jbhnsville; 


later Jesse Scudder was appointed to represent the Pawlingville Cir- 
cuit at a similar meeting in Poughkeepsie ; and again James Holmes 
and D. C. Green were sent for a like purpose to Pleasantville. Note, 
too, the change in the names of localities and stations. Pawlingville 
was then the hamlet now known as Hurds Corners. That quaint little 
square structure, standing on a hill, without a gable, the four sides of 
the roof coming to a point in the center, filled the double office of 
a place of secular and of religious instruction for the community, and 
was known far and wide as the "Bellcona." In it the Quarterly 
Conference Meetings dated at Pawlingville were held, and it was 
sacred to the memory of a Rice, a Reynolds, a Martindale and 
a host of pioneer Methodists. What is now Pawling was called Cen- 
terville, and later Pawling Center. Then there was the church "Over 
the Swamp," later known as the Union Church, now used as a bam; 
there was also the old Methodist Church standing on the corner be- 
low the village, its erection having been begun about 1813, but never 
completed. The station at Reynoldsville was designated as Fishkill 
Turnpike. There were meetings held at private houses, making in 
all quite a number of stations, at which the "preacher in charge" was 
expected to hold religious services. 

The following were the official members on Pawling's Circuit, July 
27, 1844. Ministers: William Jewett, Presiding Elder; George C. 
Bancroft, Preacher in Charge; Uriah Mead, Local Preacher; Archi- 
bald Campbell, 8d, recommended to travel. Jesse Scudder, Abraham 
Brown and Henry Ward, Stewards ; Theodorus B. Sheldon, John Nick- 
erson, Isaac Scudder, Talmon Meade, B. S. Trowbridge, Nelson Por- 
ter and John Jewett, Exhorters; Warren Cary, Stephen P. Sher- 
wood, John Adams, Montgomery S. Piatt, William St. John, Heze- 
kiel Wildman, Amos R. Stevens and Enoch Wheeler, Class Leaders. 
About this time the question of repairing the old Methodist Church 
was brought up, and a plan voted on, but the project fell through. 
The next we learn of a committee, composed of Cushing Green and 
Stephen P. Sherwood, being appointed to sell the building. I am in- 
formed that the committee were put to a deal of trouble in giving title, 
but it was finally disposed of to parties in Patterson. Since 1889 
the Methodists had ceased to make use of the old Meeting House, and 
thgir services were held in the church Over the Swamp, which is desig- 
nated in their minutes as the "New Church," and indicates the time 
of its erection. About the year 1853 the society built a church at 




"Pawling Centei-," as the minutes termed the village about the depot. 
At a Quarterly held March 25, 1865, the Trustees at Pawling report 
that they have sold the old church, receiving $1,176 net therefor, and 
have applied the proceeds toward building a new church at a cost of 
$6,809. The last entry in this book is a record of a Quarterly Con- 
ference held June 26, 1869, at South Dover, Presiding Elder A. M. 
Osbom in chair. Revs. Culver J. Burch and M. R. Lent, Preachers in 

These old records show the interest taken by the early Methodist 
denomination in the education of the young. At every Conference 
Meeting the question was brought up : Has the rule concerning the in- 
struction of children been faithfully attended to? and this duty must 
have formed no small part of work of those upon* whom it devolved. 
After the year 1855 the minutes are silent on this subject; which seems 
to indicate that the present public school system had become so per- 
fected as to provide for the secular instruction of the young. At a 
Conference in March, 1866, Brothers Henry Ward's and Archibald 
Campbell's claims for house rent were taken up; Ward's for $19, 
Campbell's for $50. Each gave up his claim, and exonerated thie: 
Circuit. February 28, 1862, Benjamin H. Burch, age 24, not iii 
debt; Phineas R. Hawxhurst, age 24, not in debt, were examined and 
recommended to travel. The present pastor is' Rev. Robert L. Ross. 
The church has recently renovated and decorated the interior of their 
house of worship, and installed a new church organ. 

The unveiling of the copper tablet commemorating the events which 
have served to render the Oblong Meeting House notable took place 
on the grounds in front of the edifice in September, 1904. A huge 
boulder of gneiss had been removed to the church grounds from a 
farm in Connecticut, and fixed to this stone was the memorial tablet 
containing these words : 


Of The Society Of Friends 

Erected in 1742 South of This Road. 

Present Meeting House Erected in 1760. 

First Effective Action Against Slavery Taken Here in 1767. 

Occupied As Hospital in 1778 

By Revolutionary Soldiers 

Many of Whom Are Buried South of This Road. 

Meeting Divided in 1828. 

Meetings Discontinued in This House 1885. 


The address was delivered by Mrs. Phebe T. Wanzer, herself a 
member of the society who last held meetings in the old meeting house. 
A large concourse of people were present on the occasion, the cere- 
mony having in it an especial interest. 

Akin Hall Association, founded by Albert John Akin,^ was consti- 
tuted under the laws of the State of New York, the Certificate of 
Incorporation being filed August 10th, 1882. The objects of the 
society are the "promotion of benevolence, charity, literature, science 
and mutual improvement in rehgion and all kindred cultivation and 
knowledge and the providing and maintaining of a place or places of 
education, moral training and worship." The number of trustees shall 
be sixteen, its place of business and principal office at Quaker Hill, 
with power to fill vacancies. August 15th, 1892, a reorganization 
was efi'ected, adopting all the aforesaid features of the Association, 
except that the number of trustees to manage the business affairs of 
the organization be hmited to five members. It was further provided 
that when sufficient means shall have come into their hands, the trus- 
tees were authorized to construct, in addition to the Hall, a free 
hbrary and provide for its maintenance. This Hbrary is now com- 
pleted, and a librarian is present stated days of the week. The Asso- 
ciation holds real estates as follows : Akin Hall and Manse, the Library 
Building, Mizzen Top Hotel and cottages adjacent. A liberal en- 
dowment has been provided for the maintenance of the various objects 
of the Association. The official board is now composed as follows: 
Albro Akin, President; George W. Chase, Treasurer; William H. Os- 
born, Secretary. 

The Bank of Pawling was constituted under the laws of New York 
State in 1849. Its chief originator was Albert J. Akin, who for 
forty-four consecutive years held the office of President. In 1865 
it was changed from a State to a National Bank, with the name 
National Bank of Pawhng. The present officers are : John B. Dutcher, 
President; Theron M. Green, Vice President; J. Gerow Dutcher, Sec- 
ond Vice President; George W. Chase, Cashier; Joseph F. Haight, 
Assistant Cashier. 

The Pawling Savings Bank was incorporated in 1870, receiving its 
first deposit in 1871. The first President was David R. Gould, who 
was conspicuous in its organization, and was indefatigable In his 

1. See Part II of this work for Wograplcal sketch of Mr, Akin. 


fendeavors for its advancement. William J. Merwin was the first 
Treasurer, who was succeeded by H. A. Holmes. Its present officers 
are: William H. Taber, President; George A. Daniels, Treasurer; 
Benjamin F. Burr, Secretary. 

Pawhng has a fine water system, the construction of which was be- 
gun in 1895. The reservoir is some two miles distant, located on a 
hill about 220 feet above the village level, and gives a pressure of 
120 pounds to the square inch. The viUage was bonded for its con- 
struction to the amount of $45,000, to be paid in yearly installments, 
all to be liquidated in 1927. Not only is water furnished for house- 
hold purposes, but the fine pressure is made serviceable in the driving 
of water motors and for other mechanical uses, and also for supply- 
ing the locomotives of the New York Central Railroad. Eight of the 
bonds have now (1908) been paid off. The annual income to the 
village from the system is about $2,200, of which the New York Cen- 
tral pays $1,000. A fire company is maintained, with a hose house 
well equipped for the fighting of fire. 

Publication of the Pawling Pioneer was begun in 1870 by Philip H. 
Smith, and by him sold to George W. Tice in 1882. Subsequently 
it was purchased by William Downing, then by Horace Sague, Jr., 
afterward coming into the possession of Dr. F. M. Robinson, when 
the name was changed to the Pawling Journal. It was destroyed 
in the fire which burned the block on which the Ferris Building now 
stands. In 1891 publication of the Harlem Valley Chronicle was 
commenced by Philip H. Smith, sold to William T. Chapman in 1894, 
who conducted it one year, changing the name to the Pawling Chroni- 
£le, and sold the business to Charles Walsh, who is still its proprietor. 

The public school districts of the town, originally ten in number, 
have been reduced to eight; one having been discontinued, the school 
house sold, and the territory divided among districts contiguous to 
it ; and another having been merged into that of the High School at 
Pawling. Two outlying districts — Hurds Corners and Quaker Hill — 
have modern buildings ; the others have school houses more or less par- 
taking of the architecture of the past. 

The books in the office of the town clerk contain no records of 
yearly elections previous to 1854. Many valuable records relating to 
the early days of the town and precinct were destroyed by fire on the 



night of May 4th, 1859. The succession of Supervisors from 1854 
to 1909 has been as follows: 


Sherman Howard 

1877— '78 

William J. Mervin 


James Craft 

1879— '83 

Albert W. Corbin 


Sherman Howard 


Edwin B. Dodge 


WilUam H. Taber 


James S. Pearce 


Theron M. Green 


Edwin B. Dodge 


James Craft 

1887— '88 

Jeremiah S. Pearce 


Asa B. Corbin 


Albert W. Corbin 



Samuel A. Barnum 


George F. Lee 

186S— '65 

David R. Gould 

1891— '93 

Jeremiah Mead 


J. Wesley Stark 

1894— '95 

Morton Haynes 



John J. Vanderburgh 

1896— '98 

William R. Lee 

1869— '70 

J. Wesley Stark 

1899— '04 

Henry A. Holmes 



John B. Dutcher 

1905— '06 

William Downing 

1873— '74 

William B. Ross 

1907— '09 

Charles C. Stark 

1875— '76 

Jedediah I. Wanzer 




By Philip H. Smith. 

THE town of Pine Plains is one of the northern tier of towns 
in Dutchess, bordering the county of Columbia. It is 
bounded on the east by Northeast; on the west by Milan; on 
the south by Stanford and Northeast. Extensive plains originally 
covered by pine forests gave the town its name. 

The territory was included in the Little ,Nine Partners' Patent; 
together with Milan and a portion of present Northeast it was in 
1788 erected into a town, the three being known as Northeast. Milan 
was taken ofiF in 1818, and Pine Plains was erected into a separate 
township in 1823. Before these townships were divided the seat of 
government was at the present village of Pine Plains; here the town 
records were kept; hither the voters from Spencer's Corners and 
Northeast Center had to come over the "West Mountain, which is a 
high ridge of fertile country, well inhabited, stretching from north 
to south, steep in ascent and descent, and is about three miles over;" 
in short, the people of the vicinity of MiUerton had to traverse about 
fifteen miles to reach the place of their annual town meetings, with 
the result that this duty was almost whoUy neglected. The farmers 
of Milan, on their part, were obliged to pass over Stissing Mountain 
to and from the polls, and to transact other necessary business ; hence 
the division of the towns was resolved upon as a matter of general 

The "house of Israel Reynolds" (Stissing House) was designated 
in the early records as the place where town business was transacted, 
and where the first town meeting for Pine Plains was held. 

In the western part is Stissing Mountain, rising to the height of 
nearly a thousand feet above the adjacent valleys. At its foot on 
the east are Thompson's, Stissing and Halcyon Lakes; the principal 
streams are the Wappingers, flowing south, and the Shekomeko, flow- 


ing north. Roeliff Jansen's Kill crosses the extreme northwest cor- 
ner of the town. 

As indicated by the nomenclature of its mountains and streams, 
the territory was occupied by remnants of Indian tribes when the first 
white people settled here. By reason of inability to secure a good 
title to lands, the settlement of Pine Plains was retarded for years; 
when, therefore, in 1744, or thereabouts, the territory of the Little 
Nine Partners was surveyed, and divided among the several proprie- 
tors, so that titles could be legally conveyed, the rights of the Red 
man to the soil were scarcely recognized. In fact, there is no record 
in the early deeds of lands in Pine Plains of Indian titles having been 
first extinguished as a preliminary to the conveyance of property — 
a specification so frequently met with in the deeds of other parts of 
the county. In short, the vices and greed of the white man had con- 
spired to obliterate all traces of the rightful owners of the soil. 

Among the early settlers are the names familiar at the present 
time — ^Winans, Smith, Harris, Reynolds, Hoffman, Pulver, Deuel, 
Dibblee, Husted, Stevenson, Rau (Rowe), Seldon and others. The 
eastern portion of Pine Plains was settled by the Palatines, remnants 
of a colony of German religious refugees, who had sought the pro- 
tection of England, and by that power had been given over into the 
tender hands of land monopolists, who transported them to the vicinity 
of Rhinebeck and the Catskills, and there set them to work to make 
tar, pitch, turpentine and resin from the pitchless, dwarfed white 
pines on Livingston's land grants. Of course the poor Palatines could 
not create what did not exist, and left to themselves to provide for 
themselves, they scattered to various points, some seeking homes in 
Pine Plains. 

About 1760 a settler moved into this toiwi and built a cabin on the 
north side of Little Stissing, near a spring still known as "Hubbell 
Spring." This was on the road to Mount Ross. When the Tories 
from the west of Stissing Mountain raided Pine Plains through this 
pass, Hubbell's cabin was a rallying point for beating them off. His 
was said to have been an important frontier post, and he had many an 
exciting chase after the Tories. 

When Hubbell came he brought with him, on a sled, a cannon which 
housed with effect against the armed Tory lads, and which for half 
a century was on every Fourth of July utilized in all patriotic cele- 


brations. It was finally taken to the Hotchkiss foundry at Sharon 
Valley and exchanged for a smaller one, which has long since gone. 

It was not until the close of the Revolution that immigration to Pine , 
Plains set in to any great extent, when settlers began to flock in from 
the Oblong, Dover, Amenia, Pawling, and from other points. There 
were Lutherans and Dutch Reformed from the vicinity of the Hud- 
son ; there were Baptists and Methodists from the Oblong ; there were 
Episcopalians and Congregationalists from the Connecticut Colonies; 
then the society of Quakers was established and a house of worship 
erected; and later the denomination of Christians organized a church 
and held stated worship; in a word, nearly every Protestant organi- 
zation is now, or has been, represented in the religious history of the 

At first one house of worship might sufiice for more than one de- 
nomination, where the congregations would be composed of members 
of distinct societies, who would listen in turn to the exjponents of 
diverse creeds. This did not always tend to unity of heart and belief, 
and as soon as was practicable, each sect worshiped in its own church 
with a stated pastor. 

The prosperity of Pine Plains has been retarded by an adherence 
to that relic of England's custom of land tenures, that is to say, life 
lease-holds. The stranger on his first stop at the village of Pine 
Plains is sure to be impressed with the sight of a prosperous village 
built on one side of the principal street. On account of lease-hold 
tenure the land on the other side was not available for building lots. 
Happily that condition of things is no more, and the abnormal growth 
of the town to one side will in time be remedied. 

At the first town election of Pine Plains, Tuesday, April 1, 1823, 
Israel Harris was elected Supervisor, Reuben W. Bostwick, Town 
Clerk; Samuel Russell and Isaac Sherwood, Overseers of the Poor. 

The company business of the town of Pine Plains and Northeast- 
was settled as far as could be before the spring elections. The Legis- 
lative act authorizing their separation provided for the disposition of 
the highway money, leaving the school money and the division of the 
town paupers and the poor fund to be determined by the towns inter- 
ested. Those constituting the board for the settlement of the latter- 
question were: for Pine Plains, Israel Harris, Supervisor; Samuel 
Russell and Isaac Sherwood, Overseers; for Northeast, Philo M/ 


Winchell, Supervisor; Eben Wheeler and Enos Hopkins, Overseers. 
The settlement was based upon the tax list of the territory before the 

The early settlers of Pine Plains, such as were of the Lutheran and 
German Reformed creed, were perforce required to attend service at 
points on the Hudson, whither they went in primitive fashion, twenty 
miles and more, on horseback, with a child in front and one or more 
seated behind. Once a settler from Carman's Mill, in fording the 
Shekomeko, met with a mishap, and a child intended for baptism at 
the distant church, fell into the stream and was drowned. Under 
such difficulties were church relations kept up until about the year 
1746, when the "Old Round Top," so named from the shape of its 
roof, was built at what is now "Bethel." This was at one time a 
business center; here is located the oldest cemetery in the town, where 
the forefathers of the hamlet sleep. Here stood the "bark church," 
built by the Moravians, and where those early self-sacrificing preach- 
ers ministered to the Indians — ^when permitted to do so by the Sheriflp 
of the County. To this mission people often came from Rhinebeck to 
hear these missionaries, and the audiences often numbered two hundred. 

The deed for the land on which the "Old Round Top" was erected, 
granted in 1769, twenty-three years after the edifice was built, states 
that the building was designed "for the worship of Almighty God as 
practiced by the Lutheran Evangelical Churches." At the dedica- 
tion in 1840 of the Union Bethel Church, which stands near the site 
of the old building, the Rev. A. Wackerhagen, a Lutheran, was pres- 
ent, and said: "We are on interesting ground; a hundred years ago 
a church was erected to Almighty God on this spot, and to-day, after 
the passing of a century, we have dedicated another to His Most 
Holy Name." 

The road now runs through the land described by this deed, and 
makes two cemeteries; that west of the road being used for a general 
burying ground. The old church site was in the cemetery on the 
east side, where the present monument to William A. Rowe — a de- 
scendant of one of the grantees in the deed — is erected. 

In 1753, Abraham Reinke, a Moravian, was sent to preach to the 
white people at Sharon, at their urgent request. He preached at 
Sali|bury, at Oblong (Amenia Union), in the Round Top at Nine 
Partners (Bethel), and at Livingston Manor. 


In its day Round Top was widely known. It is now ascertained 
that Dr. Quitman of Rhinebeck preached here in the years previous 
to 1816, at which time the Presbyterian church at Pine Plains was 
completed; then he preached in the latter church, the Lutherans hav- 
ing one-fourth interest in the building. This drew away the interest 
in Round Top as a special center. The old second church was never 
completed inside; benches were used for seats; after a time repairs 
were needed, and money for that purpose was subscribed, but the re- 
pairs were never made. The next year the clapboards were torn off 
and the frame sold at auction. The business of the town had drifted 
to Pine Plains, where was afterward to be the religious center as well. 

The old Red 'Church at Pulvers is of interest in this connection. 
As has been stated, the Lutheran and German. Reformed elements 
came into Pine Plains with the Palatine settlers. At first both used 
the Round Top church. In 1772 the Reformed church built a meet- 
ing house on the present Herman Pulver farm, which was painted 
red, and was known far and wide as the Red Church. Rev. G. D. 
Koch was the first preacher in this building, hence it was called 
"Koch's Meeting House." Like Round Top, it was never finished 
inside ; beside, it was also ,distant from the religious and commercial 
center of the town; which contributed towards hastening the end of 
the old Red Church. This building ceased to be about the year 

The chief mover in the establishment of the Society of Friends, or 
Quakers, as they were more commonly called, was Charles Hoag, who 
settled on a farm near Bethel, on which a Quaker church was after- 
wards built. Quite a number of associate Quakers living within go-to- 
meeting distance of each other were "allowed" to hold meeting twice a 
week at the house of Charles Hoag. The parent society that exercised 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction over "The Northeast Society of Friends," 
— as the meeting at Charles Hoag's was officially termed — ^was located 
at Stanfordville. A committee had been appointed by the "Quarterly 
Meeting" at Nine Partners to attend the meeting "allowed" at Hoag's, 
which committee reported to the ecclesiastical head that they felt 
"freedom to propose a continuance of the same, under the care of a 
suitable committee." They were therefore allowed to hold meetings 
on the "first' and "fourth" days of the week, except monthly prepara- 
tion and quarterly meeting weeks. 


In due time they set about building a meeting house. On the "19th 
of the fourth month," 1806, a building committee advised that a 
house be built "30 by 20 feet, and 10 feet posts," which was com- 
pleted by the 20th of June following. Ezra Bryan, one of the early 
members of the Society, was its builder — a plain building with long 
steep roof and high gables. There were two doors for entrance, the 
right for "mankind," the left for "womankind." There were long 
seats with comfortable back rails, the distinguishing feature being the 
high wood partition running through the center to "hide the women 
from the men and the girls from the boys." A small raised platform 
was at the rear and with seats facing the audience; these were for 
the oiBcials and preachers. It was about this time that Elias Hicks 
appeared on the arena; but the doctrine he advanced, which rent the 
society in twain finally, did not do its full work until some years later. 

Thomas Ellison was a prominent Quaker preacher here. There 
was a pleasing melody in his voice, and this together with that jpeculiar 
"chaunt" in the Quaker preacher's custom of speaking in meeting, 
made him popular with the public. This manner of speaking is de- 
scribed as a kind of singing oratory, so natural to some people, and 
hence pleasant to listen to. 

In 1812 Charles Hoag opened a boarding school for boys and 
girls at his own dwelling. Jacob Willett and his wife, Deborah Rog- 
ers, were employed by him as teachers. These instructors afterward 
became prominent in the county as leaders in education; the Nine 
Partners School is still spoken of with the highest esteem; Willett's 
Arithmetic had a high place in the curriculum of the schools of 
that day. 

As has been said, there were not, among the various adherents of 
the several rehgious denominations, in early Pine Plains, enough of 
any one sect to biiild and support a church; hence, "Articles of Asso- 
ciation for the building of- the Union Meeting House on Pine Plains" 
were entered into. A lot was purchased at the price of one hundred 
and fifty dollars on which to build it. Silas Harris and William 
Woodin were chosen to go to Catskills to purchase lumber and material, 
for which purpose they were on February 13, 1815, paid $222. 
Great was the enthusiasm over the building of the church; it was the 
special enterprise of that year. 

The building was begun in April. Ten steps were required to get 



into the high pulpit. A •window was in the rear of this to facilitate 
the reading of the scripture and the written sermon. This window 
was removed, as it was unpleasant for the pew-sitters to gaze at the 
preacher in its glare. As was then the custom, there was a gallery 
on three sides, and the heating was by stoves. The pews were offered 
at public sale February 14<, 1816, and the proceeds amounted to over 
$4,000. In March of that year a meeting was called, at which the 
following was passed: 

Resolved, That the ministers hereafter to be employed to preach in 
this meeting house shall be selected either from the Presbyterian 
Society, from the Dutch Reformed Church, from the German Lutheran 
Church, or from the Episcopal Church, and no other. 

This exclusiveness was subsequently relaxed, inasmuch as a min- 
ister of any denomination was allowed to preach in this house, but 
the "preached to" must pay the preacher. 

In 1836 the first church bell in Pine Plains was hung in the square 
belfry of this church. It was rung on all occasions of celebration, 
and tolled the age of each citizen at his death, in addition to the 
call for church services. Previous to 1840 a church organ was pur- 
chased at $400 ; this organ is still doing service after the lapse of over 
half a century. 

The church underwent extensive repairs in 1879. Huntting says 
there were mingled feelings of regret and joy, at the last service in 
the old edifice. Its antique internal architecture, hallowed by asso- 
ciations of more than a generation, was to be marred by vandal hands ; 
something "modern" in structure and convenience was to take its 
place. Dr. Bevan of New York preached the sermon at its rededica- 
tion. The drift of his discourse was to the effect that the building 
was no longer a union meeting house; that it was to be thereafter 
strictly a Presbyterian Church. 

In June, 1833, William N. Sayre and Sarah A. Marshall were 
married. Shortly after he was ordained to preach by the North 
River Presbytery. On the way to fill an appointment he stopped at 
the Stissing House, where he learned there was no stated preaching 
in this church. He made an appointment for Pine Plains, with the 
result that in September of 1833 he preached the first sermon of an 
unbroken pastorate of fifty years. 

When Mr. Sayre first came the building was used by four denomi- 


nations, so he occupied the pulpit but one Sunday in each month, 
unless a vacancy occurred. In 1847 the resolution was passed "that 
Rev. W. N. Sayre occupy the pulpit of the Pine Plains church state(My 
every Sabbath." June 24th, 1883, Mr. Sayre preached his fiftieth 
annual sermon, when he resigned. 

In this, his semi-centennial sermon, he said that during his min- 
istry he had united in wedlock 700 persons, and conducted service at 
800 funerals. In three houses on adjoining farms in Ancram he had 
attended 21 funerals. Three-fourths of the village had been built 
since he began to preach. The greater part of his congregations 
of the first years of his ministry have died or removed. Two heads of 
families only survive who were here in 1833< The church now enjoys 
the ministrations of Rev. C. E. Doane. 

It was through the influence of Freeborn Garretson that Methodism 
received its first impetus in Pine Plains and adjoining towns. Meet- 
ings in these early years were held in farm houses and in groves, in 
the old Round Top Church, and wherever opportunity offered. 
Their prayers were none the less pleasing to their Maker because they 
had no church home. They had no privileges in the Union Meeting 
House. "So they took to the school houses and work shops in winter, 
and to the groves in summer, where they could have camp-meetings, 
free air, a free gospel, free grace and a free shout." 

In 1835, with thirteen members, the building of a Methodist church 
in Pine Plains was commenced. The house was dedicated in 1837. 
In 1891 the building was repaired and enlarged, and an excellent 
pipe organ placed in the choir gallery. The present pastor is Rev. 
W. C. Oliver. 

The meeting for constituting the Baptist Society of Pine Plains 
was held in a log building, then the home of Alfred Brush, May 4th, 
1836. Some early Baptists who had been identified with the church 
at Spencers Corners (near present Millerton), having removed to 
Pine Plains in the earlier years of that century, united with some 
others in establishing a society of Baptists. These brethren con- 
tributed to the erection of the "Union Meeting House," — now Presby- 
terian — ^with the understanding that they were to occupy it one- 
fourth of the time. Elder John Buttolph, of Spencers Corners, 
serv«d the church some two years, Rev. R. G. Armstrong, of the Pres- 
byterian Society, also preaching from the same pulpit one-fourth of the 


time. In those days the diverse church doctrines were plied with 
vigor, and the advocacy of immersion and sprinkling from the same 
pulpit is probably one of the causes which led to the withdrawal of 
the Baptists. Elder Luman Burtch succeeded Buttolph, and came up 
from Bangall once in four weeks. 

At this time the Baptists set about building a house of worship. A 
lot was purchased for six hundred dollars, the frame of the edifice was 
put up and enclosed, the roof and belfry nearly completed, when late one 
Saturday afternoon in June a cyclone passed through Pine Plains 
leaving destruction in its wake. The new church edifice was directly 
in its path, and when the storm had passed those early worshipers 
beheld thie work of their hands leveled with the ground. 

This was disheartening to the struggling SQciety. In this ex- 
tremity Elder Burtch came to their assistance. Through his influ- 
ence the churches of the county contributed liberally of their means 
towards rebuilding. -^ 

The Baptist churches at Bangall, Spencers Comers, Amenia, Dover, 
Stanford, Fishkill and Pleasant Valley each sent substantial tokens 
of their good will, and after persistent effort the building was com- 
pleted, and in May of 18S8 was formally dedicated. 

Next year Elder Nathan D. Benedict, of Connecticut, accepted a 
call from the church, and became its first settled pastor. His salary 
was three hundred and fifty dollars a year and house rent. 

Up to this period the society had been considered as a sort of 
branch of the Stanford church. But in May of this year the neigh- 
boring Baptist- organizations were convened in ecclesiastical council 
and the Baptist church of Pine Plains was organized with twenty-six 
constituent members. Since that time ,the church has supported a 
number of able and self-sacrificing ministers, and maintained during 
the succeeding years religious services that have led to the saving of 

The primitive Episcopal Society of Pine Plains is closely identified 
with the Dibblee (Dibble) family, who were among the staunch pioneer 
settlers. The Episcopalians at first aflSliated with the church in 
Sharon, Conn., whither they w^ent twenty miles to enjoy religious ser- 
vices in accordance with their belief. They, too, held a part interest 
in the "Union Meeting House" so frequently referred to in the pre- 
ceding pages, and they maintained service there. Their number hav- 


ing suffered depletion by the death of some and the removal of others, 
Episcopal services in the town nearly ceased for a considerable time. 
Mainly through the efforts of Theron Wilber, who moved into the 
town about 1850, the dormant society was revived. In this work 
he was assisted by Rev. Sheldon Davis, a missionary of the county. 
Rev. Homer Wheaton, of Lithgow, held services for a time in the 
Union Bethel Church, followed by Rev. Frederick Sill, of Red Hook. 
On the evening of July 9, 1858, Dr. Potter visited this place, when 
three persons received the rite of confirmation — ^the first solemnization 
of this rite in the town of Pine Plains. Owing, doubtless, to jealousy, 
the "Union" church doors then were closed to them; but the seed was 
kept aUve, and a Parish was organized according to statute in No- 
vember of 1859, the title to be the Church of the Regeneration. 

In May, 1860, subscriptions were first sohcited for a church build- 
ing, and the edifice was completed in the spring of the following year. 
At the laying of the corner stone a paper was deposited, bearing 
among other interesting matters the following chronological facts: 
"At the time of the laying of this corner stone James Buchanan is 
President of the United States, and Edwin D. Morgan is Governor of 
New York. The Right Rev. Thomas Church Brownell, D.D., LL.D., 
is the presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States of America ; the Right Rev. Benj amin Tredwell Onder- 
donk, D.D., is Bishop of the Diocese of New York, and the Right Rev. 
Horatio Potter, D.D., LL.D., is provisional Bishop of the same." Rev. 
Henry L. Ziegenfuss was among the Rectors who have been in author- 
ity over this church. The present incumbent is Rev. Thomas Burrows. 

The Bethel Church was built on the old Round Top property, less 
than ten miles below the village of Pine Plains, a few years after the 
old meeting house was removed. It was in 1838 that the first tan- 
gible effort was made towards the erection of the new. In March, 
1840, the church was ready for dedication. Although undenomina- 
tional in its avowed purposes, it was deemed altogether appropriate 
that a Lutheran should dedicate it, because of the associations with 
old Round Top, whose rightful successor it was. Rev. J. Berger, of 
Mellenville, Columbia County, accepted an invitation to conduct the 
services. Religious affairs moved smoothly for some twenty years 
v/heft the disadvantages of a "Union Church" were made unpleasantly 
manifest. Friends and families were estranged over questions un- 


worthy of notice, and the church, instead of constituting itself a 
mental and moral "uplift" to the community, may have been rather 
a vehicle of harm. 

As previously stated the present village of Pine Plains was the seat 
of government of the original town of Northeast. It had an oiBcial 
name as a postoffice a few years prior to its organization as a town, 
Dr. Israel Reynolds receiving the appointment of postmaster in 1818. 
Dr. Reynolds was instrumental in establishing a post route, in 1796, 
from Rhinebeck to Sharon, passing through the hamlets of Pine 
Plains and North Amenia. In 1830 a direct stage route twice a 
week was established from Poughkeepsie to Pine Plains, by way of 
Pleasant Valley. Since the construction of the Newburgh, Dutchess 
& Connecticut railroad, in 1869, the mail has bee^ carried by steam. 

One of the institutions in which Pine Plains takes a pardonable pride 
is the Seymour Smith Academy. This school was established in 1877, 
and a building erected capable of accommodating forty boarding 
pupils. Rev. Abraham Mattice, A.M., was the first and only prin- 
cipal, and conducted the school successfully seventeen years. The 
higher standards attained by our Union Free Schools have placed the 
old time Academy in the background, and the Seymour Smith Acad- 
emy, as such, was forced to close its doors. The trustees have placed 
the building under charge of the State Board of Regents, and a Union 
Free School with an academic department is now conducted in it, with 
Mr. Emery Ricart as principal. 

The Seymour Smith Academy was erected through the generosity 
of Seymour Smith, a former resident of the town, who left his entire 
estate to the town of Pine Plains for that purpose. A special act of 
Legislature was necessary to make the bequest available. Mr. Smith 
was a bachelor. He raised a company in the War of 1812, and was 
stationed at Staten Island. His subsequent life was spent as a far- 
mer. He died November 26, 1863, and was buried in Evergreen 

As stated in the chapter on Northeast the family of Bryans were 
the original makers of fanning mills, and supplied the demand for 
them within a radius of many miles. In like manner the Harris fam- 
ily were the originators of the famous Harris scythe. Strange to say, 
the factories of these two pioneer industries were located at the same 
place at the same time, at, or near, Shekomeko station. John Harris,